The organization of methodical escort of teachers in realization of the innovative educational technologies aimed at the development of critical thinking of pupils
The purpose of this educational technology is development of cogitative skills of the pupils which is necessary not only in study, but also in usual life (ability to make the weighed decisions, to work with information, to analyze various parties of the phenomena, etc.).
The critical thinking is an ability to analyze information from a position of logic and personal and psychological approach to apply the received results, both to standard, and to non-standard situations, questions, problems. It is ability to raise new questions, to develop various arguments, to make the independent, thought-over decisions.
Signs of critical thinking:
- Positive experience is formed of everything that happens to the person.
- Formation of independent, responsible thinking.
- The reasoned thinking (convincing arguments allow to make the thought-over decisions).
- Many-sided thinking (it is shown in ability to consider the phenomenon from the different parties).
- Individual thinking (forms personal culture of work with information.
- Social thinking (work is carried out in couples, groups; main reception of interaction discussion).
Technology basis – three-phase structure of a lesson: call, judgment, reflection.
The technology of development of critical thinking represents the complete system forming skills of work with information through reading and the letter. It represents set of the various receptions directed on at first to interest the pupil (to awaken in him research, creative activity), then to provide it conditions for judgment of a material and, at last, to help it to generalize the acquired knowledge.
Important condition is application of these receptions in a context of three-phase creation of the lesson, full reproduction of a three-phase production cycle: call, judgment, reflection.
The first stage - a call. Problem of this stage not only to make active, interest the pupil, to motivate it for further work, but also "to cause" already available knowledge, or to create associations on a studied question that in itself becomes a serious, making active and motivating factor for further work.
Activity of pupils at this stage: the pupil "remembers" that he knows on a studied question (does assumptions), systematizes information before its studying, asks questions on which would like to receive the answer.
Possible receptions and methods:
- drawing up the list of "known information", the story assumption on keywords;
- material systematization (graphic):
- veracious and incorrect statements;
- the mixed logical chains, etc.
Conclusion: information received at the first stage, is listened, registers, discussed, work is conducted individually – in couples – groups.
The second stage – judgment (sense realization). At this stage there is a direct work with information. Receptions and methods of technology of critical thinking allow to keep activity of the pupil, to make reading or hearing intelligent.
Activity of the teacher at this stage: preservation of interest to a subject during the direct work with new information, gradual advance from knowledge "old" to "new".
Activity of pupils: the pupil reads (listens) to the text, using the active methods of reading offered by the teacher, does marks on fields or conducts records in process of judgment of new information.
Conclusion: there is a direct contact with new information (the text, the movie, lecture, a paragraph material), work is conducted individually or in couples.
The third stage – a reflection (reflection). At this stage information is analyzed, interpreted, creatively processed.
Activity of the teacher: to return pupils to initial records – offers, to make changes, additions, to give creative, research or practical tasks on the basis of studied information.
Activity of pupils: pupils correlate "new" information with "old", using the knowledge gained at a stage of judgment.
Possible receptions and methods:
- filling of clusters, tables, establishment of relationships of cause and effect between information blocks;
- return to keywords, veracious and incorrect statements;
- answers to the questions posed;
- organization of oral and written round tables;
- organization of different types of discussions;
- writing of creative works (cinquain,essay).
Conclusion: creative processing, the analysis, interpretation of, etc. studied information; work is conducted individually – in couples – groups.
This technology will successfully be coordinated with traditional forms of the teaching, some elements "Critical thinking" are well familiar to teachers.
At lessons it is possible to work with two types of texts – information (scientific, publicistic) and art. Technology receptions, generally equally "work" at both types of texts. It is possible to give a large number of recommendations about an occasion of their application, but it is impossible to forget about the main thing: when planning the substantial party of a lesson, instead of appeal of separate receptions and strategy is defining. So, we remind, the technology of development of critical thinking suggests to build a lesson of the scheme a call – judgment – a reflection.
In technology of development of critical thinking the great value is allocated for visual forms of the organization of a material. These forms are applied as a creative reflection, but not only. Pupils by means of the offered receptions do attempts of preliminary systematization of a material, state the ideas, visualizing them. Many receptions "work" at a semantic stage, and some can become leading strategy of a lesson.
Information is entered in the table, on a course of reading the paragraph or listening of lecture the corresponding columns are filled in. This reception can be used and at a reflection stage. Anyway, step-by-step acquaintance to the new information coordinating it with already available, is a way of active work with the text. This reception is aimed at updating of the emotional relations in connection with the text. When reading the text it is offered to fix information reflecting in the corresponding chapters of the table:
The great value in technology of development of critical thinking is allocated for the receptions forming ability to work with questions. While traditional teaching is based on ready "answers" which are presented to pupils, the technology of development of critical thinking is focused on questions, as the main driving force of thinking. Infinite knowledge, the facts which should be remembered and repeated, - all this reminds marking time in transport which, unfortunately, doesn't go any more. Instead pupils need to be turned to their own intellectual energy. The thought remains live only provided that answers stimulate further questions. Only pupils who have questions, really think and strive for knowledge. We will begin with simple receptions.
All "work" at a stage of a reflection above the listed receptions. Tables, schemes become a basis for further work: exchange of opinions, essay, researches, discussions, etc. But separate application of receptions is possible also, for example, after studying of a material, a subject we ask pupils to make clusters (to systematize a material).
There is a set of ways of the graphic organization of a material. Among them tables are the most widespread. It is possible to consider these receptions as receptions of a stage of a reflection, but more are strategy of maintaining a lesson as a whole.
Reception "The conceptual table" is especially useful when comparison of three and more aspects or questions is supposed. The table is under construction so: across that is subject to comparison settles down, and down – various lines and properties on which this comparison happens.
Pupils receive the following algorithm of work on the text (the text of the paragraph is divided into 5 fragments by number of pupils in group):
- Reading text.
- Main thing allocation, retelling.
- Information discussion in group.
- Allocation of lines of comparison and their record on single sheets (cards).
(It is possible to use the questions offered at a stage of a call).
The technology has a huge arsenal of receptions and strategy.
The purposes of technology of development of critical thinking answer the education purposes at the present stage, form intellectual qualities of the personality, arm the pupil and the teacher with modes of work with information, methods of the organization of the doctrine, self-education, designing of own educational route.
Advantages of technology:
- The responsibility for quality of own education is increased.
- Skills of work with texts of any type and with large volume of information develop; seize ability to integrate information.
- Ability to develop own opinion on the basis of judgment various experience, ideas and representations, to build conclusions and logical chains of proofs (the system logical thinking develops) is formed.
- Creative and analytical skills, abilities effectively to work with other people develop; ability to express the thoughts clearly is formed, it is sure and correct in relation to people around.
- The technology is most effective when studying a material on which the interesting, informative text can be made.
Paul R.W. Critical thinking and the critical person // Thinking: Report on research. Hillsdale (N.Y), 1987
Elder, L. & Paul. R. The Aspiring Thinker’s Guide to Critical Thinking, Foundation for Critical Thinking,
Dillon Beach, CA, 2009.
Elder, L. & Paul, R. The Thinker’s Guide: A Glossary of Critical Thinking Terms and Concepts, Foundation
for Critical Thinking, Dillon Beach, CA, 2009.
"The organization of methodical escort of teachers in realization of the innovative educational technologies aimed at the development of critical thinking of pupils
The critical thinking is an ability to analyze information from a position of logic and personal and psychological approach to apply the received results, both to standard, and to non-standard situations, questions, problems.
It is ability to raise new questions, to develop various arguments, to make the independent, thought-over decisions.
The technology of development of critical thinking represents the complete system forming skills of work with information through reading and the letter.
It represents set of the various receptions directed on at first to interest the pupil (to awaken in him research, creative activity), then to provide it conditions for judgment of a material and, at last, to help it to generalize the acquired knowledge.
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