МБОУ «СРЕДНЯЯ ОБЩЕОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНАЯ
ШКОЛА №7 Г.МЕДНОГОРСКА»
Few holidays tell us as much of the past as Halloween. Its origins date back hundreds of years to the Druid festival of Samhain, Lord of the Dead and Prince of Darkness, who, according to Celtic belief, gathered up the souls of all those who had died during the year to present them to Druid Heaven on October 31.The Druid New Year began on November 1, marking the beginning of winter and the reign of the Lord of Death. The Druids called upon supernatural forces to placate the evil spirits, and it is from that tradition that modern Halloween gets the parade of ghosts, goblins, witches, skeletons, cats, masks and bonfires.The custom of telling ghost stories on Halloween also comes from the Druids. As Christianity replaced the pagan religions, the church set aside November 1st to honor all saints (all-hallows) and called it All Hallows' Day. The evening before October 31st, became All Hallows' Even — later shortened to Halloween.
Halloween was first celebrated many centuries ago in Ireland and Scotland by Celtic priests called Druids. Later Halloween was brought to America by the immigrants from Ireland and Scotland. In the 19th century they celebrated Halloween according to their own traditions The Druids thought that Halloween was the night when the witches came out. As they were afraid of the witches they put on different clothes and painted their faces to deceive the evil spirits. They also placed food and small gifts near the doors of their houses for the witches. This was, as they say now, the beginning of the expression "trick or treat ".As time went by, grown-up people lost interest in Halloween, and it was celebrated mostly by children.
Halloween food for children is about more than the sweets they pick up while trick-or-treating. Many parents host Halloween parties during this time of year, and the food can add to the overall holiday appeal of the party. The key is to keep it spooky without going overboard. Keep in mind the fear factor should be well below the planning involved for an adult Halloween party. Get the children to have fun, not need therapy afterwards.
If you want to do a cake , there are also several options. The two most popular are the “graveyard cake” and the “worms in dirt.” Worms in dirt may not be spooky, but it is gross and a great choice of Halloween foods for children. The first layer is Jell-O with gummy worms, topped with crumbled cookies for dirt. Add a few gummy worms protruding from the “dirt” for extra fun.
For ghostly snacks use a thin layer of sour cream like “icing” to paint the potatoes white and then use scallions to add eyes and a mouth to individual ghosties. Slice hot dogs length ways in slivers to create a “worm” effect. Mix the cooked hot dog slices with ketchup and add to a hoagie roll or bun for a tapeworm sandwich.
Honestly, these days it is almost impossible to narrow down the choices of how to decorate your home for Halloween. We’ve come a long way from just the simple paper cutouts that hang on a door or wall. These days, homes can come alive with the undead and macabre fairly simply. It really all depends on how much or how little you want to decorate.
One of the easiest ways to add little touches of a fear factor to the home is by adding plenty of fake vermin. Those critters you spend money having exterminators keeping out of the home, you can now add with great enthusiasm. Plastic spiders, roaches and rats can be scattered about a room to add some yuck. Of course, do not use the little critter décor if you have little ones or pets as these can be choking hazards.
Some popular Halloween symbols include witches, ghosts, spiders, bats, vampires, skeletons, graves, jack-o’-lanterns, black cats and monsters. With a holiday that dates back to the Celts and the Druids, it is bound to have picked up some stories and traditions along the way. Though many things that have become symbolic to the holiday because of rituals related to the day, some just tie in to the spooky element.
A Halloween tradition for children in many countries around the globe, trick-or-treating has seen some changes over the years but continues on in some form or fashion. The event takes place on Halloween night and, generally involves costumed children walking through the neighborhood knocking on their neighbors’ doors. Upon answering the door, the homeowner is posed with a decision, not just a question.
“Trick or treat?” the child asks. The adult then usually doles out candy, cookies, other sweets, apples or even money to the youngster. This offering is, in one way, a contractual agreement that the kid will not play a trick on the home owner. Though tricks are not commonly actually carried out, the tricks were usually played on those who refused to answer the door.
People have been making jack-o'-lanterns at Halloween for centuries. The practice originated from an Irish myth about a man nicknamed "Stingy Jack." According to the story, Stingy Jack invited the Devil to have a drink with him. True to his name, Stingy Jack didn't want to pay for his drink, so he convinced the Devil to turn himself into a coin that Jack could use to buy their drinks. Once the Devil did so, Jack decided to keep the money and put it into his pocket next to a silver cross, which prevented the Devil from changing back into his original form. Jack eventually freed the Devil, under the condition that he would not bother Jack for one year and that, should Jack die, he would not claim his soul. The next year, Jack again tricked the Devil into climbing into a tree to pick a piece of fruit. While he was up in the tree, Jack carved a sign of the cross into the tree's bark so that the Devil could not come down until the Devil promised Jack not to bother him for ten more years.
Soon after, Jack died. As the legend goes, God would not allow such an unsavory figure into heaven. The Devil, upset by the trick Jack had played on him and keeping his word not to claim his soul, would not allow Jack into hell. He sent Jack off into the dark night with only a burning coal to light his way. Jack put the coal into a carved-out turnip and has been roaming the Earth with ever since. The Irish began to refer to this ghostly figure as "Jack of the Lantern," and then, simply "Jack O'Lantern."
In Ireland and Scotland, people began to make their own versions of Jack's lanterns by carving scary faces into turnips or potatoes and placing them into windows or near doors to frighten away Stingy Jack and other wandering evil spirits. In England, large beets are used. Immigrants from these countries brought the jack o'lantern tradition with them when they came to the United States. They soon found that pumpkins, a fruit native to America, make perfect jack-o'-lanterns.
Pumpkins are a member of the gourd family, which includes cucumbers, honeydew melons, cantaloupe, watermelons and zucchini. These plants are native to Central America and Mexico, but now grow on six continents.
The largest pumpkin pie ever baked was in 2005 and weighed 2,020 pounds.
Pumpkins have been grown in North America for five thousand years. They are indigenous to the western hemisphere.
In 1584, after French explorer Jacques Cartier explored the St. Lawrence region of North America, he reported finding "gros melons." The name was translated into English as "pompions," which has since evolved into the modern "pumpkin."
U.S. farmers grow more than 1.5 billion pounds of pumpkin each year.
Pumpkins are low in calories, fat, and sodium and high in fiber. They are good sources of Vitamin A, Vitamin B, potassium, protein, and iron.
The heaviest pumpkin weighed 1,810 lb 8 oz and was presented by Chris Stevens at the Stillwater Harvest Fest in Stillwater, Minnesota, in October 2010.
Pumpkin seeds should be planted between the last week of May and the middle of June. They take between 90 and 120 days to grow and are picked in October when they are bright orange in color. Their seeds can be saved to grow new pumpkins the next year.
Halloween, one of the world's oldest holidays, is still celebrated today in a number of countries around the globe. In Mexico and other Latin American countries, Día de los Muertos—the Day of the Dead—honors deceased loved ones and ancestors. In countries such as Ireland, Canada and the United States, adults and children alike revel in the popular Halloween holiday, which derived from ancient festivals and religious rituals. Traditions include costume parties, trick-or-treating, pranks and games.
In Mexico, Latin America and Spain, All Souls' Day, which takes place on November 2, is commemorated with a three-day celebration that begins on the evening of October 31. The celebration is designed to honor the dead who, it is believed, return to their earthly homes on Halloween. Many families construct an altar to the dead in their homes to honor deceased relatives and decorate it with candy, flowers, photographs, samples of the deceased's favorite foods and drinks, and fresh water. Often, a wash basin and towel are left out so that the spirit can wash before indulging in the feast.
Candles and incense are burned to help the deceased find the way home. Relatives also tidy the gravesites of their departed family members. This can include snipping weeds, making repairs, and painting. The grave is then decorated with flowers, wreaths, or paper streamers. On November 2, relatives gather at the gravesite to picnic and reminisce. Some gatherings even include tequila and a mariachi band.
In Ireland, where Halloween originated, the day is still celebrated much as it is in the United States. In rural areas, bonfires are lit as they were in the days of the Celts, and all over the country, children get dressed up in costumes and spend the evening "trick-or-treating" in their neighborhoods. After trick-or-treating, most people attend parties with neighbors and friends. At the parties, many games are played, including "snap-apple," a game in which an apple on a string is tied to a doorframe or tree and players attempt to bite the hanging apple. In addition to bobbing for apples, parents often arrange treasure hunts,with candy or pastries as the prize.
A traditional food eaten on Halloween is barnbrack, a kind of fruitcake that can be bought in stores or baked at home. A muslin-wrapped treat is baked inside the cake that, it is said, can foretell the eater's future. If a ring is found, it means that the person will soon be wed; a piece of straw means that a prosperous year is on its way. Children are also known to play tricks on their neighbors, such as "knock-a-dolly," a prank in which children knock on the doors of their neighbors, but run away before the door is opened.
One of the most frequently reported ghost sightings in England dates back to the 16th century. Anne Boleyn, the second wife of King Henry VIII and mother of Queen Elizabeth I, was executed at the Tower of London in May 1536 after being accused of witchcraft, treason, incest and adultery. Sightings of Boleyn's ghost have been reported at the tower as well as in various other locations, including her childhood home, Hever Castle, in Kent.
America's own rich tradition of historical ghosts begins with one of its most illustrious founding fathers: Benjamin Franklin. Beginning in the late 19th century, Franklin's ghost was seen near the library of the American Philosophical Society in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; some reports held that the statue of Franklin in front of the society comes to life and dances in the streets.
Though many ghost sightings have been reported at the White House in Washington, D.C., over the years, perhaps no political figure has made so frequent an appearance in the afterlife as Abraham Lincoln, the nation's 16th president, who was killed by an assassin's bullet in April 1865. Lincoln, formerly a lawyer and congressman from Illinois, is said to have been seen wandering near the old Springfield capitol building, as well as his nearby law offices. At the White House, everyone from first ladies to queens to prime ministers have reported seeing the ghost or feeling the presence of Honest Abe--particularly during the administration of Franklin D. Roosevelt, another president who guided the country through a time of great upheaval and war.
Q. What did Dracula have for dessert? A. Whine & Ice scream
Q. What is Dracula's favorite restaurant? A. Murder King
Q. What was the mummies' vacation like? A. Nobody knows. They were too wrapped up to tell us.
Q: What did the boy ghost say to the girl ghost? A: You are the most booooooooo-tiful thing I have ever seen!
Q. Why does a cemetery have to keep a fence around it? A. Because people are dying to get in.
Q. Where do vampires keep their money? A: The blood bank!!!
W. Why do ghosts like to ride elevators? A. It raises their spirits.
Q. Why can't a Skeleton Lift Weights? A. He's all bone & no muscle.
Q. What is a vampire's favorite fruit? A: A necktarine
Q. What do the skeletons say be for eating? A. Bone appetite
Q. Why didn’t the skeleton go to the Halloween party? A. Because he had no body to go with.
Q. Why do skeletons drink milk? A. To help their bones!
Q. What's a Vampire's least favourite song? A. Another one bites the dust!
Q. What is a Skeleton's favorite song. A. Bad to the Bone
Q. Where do ghost go for fun? A. To the boo-vies
Q. What did the mother mummy say to her kids in the car? A. Fasten your sheet belts.
Q. When does a ghost have breakfast? A. In the moaning.
Q. What do ghosts drink at breakfast? A. Coffee with scream and sugar.
Q. Where does a ghost go on vacation? A. Mali-boo.
Q. Riddle: the maker does not want it, the buyer does not use it, and the user does not see it, what is it? A. a coffin.
Tonight is the night
When dead leaves fly
Like witches on switches
Across the sky, When elf and sprite
Flit through the night
On a moony sheen.
Tonight is the night
When leaves make a sound
Like a gnome in his home
Under the ground,
When spooks and trolls
Creep out of holes
Mossy and green.
Tonight is the night
When pumpkins stare
Through sheaves and leaves
When ghouls and ghost
And goblin host
Dance round their queen.
The witches fly
Across the sky,
The owls go, «Who? Who? Who?»
The black cats yowl
And green ghosts howl,
«Scary Halloween to you!»
Trick or treat, trick or treat,
Give us something good to eat.
Give us candy, give us cake,
Give us something sweet to take.
Give us cookies, fruit and gum,
Hurry up and give us some.
You had better do it quick
Or we'll surely play a trick.
Trick or treat, trick or treat,
Give us something good to eat.
Halloween, Halloween, magic night.
We are glad and very bright.
We all dance and sing and recite,
“Welcome! Welcome! Halloween night!”
Everyone has debts at Halloween.
Каждый обзаводится долгами в Хеллоуин.
Talk of the devil and he will appear.
Поговори о дьяволе, он и появится.
The devil is not so bad as he is painted.
Не так страшен чёрт, как его малюют.
He who sups with the devil should have a long spoon.
Тот, кто ужинает с дьволом, пусть позаботится о ложке с длинной ручкой.
It's every man for himself, and the Devil take the hindmost.
Каждый за себя, и пусть дьявол схватит последнего.
Whenever the cat of the house is black, the lasses of lovers will have no lack.
Если в доме есть чёрный кот, то девушки не будут знать недостатка в поклонниках.
When black cats prowl and pumpkins gleam, may luck be yours on Halloween.
Если рядом бродят чёрные коты и огнями вспыхивают тыквы, жди удачи в Хеллоуин.
When witches go riding, and black cats are seen, the moon laughs and whispers, 'tis near Halloween.
Если ведьмы катаются верхом, появились черные кошки, смеётся и шепчет луна, скоро Хэллоуин.
evil spirits– злые духи
a soul - душа
a ghost - привидение
a ghoul (vampire)– -вампир
a witch- ведьма
a broom - метла
a werewolf - оборотень
a warlock - колдун
spell - заклинание
blood - кровь
death - смерть
corpse - труп
coffin - гроб
a churchyard (graveyard)- кладбище
a cemetry- кладбище
a grave - могила
bones - кости
skull - череп
a gravestone (tombstone) - могильный камень
the living -живые
horror - ужас
fright - испуг
fear - страх
dead - мертвый
spooky - зловещий
creepy - бросающий в дрожь
scary - жуткий
mean - злой
fearful - страшный
terrible - ужасный
horrible - ужасный
terrifying - ужасающий
frightening - пугающий
haunted - посещаемый привидениями
ruin - разрушить
fuffer - страдать
cry - кричать, плакать
frighten - пугать
hide - прятаться
tremble - дрожать
be scared -бояться
scream - вопить, пронзительно кричать
die of fright - умереть от страха
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