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Методические указания и контрольные задания по английскому языку для студентов заочной формы по всем специальностям

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Кировское областное государственное

образовательное бюджетное учреждение

среднего профессионального образования

«Кировский авиационный техникум»














Иностранный язык


Методические указания и контрольные задания по английскому языку для студентов заочной формы обучения по всем специальностям























Киров

2013

Печатается по решению Методического совета

Кировского авиационного техникума

(протокол № ___ от _______ г.)



Методические указания для студентов заочной формы обучения по дисциплине «Иностранный язык» составлены в соответствии с рабочей программой дисциплины, одобренной цикловой комиссией гуманитарных дисциплин


Протокол №___ от «____»_________201..г.

Председатель цикловой комиссии

Горбова Т.Л.


Составитель: Т.В. Пупышева – преподаватель английского языка КОГОБУ СПО «Кировского авиационного техникума»


Редактор: Н.Ю.Глушкова – методист КОГОБУ СПО «Кировского авиационного техникума»



Иностранный язык [Текст]: методические указания и контрольные задания по английскому языку для студентов заочной формы обучения по всем специальностям / Т.В. Пупышева; ред. Н.Ю.Глушкова; КОГОБУ СПО «Кировский авиационный техникум». – Киров: КАТ, 2013 г.



Иностранный язык: методические указания и контрольные задания по английскому языку предназначены для студентов заочной формы обучения по всем специальностям. Пособие содержит методические указания по выполнению контрольных работ, рекомендуемую литературу, основные разделы по грамматике, подлежащие усвоению и контрольные работы в четырёх вариантах. Заочная форма обучения предусматривает, главным образом, самостоятельную работу студентов с учебной литературой.

Данные методические указания могут быть полезны преподавателям иностранных языков учреждений СПО для организации самостоятельной работы по дисциплине.


Ó КАТ, 2013

Содержание


1.Пояснительная записка…………………………………………………….

2.Грамматический материал, подлежащий проработке и усвоению………

3.Контрольная работа №1……………………………………………………

4.Контрольная работа №2……………………………………………………

5.Контрольная работа №3……………………………………………………

6.Контрольная работа №4……………………………………………………

7.Рекомендуемая литература…………………………………………………























1.Пояснительная записка

Основной целью обучения студентов средних специальных учебных заведений (заочных отделений) является достижение ими практического владения иностранным языком, что предполагает формирование умений самостоятельно читать литературу по специальности с целью извлечения информации из иностранных источников.

Программа предусматривает, главным образом самостоятельную работу студентов. Работа под руководством преподавателя рассчитана на определённое количество часов, предусмотренных программой, которые используются для групповых занятий различного характера (установочные, контрольно-закрепительные и другие).

Пособие содержит методические указания по выполнению контрольных работ по английскому языку для студентов заочной формы обучения по всем специальностям, рекомендуемую литературу, основные разделы по грамматике, подлежащие усвоению и контрольные работы в четырёх вариантах. Контрольная работа включает в себя грамматические упражнения с указанием разделов грамматики английского языка, которые следует изучить, и текста страноведческого или научно- популярного характера.



Инструкция по выполнению контрольных работ


Все контрольные задания, предусмотренные планом, следует выполнять в отдельной тетради и зарегистрировать в учебной части до зачета. Сроки предоставления работ устанавливаются учебной частью.

1.На титульном листе необходимо указать название учебного заведения, специальность, курс, номер группы, фамилию, имя, отчество.

2. Контрольные задания следует выполнять с соблюдением полей, оставленных для замечаний и указаний преподавателя.

3. Необходимо строго соблюдать последовательность выполнения заданий.

4. Выполнять задания следует четким, разборчивым почерком.

5. Контрольная работа, выполненная небрежно, неразборчивым почерком, а также не по заданному варианту, возвращается студенту без проверки.

6. Все грамматические задания выполняются письменно.

7.Работа должна выполняться каждым студентом самостоятельно и творчески.

8. В конце работы необходимо поставить свою личную подпись.

9. Контрольная работа проверяется и оценивается до зачётного занятия. Ее выполнение и успешная защита является одним из условий получения зачета. Под защитой подразумевается хорошее знание материала выполненной контрольной работы (без опоры на письменный вариант).

10.После получения зачтённой контрольной работы необходимо изучить рецензию преподавателя, исправить допущенные ошибки и выполнить необходимую доработку.

Зачет


К зачету допускаются студенты, выполнившие весь объем работ, предусмотренных программой.

Зачет выставляется:

  1. По результатам выполнения контрольной работы;

  2. Чтение, перевод и выполнение заданий текста по специальности, пользуясь словарём. Объём – 1200 п.з. Время подготовки 40 минут.

  3. Монологическое высказывание по теме «О себе».


Студентам, пропустившим практические занятия по иностранному языку в период сессии по любым причинам, необходимо самостоятельно проработать и усвоить весь материал, предназначенный для аудиторной работы. По требованию преподавателя Вы должны быть готовы выборочно сдать данный материал.




2.Грамматический материал, подлежащий проработке и усвоению

  1. Имя существительное. Множественное число существительных.

  2. Артикль неопределённый и определённый.

  3. Притяжательный падеж существительных.

  4. Указательные местоимения this, that, these, those.

  5. Неопределённые местоимения some, any, no и их производные.

  6. Конструкция: there is, there are.

  7. Типы вопросов, используемые в английском языке.

  8. Образование времён активного (действительного) залога (Simple, Continuous, Perfect, Perfect Continuous).

  9. Степени сравнения прилагательных и наречий.

  10. Образование времён пассивного (страдательного) залога

  11. Модальные глаголы.

  12. Сложные предложения. Согласование времён.

  13. Косвенная речь.

  14. Условные предложения.

  15. Образование и функции Participle I, Participle II.

  16. Неличные формы глагола (The Infinitive, The Gerund).







Контрольная работа №1

I. Грамматика


Для выполнения контрольной работы № 1, необходимо усвоить следующий грамматический материал:

1.Имя существительное. Множественное число существительных.

2.Артикль: неопределённый и определённый.

3.Притяжательный падеж существительных.

4.Указательные местоимения this, that, these, those.



Задание 1. Образуйте письменно множественное число данных существительных:

A family, a tax, a woman, a team, a tooth, a telephone, a friend, a manager, a laboratory, a foot, a businessman, a wife, a city, a fax, a shelf, a German, a child, a deer, a tomato, a day, a datum, a photo.

Задание 2. Вставьте артикль, где необходимо.

1. …Russia occupies … eastern half of … Europe and … northern third of … Asia.

2. … climate of … northern part of … Russia is severe.

3. It is warm in … Crimea and … Caucasus.

4. … best way to know and understand … people of … other countries is to meet them in their own homes.

5. … Washington is … capital of … United States of America.

6. There are seven continents on … Earth.

7. I get up at … quarter past seven in …morning and go to … bed at eleven in … evening.

8. What do you do when you come … home from … school?

9. … weather was very bad in … morning yesterday. … sky was grey and it was raining.

10. Today is … ninth of … September. Ann has her … birthday. She is planning to have … nice party with her … friends.


Задание 3. Перефразируйте следующие словосочетания и предложения, употребляя притяжательный падеж.

Например: The room of my friend - my friend’s room.


1. The skateboard of that boy. 2. The songs of the children. 3. The umbrella of my grandmother. 3. The questions of my son. 4. The poems of Pushkin. 5. The car of my parents. 6. The flat of my sister is large. 7. The work of these students is very interesting. 8. The room of the boys is large. 9. The name of this girl is Jane. 10. He is a boyfriend of my daughter.


Задание 4. Вставьте указательные местоимения this, that, these или those в пробелы.

1. Who was ___ boy you were dancing with at the party yesterday?

2. ____ shoes are killing me. I can’t wait to take them off.

3. Hello. ___ is Beth. Can I speak to Kate?

4. I knew Jenny at university. In ____ days she had long blond hair.

5. ___ is our Sales Manager. His name is John.

6. I was in the pub last night when ____ bloke came up and hit me.

7. ___ was a wonderful film, wasn’t it?



II. Чтение

Задание 1. Прочитайте текст.


Basic Forms of Business Organization

Business is the production, distribution, and sale of goods and services for the benefit of the buyer and the profit of the seller. In the modern world the control of production is largely in the hands of individual business people or entrepreneurs, who organize and direct industry for gaining profits.

All businesses are known to take one of three basic forms: the sole proprietorship, the partnership, and the corporation.

A sole proprietorship is the simplest way of starting a business. In this form of organization the owner himself is responsible for success or failure of his business. Any line of business is open to him. Although this form has its advantages, it has certain drawbacks, too. In the first place the single owner is seldom able to invest as much capital as can be invested by a partnership or a corporation. If single owners are able to invest large amounts of capital, they run great risk of losing it all because they are personally liable for all the debts of their businesses. This is called unlimited liability.

A partnership is voluntary legal association of two or more people for the purpose of running a business. All partners are responsible for the debts of the partnership and profits and losses are shared between them. The agreement to form an association of this nature is called a partnership contract and may include distribution of profits, fiscal responsibilities, and a specific length of time during which the partnership is in effect.

A corporation is a firm that exists as an independent legal entity, with ownership divided into shares. The owners of the shares are known as stockholders. The main feature of the corporation is limited liability. It means that the liability of the stockholders for the debts of the firm is limited to the amount of money they paid to buy shares. It is the dominant form of American business because it makes possible to gather together large amount of capital. The stockholders usually meet once a year to elect directors and to carry on other important business. Management of a corporation consists of the board of directors, who decide corporate policy, and the officers, who carry on the daily operations. The board is elected by the stockholders, and the officers are appointed by the board. The corporation form of business has several advantages over the sole proprietorship and partnership. It is a separate legal entity and officer’s limited liability to the owners, ease of capital generation and ease of transfer of ownership. In addition, it allows centralized authority and responsibility and professional management. The corporation form of business also has several disadvantages. It is subject to greater government regulation and double taxation. In addition, separation of ownership and control may allow management to make harmful decisions. Since no one form of business organization is perfect, so – called hybrids have been devised like: franchises, limited partnerships, cooperatives, and joint ventures.

Задание 2. Ответьте на вопросы.

  1. What is business?

  2. Who can be called an entrepreneur?

  3. What are the advantages of a sole proprietorship?

  4. What is a partnership?

  5. Why is a corporation the dominant form of American business?

  6. What disadvantages has the corporation form of business?

Задание 3. Найдите английские эквиваленты в тексте следующим фразам.

  1. распределение товаров для выгоды покупателя и прибыли продавца;

  2. определённые недостатки;

  3. быть ответственным за неудачу в бизнесе;

  4. вкладывать большое количество капитала;

  5. распределять прибыль и убытки;

  6. контракт товарищества;

  7. финансовая ответственность;

  8. Акционеры – это владельцы акций.

  9. совет директоров;

  10. государственное регулирование и взимание налогов.

Задание 4. Переведите последний абзац текста.




Контрольная работа №2

I. Грамматика


Для выполнения контрольной работы2, необходимо усвоить следующий грамматический материал:


1.Неопределённые местоимения some, any, no и их производные.

2.Конструкция: there is, there are.

3.Типы вопросов, используемые в английском языке.

4.Образование времён активного (действительного) залога (Simple, Continuous, Perfect, Perfect Continuous).



Задание 1. Заполните пропуски неопределенными местоимениями some, any, anything, anywhere, anybody, something, somewhere, somebody.

1. ‘Have you bought ___ souvenirs yet?’ ‘Yes, I’ve bought ___ presents for my family but I haven’t sent ___ postcards yet.’

2. ‘I’ve just done ___ shopping.’ ‘Have you bought ___ new things?’ ‘Yes, I’ve bought a pair of jeans and ____ a pair socks. I wanted to get __ shoes too, but I didn’t have ___ money left.’

3. Would you like ___ to eat?

4. Do you live ___ near Jim?

5. There’s ___ at the door. Can you go and see who it is?

6. The film is really great. You can ask ____ who has seen it.

7. With this special ticket you can go ___ you like on any bus you like.

8. Do you know ___ about politics?

9. There isn’t ___ in the box. It’s empty.


Задание 2. Переведите на английский язык следующие предложения.

1. В этом журнале много страниц.

2. В нашей квартире три комнаты.

3. На столе лежит несколько книг.

4. В нашем техникуме много хороших преподавателей.

5. Сколько студентов в вашей группе?

6. Рядом с нашим домом нет кинотеатра.



Задание 3. Поставьте глаголы в скобках во врeмена Present Simple, Present Continuous, Present Perfect или Present Perfect Continuous. Вставленные слова подчеркните.

James (be) a taxi-driver. He (work) in London. He (know) the city very well. He (work) as a taxi-driver for 25 years.

I (love) my job, because every day I (meet) new people. Many tourists (visit) the city, especially in summer and I (tell) them about every street.’ Now James (have lunch) in a café. He usually (have) two breaks a day for a short rest. At the weekends he (go) to the seaside. He (spend) his holidays at the same place for many years.

James (be) a good worker. He (earn) about 2000 pounds a month. This month he (get) even more – there are many tourists in the city now. Next Monday he (meet) his friends. They (come) to see London. He (be) going to show them the city.

Задание 4. Поставьте глаголы в скобках во времена Past Simple, Past Continuous, Past Perfect или Past Perfect Continuous.

John works in a real-estate agency. Three years ago he (be) unemployed and (search for) any job. Every day he (read) advertisements about jobs. He (decide) to try. At first it (be) difficult and he (not, do) deals alone. But soon he (learn) job well and last year he (become) the best agent. By the end of the year he (sell) many apartments and (receive) a big bonus. Yesterday he (work) with a client who (want) to buy a huge flat in the very centre of the city. They (discuss) details of the deal for one hour. At last they (sign) the documents. Once John (look for) a flat for a very bossy man. He (look for) it for two months, but in the end the client (refuse) because he (buy) a better one through another agency! Although the job is nervous, John likes it very much.


Задание 5. Поставьте глаголы в скобках во времена Future Simple, Future Perfect или Future Continuous.

1. I (cook) dinner by the time I leave for the pub.

2. Tomorrow I (be) at the studio all the day.

3. By the time he is thirty five he (become) a professor.

4. I won’t be able to answer the phone in the afternoon. I (give) a talk at the conference.

5. We (have) coffee after Martin has finished eating.

6. I hope I (become) a good specialist in the future.

7. Don’t call me in the morning tomorrow. I (sleep).


Задание 6. Задайте вопросы, начинающиеся с вопросительных слов в скобках.

1. They left school last year. (when? who?)

2. I’ll give you this magazine tomorrow. ( what? when?)

3. The ship had left the port by 10 a.m. yesterday. (why? when?)

4. The students write lectures every day. (how often? what?)

5. The children are playing in the yard now. (who?where?)

6. She has been trying to find a job for several years. (how long? who?)

7. The secretary will be typing the documents from 9 till 10 o’clock tomorrow. (what time?)

8. The U.S. president lives and works in the White House. (where?)



II. Чтение


Задание 1. Соотнесите глаголы первого столбика с фразами второго столбика для того, чтобы образовать словосочетания, которые относятся к теме «Здоровый образ жизни».

1. stay a. enough sleep

2. keep b. fit

3. avoid c. a sensible diet

4. go d. jogging

5. work out e. in shape

6. get f. weight

7. lose g. stress

8. follow h. in the gym


Задание 2. Прочитайте статью о здоровом образе жизни и вставьте соответствующие фразы.



A why not work E can’t give up

B it’s worth practicing F try getting

C keep calm G maintain a balanced lifestyle

D chances H enjoy doing

I intake



How to live to be 100


DO

  • Reduce calories and cut down on sweets, cakes and chocolate. If you are overweight, try to lose weight. Being overweight increases your 1._____ of developing circulation problems.

  • Follow a sensible diet – eat as much low – fat food as possible: chicken, fish and yogurt are good for you. Aim to eat at least five portions of fruit and vegetables a day to ensure your 2._____ of Vitamin C and health – giving minerals.

  • Give up smoking – every cigarette shortens your life.

  • Lead an active lifestyle. Keep fit and stay in shape: 3.____ out in the gym or take up jogging? Choose an activity that you 4.____. Exercise should be a pleasure, not a duty. Aim to exercise for about 30 minutes at least five times a week. If you work sitting down, 5.____ up as often as you can and walking for a while.


DON’T

  • Don’t go to bed late: if you don’t get enough sleep, you will lack energy and you will age faster. Sleep replenishes the energies spent during the day and aids the natural healing process of the body.

  • Don’t get stressed: 6. ___ and avoid stress at home, school or work. Learn to relax, and when you feel that your stress level is rising, take a break.

  • Don’t eat between meals: it’s the fastest way to put on weight. If you 7.___ snacks, try at least to eat healthy snacks, like fruit or yogurt.

  • Don’t be a fitness fanatic! You need to stay in shape but remember to 8.____.

Задание 3. Письменно переведите советы, как правильно соблюдать здоровый образ жизни.


Контрольная работа №3

I. Грамматика


Для выполнения контрольной работы № 3, необходимо усвоить следующий грамматический материал:


1.Степени сравнения прилагательных и наречий.

2.Образование времён пассивного (страдательного) залога.

3.Модальные глаголы.

4.Сложные предложения. Согласование времён.


Задание 1. Поставьте прилагательные в скобках в сравнительную или превосходную степени сравнения .

1. The life of this battery is (long) than most of its rivals at almost half the price.

2. Our mineral water is (pure) in the market.

3. He is (good) student in our group.

4. I would recommend this jacket. It’s (stylish) than the other one and it really suits you.

5. This is (low) price I can offer.

6. You’ll really like these chips. They are (tasty) than any others on the market.

7. I can’t recommend this DVD player. Its results were (bad) than the others.

8. That is (silly) suggestion I’ve ever heard.


Задание 2. Переведите предложения на русский язык. Определите залог и время сказуемого.

1. An interesting problem was discussed yesterday at the meeting.

2. The newspapers haven’t been brought yet.

3. The houses are built every year.

4. The experiment will have been finished by the end of this week.

5. Much time is given to the study of the new methods of research.

6. The foreign delegation will be met tomorrow morning.

7. Our students are being tested in room 125 now.

8. The children were being shown a cartoon when I entered the hall.

9. The job had been done by last Friday.

10. When was your city founded?

11. The academic year is divided into two terms.

12. Oxford and Cambridge are often called Oxbridge to denote elitarian education.

13. I came late because I had been shown a wrong way.

14. In modern world people are bombarded by advertising.

Задание 3.Вставьте подходящие модальные глаголы (must, may, can, should).

1. … I take this book? - Certainly, but you … not give it to anybody.

2. … you translate this text into English? – I think I ….

3. Sorry I’m late. … I come in?

4. You … throw litter in the park.

5. Your salary is very low. You … look for another job.

6. If you want to improve your English, you … work very hard.

Задание 4. Раскройте скобки, выбирая требующееся время глагола.

1. My friend asked me who (is playing, was playing) the piano in the sitting room.

2. He said he (will come, would come) to the station to see me off.

3. I was sure he (posted, had posted) the letter.

4. I think the weather (will be, would be) fine next week. I hope it (will not change, would not change) for the worse.

5. I knew that he (is, was) a very clever man.

6. I want to know what he (has bought, had bought) for her birthday.

7. He said he (is staying, was staying) at the Ritz Hotel.

8. He asked me where I (study, studied).

9. I thought that I (shall finish, should finish) my work at that time.

10. He says he (works, worked) at school two years ago.


II. Чтение


Задание 1. Прочитайте текст.


Business Etiquette


The turn of the 20th century saw great interest in business etiquette in the USA. It can be surprising, but in this era of take-out foods and dress-down Fridays, etiquette is becoming very important. There are lots of signs of it. First of all, the bookstores are filled with different books on multicultural ways of doing business, on e-mail manners, table manners and more. Colleges and universities are giving their graduates a competitive edge in the job market, offering special courses. Businesses are spending hundreds of thousands of dollars for seminars and workshops with such names as "Customs and Protocol for Doing Business in the Global Market Place", "Business Basics for Professional Polish".

An etiquette expert Dorothea Johnson told the story of the businessman who came to her for help after he was not employed by a big corporation. At a lunch meeting with a senior executive in the company, he sat down and immediately started eating the salad in front of him. He looked up to see his boss, who hadn't picked up his fork yet, and was staring at him. "I knew right then they were going to send me out, » he said. If he knew the manners, he would have known to wait until his host started eating.

The recruiters do not offer jobs to candidates who salt their food before tasting, because it shows a tendency toward hasty decision making, or to those who order very expensive food at the restaurants.

Today's parents are realizing that while good manners will help their children get along in life, they can't teach them. Etiquette hasn't been a priority during the last two decades. Even if parents feel competent to teach manners, they may not have time. If family mealtimes are a thing of the past, when are children going to learn not to butter all their bread at once, or, more important, how to hold

polite dinner-table conversation? Top corporations hire specialists to teach "client development skills", not manners, which could include anything from how to place a napkin, how to present a business card to a Japanese businessman.

The important thing to remember, though, is that good manners are more than a code of behavior. They can make life easier. It's methodology by which people can get along with each other.

Задание 2. Ответьте письменно на вопросы.


1) Did the turn of the 20th century see great interest in business etiquette in the USA?

2) Where do people buy books on multicultural ways of doing business, on e-mail manners, table manners and more?

3) Who told the story of the businessman?

4) What happened at a lunch meeting?

5) What was incorrect?

6) What do parents think about good manners of their children?

7) Do top corporations hire specialists to teach "client development skills", not manners?

8) What is the important thing to remember about good manners?



Задание 3. Найдите в тексте соответствующие английские слова или словосочетания, которые имеют следующие значения:


person or group in a business or commercial organization with administrative or managerial powers;

prices that are as good as those of other firms;

person who accepts the guests;

person who is employed;

person who employs other people;

to give work to people.


Задание 4. Переведите предложения на английский язык.

1) Правила этикета требуют, чтобы гости не приступали к еде раньше хозяина.

2) Колледжи и университеты стремятся дать выпускникам конкурентное преимущество, предлагая специальные курсы.

3) При социализме социальная сфера является приоритетным направлением в развитии экономики.

4) В периоды резких социальных изменений безработица возрастает.

5) По пятницам многие иностранные фирмы разрешают сотрудникам одеваться неофициально.



Контрольная работа №4

I. Грамматика


Для выполнения контрольной работы № 4, необходимо усвоить следующий грамматический материал:


1.Косвенная речь.

2.Условные предложения.

3.Образование и функции Participle I, Participle II.

4. Неличные формы глагола (The Infinitive, The Gerund).


Задание 1. Переведите предложения письменно в косвенную речь.

1. “Did you run a race yesterday?” said Peter. “Yes, we did,” said Ann. “Kate was the first to come to the finish.”

2. “Where is my bag, mother?” asked Tom. “I have put it on the chair near the door,” said mother. “Don’t forget to put your record boob into it.”

3. “Why can’t we play here, mother?” asked the children. “Father is sleeping,” said their mother. “He has worked very much today. Keep quiet.”

4. “Look at my stamps, father,” said Nick. “When will you buy some new ones for me?”

5. I thought, “He is a very clever man: he can help me.”

Задание 2. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в требующейся форме. Запишите предложения.

1. If he is free tomorrow, he certainly (to come) to our party.

2. If my friend (to work) in my office, we should meet every day.

3. If you spoke English every day, you (to improve) your language skills.

4. If she (to return) earlier, she would have been able to see him before he left.

5. If you (to be) a poet, you would write a beautiful poetry.

6. If he did not read so much, he (not to know) English literature so well.

Задание 3. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на Participle I и Participle II.

1. A letter sent from St.Petersburg today will be in Moscow tomorrow.

2. He saw some people in the post office sending telegrams.

3. Taking a dictionary, he began to translate the text.

4. The word said by the student was not correct.

5. The man standing at the door of the train carriage and saying goodbye ti his friends is a well- known musician.

6. A word spoken in time may have very important results.

7. The speaking doll interested the child very much.

8. While speaking to Nick some days ago, I forgot to ask him about his sister.


Задание 4. Выберите правильную неличную форму глагола (инфинитив или герундий) . Переведите предложения на русский язык.

  1. We must _______ you that your payment is overdue.

a. inform b. to inform c. informing

  1. We have _______ overtime.

a. do b. to do c. doing

  1. Do you mind _______ the window?

a. open b. to open с. opening

  1. Catherine managed _______an important customer.

a. acquire b. to acquire c. acquiring

  1. We look forward to _______ from you soon.

a. hear b. hearing

  1. Jane is busy _______ invitations for our company's anniversary celebration.

a. write b. to write c. writing

  1. Could you let me ______my sentence?

a. finish b. to finish c. finishing

  1. It is hard _______ certain customers.

a. please b. to please c. pleasing

  1. Let me begin by _______ you something about our company's history.

a. tell b. to tell c. telling

  1. We risk _______ a lot of money.

a. lose b. to lose c. losing


II. Чтение


Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите устно текст на русский язык.


WHAT IT TAKES TO RUN A BUSINESS

Most of us fantasize at one time or another about starting our own business, but few of us have the courage to make it happen. The prospect of going into business for ourselves, while appealing, is a risk few of us are willing to take.

But times have changed. More people than ever before are leaving their jobs and starting their own businesses. In fact, experts estimate that some 1.500 new businesses are launched every day and that by 2000 70 percent of all businesses will be entrepreneurial.

Choosing the business that's right for you is probably the most important business decision you'll ever make. Maybe you already have a great idea for a product or service. Or perhaps you're still exploring some ideas. In either case, before you launch your business you'll need to assess your strengths and weaknesses, your likes and dislikes.

It may help to make a list of what you like and dislike. You'll also want to consider your non-tangible attributes, such as stamina, determination and resourcefulness. These qualities alone may be the determining factor of whether your business succeeds or fails.

Experts agree that two of the most important qualities an entrepreneur should possess are tenacity and perseverance. Getting a business off the ground can be extremely frustrating, and if you're the type who gives up easily, chances are you won't make it as an entrepreneur.

As a business owner you also must have the stamina and self-discipline to work long hours, the willingness to take risks and the confidence to make decisions. These traits will go a long way in helping your business thrive and flourish.

Don't worry if it takes you a while to determine what kind of business you want. It's much better to take your time and thoroughly investigate your options than rush into something. Some of the most successful entrepreneurs have spent time researching the market before finding their niche.

Special training or education is not required to start a business. Only one-fifth of new business owners have college degrees and more than one-third have never taken a business course.

Much of the knowledge you'll need to run a business can be learned through books, seminars and workshops. You may also want to consider taking a few business or marking courses through your local university or community college.

One of the best ways to learn about business is by talking to as many entrepreneurs as you can. Join a professional organisation in your area that is geared to your particular industry.

In addition, there are several organisations that can provide assistance. Contact your local Small Business Administration office or the Service Corps of Retired Executives. Both groups can provide professional advice and counselling and help you get your business off the ground. You may also want to consider hiring a business consultant to help you build a solid business plan.

One of the most important factors you'll need to consider before starting a business is your financial resources. If you are the sole provider for your family and have little savings stashed away, this may not be the time to give up a steady source of income.

Studies show that more businesses fail because of under financing and poor management than for any other reason. That's why experts say you should have enough saving put aside to support you for at least a year before you have to dip into your new business for income.

If you're having trouble raising the capital needed to launch your business, try the Small Business Association. The organisation often makes small-business loans to start-up companies or at least will refer you to the institutions that will. You may also want to consider obtaining independent investors or taking out a home equity loan.

Starting a new business not only demands a lot of hard work, but also requires financial and emotional sacrifice. Be prepared to give up vacations, weekends and evenings and to spend less time with friends and family. Entrepreneurship is not without drawbacks, and many people discover (often too late) that they are not cut out to run a business.

Harvey Mackay, the best selling author of "Sharkproof: Get The Job You Want. Keep The Job You Love In Today's Frenzied Market " (Harper Collins), offers these suggestions for anyone considering a business venture.

  • Think small. Keep your overheads low by starting your business from home. Purchase only the essentials. Hold on to your day job as long as possible or at least until your business has started to take off.

  • Get advice. Talk to other entrepreneurs. Find out how they got started, how much money it took and what they would do differently. Put together an advisory team that you can turn to for help.

  • Adapt to change. In business, anything can happen. Be prepared for the unexpected.

  • Draft a business plan. Analyze your market and study your competition. Determine who your potential clients will be and make sure there is sufficient demand for your product or service. Set goals for your company and review them periodically to see if you're meeting your expectations.

  • Depend on yourself. Whether your business succeeds or fails depends on you alone. Make sure you have the temperament to work harder than you've ever worked in your life.


Задание 2. Дайте письменно эквиваленты выделенным в тексте словам.


Задание 3. Ответьте письменно на вопросы:

1. What things should be done to start your own business?

2. Can you prove that the following qualities are essential (or not needed) for a businessman: stamina, determination, resourcefulness, tenacity, self-discipline, willingness to take risks, confidence?

3. What recommendations would you give to those who would like to start their own business?


7. Рекомендуемая литература


  1. И.П.Агабекян, П.И.Коваленко Английский для технических ВУЗов[Текст]:учебное пособие/ И.П.Агабекян, П.И.Коваленко, издательство «Феникс» - Ростов-на-Дону,2008 .

  2. Богацкий И.С.,Дюканова Н.М. Бизнес курс английского языка_- Логос; М.:Рольф:Айрис-пресс 2010.

  3. Голицинский Ю.Б. Грамматика Английский язык [Текст]: сборник упражнений/ Ю.Б.Голицинский, издательство «Каро» - Санкт-Петербург, 2009 .

  4. Хведченя Л.В., Хорень Р.В. Английский язык для поступающих в ВУЗы [Текст]:учебное пособие/Л.В.Хведченя, Р.В.Хорень. – Минск: Высшая школа, 1997.

  5. Радовель В.А. Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности

[Текст]: учебное пособие/ В.А.Радовель, издательство «Феникс», Ростов – на Дону, 2007.

6. Мюллер В.К. Англо – русский словарь: 53000 слов – 22 издю, стереотип. – М.: Рус.яз., 1988.






Краткое описание документа:

Иностранный язык: методические указания и контрольные задания по английскому языку предназначены для студентов заочной формы обучения по всем специальностям. Пособие содержит методические указания по выполнению контрольных работ, рекомендуемую литературу, основные разделы по грамматике, подлежащие усвоению и контрольные работы в четырёх вариантах. Заочная форма обучения предусматривает, главным образом, самостоятельную работу студентов с учебной литературой. Данные методические указания могут быть полезны преподавателям иностранных языков учреждений СПО для организации самостоятельной работы по дисциплине
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