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1 British Mass Media
Mass Media play an important role in our everyday life. In fact it’s an essential part of the modern society. Millions copies of newspapers are printed in the world every day. All the most important questions of social, economic, scientific and cultural life, moral and ecological problems are traditionally published in press and discussed on TV and radio.Press, radio and TV keep people informed on the latest and most essential events. The Mass Media is doing much to raise an interest in every aspect of the world’s life. So we can imagine life without it.
Nowadays the mass media have become daily and essential necessity with contemporary men. The mass media report about various aspects of life, they form and affect public opinion. The mass media comprise newspapers, radio, TV and the Internet. In this or that form the mass media come into every home.
At present we cannot imagine our life without the Internet. The Internet is necessary for each person. All people use the Internet on different purposes: for dialogue, for searching the information, for work, for studying, for fun and entertainment. The Internet has many pluses. You can use the Internet at home for personal or at work for professional usage. Whatever you are looking for, you will find it. You can discuss problems on different forums. You can chat with people on the other end of the planet. Such communities help people who can not go out to find friends in the real life for example, because they are disabled, or too shy to open themselves in reality. Meanwhile the Internet has minuses. Many people become addicted to it and spend days and nights there which is very harmful for health and character because such people lose real life perception and become internet addicts. So, despite all the obvious advantages, one mustn’t sink in the net and one should remember about real life.
TV is one of the best inventions. Thanks to TV we get a great amount of information. It gives wonderful possibilities for education. We become better informed by watching documentaries, science programmes. It gives full coverage or the latest events, comment on the most important developments, political and domestic affairs. TV is a convenient source of entertainment too. Everybody has his or her favourite entertainment programme: drama, classical or pop music concert, quiz show, sport matches, soap operas which attract millions of TV viewers.As for me I prefer....
А) A modern man can’t image his life without mass media. It keeps people informed on all main topics of our life. The British people buy more newspapers per heard than people in most other countries. Newspapers in the UK are of two main types: quality papers or broadsheets and tabloids than are half the size of broadsheets. But the size is not the only thing that makes them different.The quality papers produce serious quality journalism, while the tabloids called «popular papers» have more sensational reporting style. In Great Britain there is no official control over the newspapers. The government does not exercise any official control over the newspaper industry and most of the English newspapers are very proud of their peculiarities, their individual styles. And although every newspaper has a definite profile, they can be classified into two main groups: quality and popular newspapers
The British are great newspaper readers. Newspapers are popular not only with educated middle-class but also with working-class people. They are divided into two classes. Quality press is called "heavies" or "broadsheets". These newspapers are more serious. They deal with home and overseas news and cover cultural and sport events, financial reports, travel news, book and film reviews. Their language is formal bookish, standard or literary colloquial.
The Daily Telegraph The Daily Telegraph is a daily morning broadsheet. It's a conservative-leaning newspaper, distributed throughout the United Kingdom and internationally. The newspaper was founded by Arthur B. Sleigh in June 1855 as the Daily Telegraph and Courier. Since 2004 it is owned by David and Frederick Barclay.According to a MORI survey conducted in 2005, 64% of Telegraph readers intended to support the Conservative Party in the coming elections. It is the sister paper of The Sunday Telegraph.
The Guardian The Guardian, until 1959 known as The Manchester Guardian, was founded 1821. It has grown from a 19th-century local paper to a national paper associated with sister papers The Observer (British Sunday paper) and The Guardian Weekly, as well as a web presence.Founded in 1821 by John Edward Taylor in Manchester, The Manchester Guardian replace the radical Manchester Observer The paper is identified with centre-left liberalism and its readership is generally on the mainstream left of British political opinion. The paper also influences design and publishing field, sponsoring many awards in these areas.
The Guardian has changed format and design over the years, and has become an international media organisation with connections to other national papers with similar aims. The Guardian Weekly, which circulates worldwide, contains articles from The Guardian and its sister Sunday paper The Observer
The Independent The Independent is a British national morning newspaper, published in London by Independent Print Limited, and owned by Alexander Lebedev since 2010. It was founded in 1986 and nicknamed the Indy. It is one of the youngest UK national daily newspapers. The daily edition was named National Newspaper of the Year at the 2004 British Press Awards.Being originally a broadsheet newspaper, it has been published in a tabloid or "compact" format since 2003. The Independent is regarded to be on the left politically, but tends to take a classical liberal, pro-market attitude on economic issues. It does not associate itself with any political party. The paper originally describes itself as "free from party political bias, free from proprietorial influence" - a banner carries it on the front page of its daily edition.
Tabloid papers The popular press that is smaller in size is known as tabloids. Being half-sheet in format it is also called "the gutter press". It offers some sensational and scandal news with big headlines and large photos. Tabloids like to comment on juicy bits of events including those of the royal family. The language of this press is more colloquial and often boarders with slang.
Sunday Mirror The Sunday Mirror is the Sunday sister paper of the Daily Mirror. It began to be published in 1915 as the Sunday Pictorial and was renamed the Sunday Mirror in 1963. In 1952, the Sunday Pictorial ran a three part series entitled "Evil Men" promising an "end to the conspiracy of silence" about homosexuality in Britain. In April 1963, The Sunday Mirror published a two-page guide called "How to Spot a Homo" which listed "shifty glances", "dropped eyes" and "a fondness for the theatre" as signs of being gay.
B) British TV and Radio are part of the British Broadcasting Corporation or BBC. Radio is practically in every home, nearly two-thirds of British listen to the radio every day. Radio stations transmit contemporary music (“Radio 1”), a program of arts and culture (“Radio 3”), news and sport programs (“Five Live”).
British TV broadcasts on two channels BBC 1 and BBC 2. Currently BBC has six digital channels, including BBC News 24 and BBC Parliament, which highlights the work of the British Parliament, especially of the House of Commons, and a number of commercial TV stations. Television in Britain is under strict state control, there is legislative protection program quality, standards of “taste and decency”. TV channels must have balance between entertainment, information and cultural programs. Also there is no commercial advertising on TV.The most popular channels arc British Broadcasting Corporation 1 (BBC 1), BBC 2, TTV (Independent Television) and Channel 4.
BBC 1 BBC One is the flagship television channel of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) in the United Kingdom. It was launched on 2 November 1936 as the BBC Television Service. It was later renamed BBC TV until the launch of sister channel BBC 2 in 1964. Then it was known as BBC 1. It shows uninterrupted programming with no commercial advertising at any time. It is currently the most watched television channel in the United Kingdom, ahead of its traditional opponent, ITV.
The channel controller for BBC One is Danny Cohen, a former controller of BBC Three.
After the Second World War BBC1 transmitted a monochrome picture of 4:3 (four by three) aspect ratio. In 1969 it switched over to colour. Wide-screen digital transmissions started in 1998. Between 2007 and 2012 the channel completely switched over to digital technology.
ВВС 2 ВВС Two is the second television channel operated by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) in the United Kingdom. It covers a wide range of subject matter, but tends towards more intellectual programmes than the more mainstream and popular BBC One.
Originally styled BBC2, it was the third British television station to be launched on 20 April 1964 in London. It's Europe's first television channel to broadcast regularly in colour from 1 July 1967. It was thought to be a place for less mainstream programming. While this tendency has continued to date, most special-interest programmes are broadcast on BBC Two.
ITV ITV is the major commercial public service TV network in the United Kingdom. It was launched in 1955 under the maintenance of the Independent Television Authority (ITA). It is also the oldest commercial network in the UK. Since the passing of the Broadcasting Act 1990, its legal name has been Channel 3, the number 3 having no real meaning, except just difference from BBC One, BBC Two and Channel 4.
ITV is to be distinguished from ITV pic, which holds the Channel 3 broadcasting licences in England, Wales, southern Scotland, the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. Similarly ITV1 is the brand used by ITV pic for the Channel 3 service in these areas.
Channel 4 Channel 4 is a British public-service television broadcaster which began transmission on 2 November 1982. It is publicly-owned, although it is largely commercially self-funded. The station is now owned and operated by Channel Four Television Corporation.
The channel was established to provide a fourth television service to the United Kingdom in addition to the television licence-funded BBC's two services and the single commercial broadcasting network, ITV.
Satellite Television Many British have now satellite TV. One of the biggest visual changes in British cities in the last years has been the appearance of satellite dishes on houses and flats, especially in working-class areas. Both satellite and cable TV offer lots of channels - Sky Movies, Sky Sports, Cartoon Network, Discovery, UK Style and many others. They make their money through advertising, but their contribution to the quality of TV is questionable: they make news and sport programs and recycle material made by others.
Satellite television is television programming delivered by the means of communications satellite and received by an outdoor antenna, usually a parabolic mirror generally referred to so-called "satellite dish". Satellite TV tuners are also available as a card or a USB stick to be attached to a personal computer. In many areas of the world satellite television provides a wide range of channels and services. Direct-broadcast satellite television comes to the general public in digital. Analogue satellite television is being replaced by digital satellite television and the latter is becoming available in a better quality known as high-definition television.
Radio In 1936 the government established BBC to provide a public service in radio. At one time this corporation had a monopoly on radio, whereas today it has to compete with lots of commercial stations, both local and national. In spite of this fact, 5 BBC radio stations provide (1) non-stop pop music, (2) light entertainment, (3) minority interests, e.g. classical music, academic material, (4) news, comment and discussion programs, (5) sport and education. The BBC additionally runs 37 local radio stations, providing material of local interest.
The BBC has ten national radio stations, six stations serving the BBC Regions and numerous others covering the Local regions in England. Five of the national stations are major stations and are available on FM, DAB and online. In addition to the main five stations, the BBC also runs five additional stations that broadcast on DAB and online only. BBC Radio lXtra is a sister to Radio 1, and broadcasts new black music and urban tracks. BBC Radio 5 Live Sports Extra is a sister to 5 Live and offers extra sport analysis, including broadcasting sports that previously were not covered. BBC Radio 6 Music offers alternative music genres and is notable as a platform for new artists.
As well as the national stations, the BBC also provides regional stations. In Scotland, these arc BBC Radio Scotland and BBC Radio nan Gaidheal, the latter providing programmes in Scots Gaelic; in Wales these are BBC Radio Wales and BBC Radio Cymru, the latter providing programming in Welsh. As a part of BBC Local Radio, the BBC also serves the Channel Islands. The BBC World Service provides news, current affairs and information for a worldwide audience in 28 languages, including English. It is available in over 150 capital cities around the world.
2. London London is the capital city of the UK. It’s situated upon both banks of the River Thames. It has more than 20 centuries old history. It’s one of the largest cities in the world and the largest city in Europe. Its population is about 7 million.London is a political, economic and commercial centre of Great Britain. Traditionally it’s divided into several parts: the City, Westminster, the West End and the East End.The City is the oldest part of London, its financial and business centre. Numerous banks, offices and firms are concentrated here, including the Bank of England. You can visit some interesting places near the City. One of them is the Tower of London. The Tower is one of the most ancient buildings of London. It was founded in the 11th century by William the Conqueror. For many centuries the Tower has been a fortress, a palace, a prison and royal treasury. It is now a museum of arms and armour. The grey stones of the Tower could tell terrible stories of violence and injustice. One of the greatest English churches, St. Paul’s Cathedral, is not far from the Tower of London. There is a huge dome with a golden ball and cross on the top. The interior of the Cathedral is very beautiful. It’s full of monuments. There is a Whispering Gallery, which runs round the dome. It’s called so, because if someone whispers close to the wall on the side, a person with his ear close to the wall on the other side can hear what is said.
The West End is the richest and most beautiful part of London. It’s a symbol of wealth and luxury. The best hotels, restaurants, shops, clubs, parks and houses are situated there. There are about 40 theatres, several concert halls, many museums including the British Museum and the best art galleries. The West End can be called the centre of London. Here are the historical palaces as well as the famous parks such as Hyde Park, Kensington Gardens and St .James’s Park. In the West End is Buckingham Palace, which is the Queen’s residence, and the Palace of Westminster, which is the seat of Parliament. The best-known streets here are Whitehall Street, the London residence of Prime Minister and the place where the Cabinet meets, Fleet Street where most newspapers have their offices and some others. One of the busiest streets in the West End is Oxford Street. The House of Parliament and the Clock Tower “Big Ben” are also situated in the West End.
Westminster Abbey is a fine Gothic building, which stands opposite the Houses of Parliament. It is the work of many hands and different ages. The oldest part of the building dates from the eighth century. Since the far-off time of William the Conqueror Westminster Abbey has been the crowning place of the kings and queens of England. There are tombs and memorials of almost all English monarchs, many statesmen, famous scientists, writers and musicians.
The East End is an industrial district of London. There are many factories and the Port of London is there. The region densely populated by working class families. Here today are kilometres and kilometres of docks and the great industrial areas that depend upon shipping. It’s very important to the country’s commerce.
London dominates the life of Britain. It’s the chief port of the country and the most important commercial, manufacturing and cultural centre.
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