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According to a report in «The Economist» a few years ago, beneath the streets of Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, many of the city's thousands of street children were living in fetid passages that led to the sewers or to the city's heating system. Though shocked to learn of these homeless children, many mongolians concluded that the situation arose "because people are too lazy to look after their children" ,the journal noted. 3
On the other side of the world, street children are slaughtered by death squads of self-proclaimed vigilantes. Why? A United Nations publication explained: "In Latin America many people in the judiciary, the police, the media, business, and society in general believe that street children represent a moral threat to a civilised society". The same sourse noted: "An average of three street children are reportedly killed every day in the state of Rio de Janeiro". 5
Homeless people "trigger fear and uneasiness in us .....,but they are humans who feel pangs of hunger just as we do. There are many of them, and they have a real need. "So says a Web page created by volunteers who work with the homeless in Czestochowa. The same sourse adds: "We hope that ..... there will be people who respond to this great need". What exacity is the need. 6
18 Definitions of homelessness vary from one part of the world to another. The approaches and aims of those who study the problem influence the way they define it. Their definition, in turn, affects the statistics they publish. So it is difficult, if not impossible, to get an accurate overview of the problem.
The book Strategies to Combat Homelessness, published by the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements, defines homelessness as the condition of «not having an acceptable level of housing provision. It would include all states below what may be regarded as adequate» for the society in which the homeless live. 19 Some may dwell on the streets or occupy derelict or abandoned buildings, while others might find shelter in hostels. Still others find temporary accommodation with friends.
20 It is estimated that in Poland, a country with a population of some 40 million, there are as many as 300.000 homeless people. No one really knows how many, since they are not registered in any fixed location and they keep moving from place to place. Some believe the real figure to be close to half million!
* Цель: доказать, что многие «идеальные» государства имеют обратную сторону медали. Задачи-изучить газетные статьи по данной теме, отобрать соответствующие материалы, провести мини исследование и оформить исследования в виде таблицы, из представленного материала создать старую книгу как символ умирающего старого мира.
Some shelters offer services aimed at helping people to break out of the homeless life. Individuals may be helped to obtain public assistance, financial help from other sources, legal aid, support in reestablishing links with family, or the chance to learn basic skills. Centers for young people in London offer advice on diet, cooking, healthier lifestyles, and work placement. Counseling aims to increase self-respect and motivation and to help people achieve greater independence so that they can find and keep a home of their own. Such provisions are certainly praiseworthy. * 23
Not always, however, do shelters offer the homeless the help they feel they need most. Jacek, a homeless person in Warsaw, explains that life in the shelters does not equip residents to deal with the outside world. He feels that the residents, by associating and conversing almost exclusively with one another, tend to develop “a warped pattern of thinking.” He says, “The shelter that isolates us from the outside world becomes like a children’s home for adults.” In his view, many residents have “malfunctioning minds.” A homeless person in Warsaw 24
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