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THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND


The United Kingdom consists of four countries: England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. The capitals of these parts are London, Cardiff, Edinburgh and Belfast. The official name of the country is The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. It’s too long, isn’t it? So usually people call it the UK or the United Kingdom.

The UK is situated in the north-west coast of Europe between the Atlantic Ocean on the north and north-west and the North Sea on the east.

The UK has an area of 94,249 square miles. The capital of the country is London. English is the official language. The population of the UK is nearly 60 million people. The population lives mostly in towns and cities. Many of them live in big industrial cities like London, Manchester, Liverpool.

Stratford-upon-Avon is a small town in the middle of England, but it’s very famous. It’s the town where William Shakespeare was born. Every year 4 million tourists visit this place. They usually come to the well- known Royal Shakespeare Theatre- one of the biggest theatres in Britain.

Brighton is a large town on the south coast of England. It is a popular place for holidays.

There are many universities, colleges, libraries, museums and theatres in the country. The most famous universities are Cambridge University, Oxford University, Glasgow University.

The climate of Great Britain is mild. It is not too hot in summer or too cold in winter. It often rains in England. Many parts of the country have beautiful villages. There are many lonely hills, quiet rivers, deep lakes and just farmlands especially in the south of the country. There are many rivers in Great Britain. The main river is the Thames. Many ships and barges go up and down the river. The longest river is Severn. It is 350 kilometers long.

There are few public holidays in Great Britain. They are: Christmas Day, Easter, Boxing Day, New Year’s Day, St. Valentine’s Day, Guy Fawkes Day. The most popular holiday is Christmas. Every year the people of Norway give the city of London a present. It’s a big Christmas tree and it stands in Trafalgar Square. Central streets are beautifully decorated. Before Christmas, groups of singers go from house to house. They collect money for charity and sing carols, traditional Christmas songs. On Christmas day the Queen gives her traditional Christmas speech to the UK television.

It is common knowledge, that the English are very fond of tea. They like to have “a nice cup of tea” 6 or 8 times a day, sometimes even more.

On Christmas Day a roast turkey is traditionally cooked for dinner. It is usually followed by Christmas pudding.





THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

Russia is one of the largest countries in the world. It occupies about one- seventh part of dry land. It is situated in Europe and Asia. It total area is over 17 million square kilometers. The country is washed by seas and oceans. There are different types of climate on the territory of the country. Some parts of our country are covered with mountains and hills. There are rivers, lakes and forests in Russia. The longest rivers are the Volga in Europe and Yenisei and the Ob in Asia. The deepest lakes are the Baikal and the Ladoga. The water of the lake Baikal is the purest in the world. The Russian Federation is very rich in mineral resources, such as oil, natural gas, coal, iron, gold and others.

Moscow is the capital of Russia. It was founded in 1147. It is nice city. There are many places of interest on Moscow. You can see many museums, art galleries, theatres and monuments in our capital. People of our country are proud of the Moscow Kremlin. There are also many big beautiful cities in Russia: St. Petersburg, Rostov Veliky, Suzdal, Vladimir and others.

People in Russia have their own special traditions. One of them is Maslenitsa – the holiday, which lasts for a week, to say “goodbye” to winter. People celebrate it at the end of February or at the beginning of March. During this holiday they celebrate the end of winter and the beginning of spring. For this holiday people always cook pancakes (blini). They invite their friends and their nearest and dearest to see each other and eat pancakes with sour cream, caviar or butter, sugar, honey. The other favourite holidays in Russia are New Year, Christmas, Easter, Mother’s Day, Victory Day and others.

The main dishes of the traditional Russian menu are blini (pancakes), different soups (like shchi and borshch), pirozhki, pelmyeni. Russian people eat brown bread with nearly every meal. Russian people like to drink hot strong tea with a slice of lemon.

Usually tourists buy such traditional Russian souvenirs as Matryoshka dolls, beautifully painted plates and spoons from the village Khokhloma. Some tourists are more interested in badges, T-shirts, amber, furs, cavia and Russian ushanka- hats.

THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

The USA is one of the largest countries in the world. It is situated in the central part of the North American continent. The area of the USA is over nine million square kilometers. It is washed by the Pacific Ocean and by the Atlantic Ocean. The population of the United States is nearly 250 million people, most of the people live in towns. The biggest cities are Los Angeles, Chicago, New York, Las Vegas, Miami, Boston, San Francisco, Dallas.

People of different nationalities live in the USA. The capital of the country is Washington D. C. It was named in honor of the first President, George Washington. As the USA is a large country, the climate is different in the different regions of the country, for example, the Pacific coast is a region of mild winters and warm, dry summers, but the eastern region is watered with rainfall. The around the Great Lakes has changeable weather.

There are many mountains in the USA. For example, the highest peak of the Cordeliers in the USA is 4,418 meters.

The main rivers of the country is the Mississippi. But there are many other great rivers in the USA: the Colorado in the south and the Columbia in the north-west, and the Missouri. There are five Great Lakes between the USA and Canada.

The USA is the greatest capitalist country in the world. There are 50 states in the USA. Each of them has its own government.

The people of the United States are a mixture of many different nationalities. In the past, people from many different European countries came to the US and made one country out of many. These different people brought to their new land a wonderful mixture of customs and traditions. The German brought Christmas trees. The Irish brought St. Patrick’s Day celebrations. The Scots brought Halloween.
People like to celebrate Thanksgiving Day (with roast turkey and pumpkin pie) and Independence Day.


Краткое описание документа:

The United Kingdom consists of  four countries: England, Wales, Scotland and Northern  Ireland. The capitals of these parts are London, Cardiff, Edinburgh and Belfast. The official name of the country is The  United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. It’s too long, isn’t it? So usually people call it the UK or the United Kingdom.

  The UK is situated in the north-west coast of Europe between the Atlantic Ocean on the north and north-west and  the North Sea on the east.

The UK has an area of 94,249 square miles. The capital of the country is London. English is the official language. The population of the UK is nearly 60 million people. The population lives mostly in towns and cities. Many of them live in big industrial cities like London, Manchester, Liverpool.

  Stratford-upon-Avon is a small town in the middle of England, but it’s very famous. It’s the town where William Shakespeare was born. Every year 4 million tourists visit this place. They usually come to the well- known Royal Shakespeare Theatre- one of the biggest theatres in Britain.

 

  Brighton is a large town on the south coast of England. It is a popular place for holidays.

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