I want to say some words about my family. It is not very large , we are four: mother, father, sister and me. My mother is Natallya Vasilevna. She is 42. She is a talkative, energetic woman. She is a teacher.
My father is Vasiliy Ivanovich. He is 45. He works as a driver. He is clever and kind and rather optimistic. He has a good sense of humor.
My sister’s name is Alesya. She is 20. She is a student. She is rather beautiful. We spent a lot of time together, we are best friends.
From my point of view family is very important for every person.
I enjoy the honest and open relationship in my family. My parents and my sister are people I can trust and rely on.
In conclusion I want to say that there is no so-called “generation gap” in our family, though we may argue and disagree with each other. We can spend hours and hours talking about our family problems, fashion, views on education, people’s relations.
Family is very important for every person. I enjoy the honest and open relationship in my family.
We have some family traditions. But to my mind we haven’t got anything special in our family. All our family traditions are connected with some holidays. Apart from national holidays there are family holidays like birthdays, weddings and anniversaries. A birthday is always a happy event in our family. On these days we usually have a party. Friends and relatives come with flowers and gifts. Usually there is a dinner with plenty of delicious food. After the dinner we dance or sing, listen to music or just chat.
One more family tradition is spending summer holidays together either at the seaside or in the country, which I enjoy very much.
I’d like to become more independent from my parents in my future, but we’ll always be the best friends because my parents are the most important people in the world.
Family is very important for every person. Understanding between all members of the family is very necessary thing in family relationship.
I enjoy the honest and open relationship in my family. My parents are people I can trust and rely on.
In happy families parents are frank and honest with their children and children in their turn learn how to treat other people.
I like it when parents trust their children, give them enough freedom and respect them. I think these things make family relations warm and pleasant.
There is no so-called “generation gap” in our family, though we may argue and disagree with each other. We can spend hours and hours talking about our family problems, fashion, views on education, people’s relations, their ambitions.
Friendship and relationship with friends
Friendship is very important thing in people’s life. It is so nice to have a person you can rely on.
I have lots of friends around me. They make my life more interesting and enjoyable. But my best friend is Victotia. She is my classmate.
She is an attractive girl. Victoria is thin, slender and stylish. She has got a lovely dark hair, blue eyes with long eyelashes and a straight nose. She has got an attractive smile. She usually wears sweaters, skirts, dresses, jeans and trousers.
She is an active and energetic person. She is always kind and patient and never loses her temper. Victoria is a sort of person who can understand other people. She has a very good sense of humor. I respect my friend for her strong and cheerful character. It is very pleasant to be with her around.
Of course, we quarrel from time and argue over small things, but we are always make it up in the end. I think I’m lucky to have such a wonderful friend as Victoria.
Education plays a very important role in our life. We can say that Belarus has a developed system of education. It is divided into pre-school-education, school education and higher education Pre-school education is not compulsory in Belarus but around 70% of children attend nursery or kindergarten before they start school.
Most children in Belarus start school at the age of 6. At the age of 15 they pass their exams, but most pupils stay at school until they finish their high school education at 17-18.
At the age of 15, pupils that have successfully completed basic education can attend colleges.
After high school pupils may enter to the universities. There are two official languages within the education system: Russian and Belarusian.
Our system of education has been reforming now. The aim is to create an independent, qualitatively new national school.
Studying at school
I study at school №3. It’s three-storied building of a typical design. Behind the school there is a sport ground and a building of the University. On the sports-ground people have their classes in PE (physical education) when the weather is fine. They also have different competition here. In front of the school there are a lot of beautiful flower-beds.
There is a gym, a canteen, a cloak-room, classroom on Musics on the ground floor. Also there is a large hall on the ground floor where pupils have concerts and meetings.
The classrooms, the library, the Headmaster’s office are on the upper floors. On the walls of the corridors you can see different drawings, photos of the best pupils of the school. There are many light curtains on the windows and many flowers on the window-sills.
We have different subjects at school: Math, Chemistry, Biology, Russian, Russian literature, Belorussian, Belorussian literature. I am especially good at… Our teachers are polite and kind. They teach us to treat nature carefully, to be honest and hardworking,
I like my school very much.
My school life is connected not only with studies but with many other important things. When I think about my school years I recollect a lot of events. Many of them became traditions because they happen every year on the same dates. Some traditions are similar in all Belarusian schools, some are unique.
The school year starts on the 1st of September. This day is special for all: school children, their teachers and parents. The day starts with the school gathering when all classes and teachers stand in front of the school and listen to the welcoming speeches of their teachers, schoolmates and parents. Students look really nice in their new school uniforms.
Every year in September we have the opportunity to show our athletic skills and abilities during our Sports Day. Though we have Sports weeks every season this day is also among our favourite school traditions. There is a wide range of activities. It opens with a running race. Then we have competitions in different sports, we play sports games, run, jump, climb a wall. Everyone from the 1st to the 11th class takes part in some events. The day finishes with a Closing ceremony where winners get their prizes.
Of course we never forget to congratulate our teachers on Teacher’s Day. Some of our best students take part in School Olimpiads. Very soon we’ll have our last and traditional School leavers’ Party.
I think I will never forget my school, teachers, classmates and our school traditions.
Choosing a career
My name is Alina. I’ve 17 and now it is a time to seriously think about my future profession. It is probably one of the most serious decision you ever make. As for me I made my choice a couple of years ago. Since then I want to be an economist. I am going to enter in Polatsk State university. In my opinion the field I have chosen will be interesting and will bring me good job and good money. Now I am interested in economic situation in our country and abroad. By now I have an idea of such basic economic categories, such as demand and supply, dependence between price and supply, dependence between price and quality of goods, unemployment and so on. I hope I’ll be able to get profound knowledge and practical skills when I become a university student.
I want to contribute to the process of bringing Belarus to market economy and turning it into a country with high level standard. Belarus as a country in the center in the very center of Europe – most be equal partner with the rest of the word.
Life in the city and in the country
Life in the city is much easier than in the country - developed transport system, information, sports, shopping malls, etc. There is far more entertainment in the city than in the country. Cities offer high concentration of good things in life: big stores, restaurants, theatres, cinema, art galleries. Of course there are some disadvantages of living in a big cities such as the pollution and crime. Pollution is the greatest disadvantage of the city life of today. Polluted air is hanging like a brown cloud over cities. Dirt and smoke are pouring from the buildings of cites and factories.
As concerns living in the country we can say that there we can enjoy such simple things as sunlight and fresh air. Besides, living in the countryside is cheaper and safer than in a city. It provides people with more security. There is less crime and, of course, there is less traffic there. Life in the countryside is quiet, peaceful, and healthy. I like to be close to nature. Here people are friendly and it is much more pleasant in the countryside than in the city. Unfortunately, life in the countryside is rather hard. Working and living conditions are difficult, social and cultural life in the countryside is not full of entertainment
As for me I like city but sometimes it is pleasant to stay in the country for a while.
Different types of houses
We can hardly say that today there exist the problem of choosing a type of housing. Everyone can find something he or she likes.
There are many types of housing: detached houses, semi-detached houses, terraced houses and flats. Some of the detached houses are cottages and bungalows.
One advantage of a detached house is the fact that the free space surrounding the building is belongs to the family. You can do whatever you would like to be done in your house.
A semi-detached house is a pair of houses that share one common wall. The two houses are built to mirror each other. One advantage of living in a semi-detached house is that there is still some privacy even if one wall is shared by the two houses. A disadvantage is that you are responsible for the upkeep of your side of the house.
Terraced housing is also known as townhouses. One of the major advantages of terrace housing is that it is relatively cheaper than a semi-detached built in the same location. One great disadvantage is that there is typically no yard or garden that comes with a unit. As two walls are shared, there is less privacy too.
A flat or an apartment is a part of a larger building. Such building is called an apartment building or a block of flats.
Belarusian national cuisine
Food is obviously a very important part of peoples’ culture and if you want to understand the nation it is important to try national food.
Belarusian cuisine consists mostly of vegetables, meats and breads. The foods that are considered to be staples of Belarus include pork, cabbages, potatoes and bread. Traditional cooking methods are usually either slowly cooked or stewed food.
But the most popular Belarusian dish is draniki with machanka. Machanka is used as a traditional Belarusian sauce for draniki or blini. Most often it is made with pork, sausage, sliced onion, sour cream and flour.
Kvass is a type of soft drink that is made from either brown bread or rye flour that has been malted. Kvass can also be combined with sliced vegetables to create a cold soup called okroshka.
I think all these dishes will be rather tasty and unusual for a tourist.
National cuisine of an English-speaking country
Food is obviously a very important part of peoples’ culture and if you want to understand the nation it is important to try national food.
I’d like to tell some words about British food. Traditionally English people have three meals a day: breakfast, lunch and dinner. Breakfast is served in the morning. It used to be a large meal with cereal, eggs and bacon, sausages, tomatoes. But such a large breakfast takes a long time to prepare and is not very healthy. Nowadays, Britain's most popular breakfast consists of cereal, toast with marmalade, juice and yogurt with a cup of tea or coffee. Lunch is a light meal. Most people have no time to go back home for lunch so they eat at school, cafes, pubs or restaurants. The main meal is dinner, which is usually between 6 and 7 p.m. A typical evening meal is a meat dish with vegetables and dessert. The most important meal of the week is the Sunday dinner, which is usually eaten at 1 p.m. The traditional Sunday dish used to be roast beef, but nowadays pork, chicken or lamb are more common. On Sunday evenings people have supper or high tea. The famous British afternoon tea is becoming rare, except at weekends.
When we want to buy something, we go to a shop. There are many kinds of shops in every town or city, but most of them have a food supermarket, a department store, men's and women's clothing stores, grocery, a bakery and a butchery.I like to do my shopping at big department stores and supermarkets. They sell various goods under one roof and this is very convenient.
Leisure time (My hobbies)
Every person needs rest after work, free time. Most people have hobbies.
Hobbies differ like tastes. They are divided into 4 large classes: making things, doing things, collecting things and learning things.
If you ask me how I usually spend my leisure time, I can say that I play volleyball, play the guitar, read for pleasure, listen to music or spend time with my best friend.
I think I am a sporty person. Every Thursday I have volleyball classes.
I like reading. I prefer to read defective stories most of all.
I am fond of listening to music. Music helps me to relax.
Also I like to spend my free time with my friend. We watch movies, listen to music or go for a walk.
In conclusion I should say that without leisure activities life becomes dull and boring.
Belarusian customs and traditions
Belarus has deep historical roots in the past that’s why its customs and traditions often have a long history. Belarusian holidays and traditions can be classified according to four seasons: spring, summer, autumn and winter.
In spring we celebrate such holiday as Calling of Spring. One of the greatest Christian holidays is Easter. On this day people paint eggs and make special pies.
The greatest fest in summer is Kupalle. The most important part of this celebration is great fire.
Autumn has its holidays. They traditionally connected with the end of the harvesting time. In the late autumn we have Dziady. It is the day of memory of the dead relatives.
In winter the most important holidays is New Year and Christmas.
In conclusion I should say that the Belarusian people are proud of their traditions and carefully observe them.
Customs and traditions of an English-speaking country
British customs and traditions are famous all over the world. England has preserved its old ceremonies and traditions. Most of this traditions have been kept from up without any changes since 13 century.
There are only six public holidays a year in Great Britain. They are Christmas, Boxing Day, Good Friday, Easter Monday, Spring Bank holiday, Summer Bank holiday.
Besides public holidays there are some traditional ones, for example
Pancake day and Bonfire Night, Halloween.
Some English traditions concerns with private life of people. For example, the British like to speak about weather, like gardening.
In conclusion I should say that the British people are proud of their traditions and carefully observe them.
Modern means of communication
According to dictionary communication is sending, giving and exchanging information, ideas. Thus talking about means of communication we can name telephone, telegraph, television, radio, and internet and so on.
Mobile phones and internet are the most modern and wide-spread means of communication. The mobile phone is very useful devise. Thanks to it I can call people I need: my parents, my friends, and my teachers .With the help of new mobile phones we can also send and receive emails, and text-messages, watch TV, listen to music, take photos.
Personal computers are used in every field today. Emails have replaced letters and postcards almost completely. Skype has become one of the popular means of communication. A lot of people especially teenagers communicate in social networks such as vkontacte, facebook, twitter, odnoklasniki. They share the news, pictures, funny videos, jokes, songs and so on.
In conclusion I should say that modern means of communication will never replace real face-to-face communication.
A healthy way of life
I believe that health is better than wealth. In order to be healthy we should avoid bad habits such as smoking and drinking alcohol, taking drugs, eating unhealthy food. We should eat more fresh vegetables and fruit. If we eat too much we start to put on weight, that leads to serious health problems.
Regular exercises are essential part of our life. I believe it is very important for people to have some regular exercises. It will help you to stay physically fit and keep a good shape.
Regular sleeping habits are also important. Staying late hours is not good for our health.
As concerns me I am going in for sport that helps me to keep fit.
In conclusion I would like to say that we should take a good care of our health, because health can’t be bought for money.
People all over the world are fond of sports and games. Sport makes people healthy, keeps them fit, more organized and better disciplined. Many people do sports on their personal initiative. They go in for skiing, skating, table tennis, swimming, volleyball, football, bodybuilding. All necessary facilities are provided for them: stadiums, sport grounds, swimming pools, skating rinks, skiing stations, football fields. Sport is paid much attention to in our educational establishments. Physical culture is a compulsory subject at schools and colleges.
Professional sport is also paid much attention to in our republic. There are different sporting societies clubs and complexes. They are used for international and world competitions.
Practically all kinds of sports are popular in our republic but hokey; athletics, biathlon, tennis enjoy the greatest popularity.
As for me, I go in for hokey, football, athletics…. It needs mobility, liveliness and much energy. It keeps a person in a good form.
Fashion is something we deal with every day. It is the language which tells the story about the person who wears it. We often judge people by what they are wearing.
In our modern society fashion models, singers, musicians, dancers, actors and sportsmen are the idols of thousands of teenagers who try to copy them in the way they dress, walk and style their hair. Some women believe that wearing a lot of make-up, having long nails and long eyelashes make them pretty. Some people makes tattoos, pierce different part of body, to follow the fashion. I think it looks ugly.
From my point of view it is always important to remember the main rules of politeness, that there are different styles of clothes for different types of event.
As for me fashion is not the most important part of my life but it helps me to be the part of our modern word. My favorite pieces of clothes are blue jeans and T-shirts of different colours. I think it is very fashionable and convenient
A wise proverb says: “People meet by clothes and set off by mind” And I fully agree with it.
Millions of people all over the world spend their holidays traveling. They travel to see other continents, modern cities and the ruins of ancient towns, they travel to enjoy picturesque places, or just for a change of scene. It's always interesting to discover new things, different ways of life, to meet different people, to try different food, to listen to different musical rhythms. Those who live in the country like to go to a big city and spend their time visiting museums and art galleries, looking at shop windows and dining at exotic restaurants. City-dwellers usually like a quiet holiday by the sea or in the mountains, with nothing to do but walk and bathe and laze in the sun. Most travelers and holiday-makers take a camera with them and take pictures of everything that interests them - the sights of a city, old churches and castles, views of mountains, lakes, valleys, plains, waterfalls, forests; different kinds of trees, flowers and plants, animals and birds. Later, perhaps years later, they will be reminded by the photos of the happy time they have had. People travel by train, by plane, by boat, by car, by bike and on foot. People travel to have a holidays or to have business. If people have business trips they choose the fastest transport. They often travel by plane or by train. It is very expensive but it is very fast. And if people want to have a rest they choose traveling by boat, by car, on horseback and etc. When you travel by car or by bike you can stop where you want. All means of travel have their advantages and disadvantages. And people choose one according to their plans and destinations. If we are fond of traveling, we see and learn a lot of things that we can never see or learn at home, though we may read about them in books and newspapers, and see pictures of them on TV. The best way to study geography is to travel, and the best way to get to know and understand people is to meet them in their own homes. The best way to study geography is to travel, and the best way to get to know and understand people is to meet them in their own homes.
Environment is the nature around us: air, water, trees, flowers, animals, birds. Now people are more worried about the environment because of the harmful effects of human activity.
One of the most important ecological problems is the water pollution. Many sea birds die because of the polluted water. People may get sick from eating them. Lakes and rivers are becoming polluted, too. Some beaches are dangerous for swimming.
The second important problem is air pollution. Cars and factories pollute the air we use. They also destroys the ozone layer which protects the Earth from the dangerous light of the Sun.
Another problem is that our forests are dying from acid rain. Deforestation, especially destruction of tropical forests, affects the balance of nature in many ways. It kills animals, changes the climate and ecosystem in the world.
The most important ecological problem for our country is the result of
of the Chernobyl . About 18 percent of the territory of Belarus was contaminated with radioactive substances.
Weather and climate
Climate is the weather that a certain place has over a long period of time. Climate has a very important influence on plants, animals and humans and is different in different parts of the world.
Belarus has a temperate-continental climate with hat summer and cold winter.
If to speak about Great Britain the weather is very changeable. One day may be fine and the next day may be wet.
Some scientists think that the world is becoming hotter. Winters have become warmer. Sometimes there is little snow in January, and there were winters when it rained on the New Year’s Eve.
Many people say that it is so because of the greenhouse effect. During the last 100 years people have produced a lot of carbon dioxide. This gas in the atmosphere works like glass in a greenhouse. It lets heat get in, but it doesn’t let much heat get out. So the atmosphere becomes warmer.
These changes can be dangerous for our planet, which needs protection. Earth is millions of years old, much older than the humans. We know many of its secrets. Yet there is still much to learn.
The Republic of Belarus
The Republic of Belarus is a small, beautiful country. It is situated in Eastern Europe. The Republic borders on Russia, the Ukraine, Poland, Lithuania and Latvia. It has a population of more than 10 million. The largest cities are Minsk (the capital), Gomel, Brest, Vitebsk, Grodno and Mogilev.
Belarus is a land of vast plains and picturesque hills, thick forests and green meadows, deep blue lakes and flowing rivers. One third of the republic's territory is covered with forests. The largest of them are called pushchas. The longest rivers are the Dnieper, the Nieman, the Western Dvina, the Pripyat and the Bug. The largest of the lakes is the Naroch, the pride of the republic. It is very popular recreation area in our country.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is situated on the British Isles. The British Isles consist of two large islands, Great Britain and Ireland, and a great number of small islands. The UK consists of four parts: England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland.
The British Isles are separated from the European continent by the North Sea and the English Channel. The northern and western parts of the country is mountainous and is called the Highlands. All the rest is a vast plain which is called the Lowlands.
Most of the rivers flow into the North Sea. The Thames is the deepest and the longest of the British rivers.
Great Britain is a highly industrialized country. The main industrial centres are London, Birmingham, Manchester, Leeds, Liverpool, Glasgow and Bristol.
The population of the United Kingdom is over 58 million people.
The capital of the country is London. The United Kingdom is parliamentary monarchy and the Queen is the head of the state.
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