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Медицинские тексты по теме "Инфекционные заболевания"

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Chickenpox (varicella) is a common contagious illness caused by a type of herpes virus. Chickenpox is most contagious from 2 to 3 days before a rash develops until blisters have crusted over.

Chickenpox is most common in children and is usually not serious. In teenagers, adults, pregnant women, and people who have impaired immune systems, chickenpox can be more serious.

The incubation period—the time from exposure to the chickenpox virus until a person develops symptoms—is usually 14 to 16 days but can be from 10 to 21 days. Symptoms of chickenpox include a fever, feeling ill, and the development of a widely scattered, itching rash with fluid-filled blisters. The blisters burst and crust over after several days. New blisters continue to develop for up to a week. A person infected with chickenpox can spread the virus before developing any symptoms.

Treatment for chickenpox focuses on preventing the person from scratching the rash and on relieving fever and discomfort. A vaccine to prevent chickenpox is available and recommended for children and for teens and adults who have not had chickenpox.

INFLUENZA is an acute respiratory illness caused by infection with influenza viruses. It affects all age groups round the year. Influenza, usually known as the flu, is a respiratory infection caused by one of the influenza viruses that typically is spread by air or by direct contact. Most cases occur during epidemics, which peak during the winter months nearly every year. A particularly widespread and severe epidemic is called a pandemic. Most people recover without problems, but sometimes the illness leads to a bacterial infection, such as an ear infection, sinus infection , or bronchitis . Good home treatment may help prevent these infections. The virus can cause infections all year round, but it's most common in the winter in the UK. Anyone can get the flu and the more a person is in close contact with people who have the virus, the more likely they are to get it.

Influenza viruses are designated as Influenza A, B or C depending on the antigenic characteristics of the particular virus. Influenza occurs in epidemic forms in India particularly during a change of season. Influenza (flu) is a viral upper respiratory illness that comes on suddenly, causing symptoms such as fever, body aches, headache, fatigue, loss of appetite, a dry cough, and a sore or dry throat. The flu is not the same as the common cold; flu symptoms are usually more severe, and you will often miss more work or school than you would with a cold.

The flu is a contagious infection of the nose, throat, and lungs caused by the influenza virus. In people, common symptoms of influenza are fever , sore throat , muscle pains , severe headache , coughing , and weakness and fatigue .Most people who have developed symptoms have had close contact with sick birds, though in a few cases, bird flu has passed from one person to another. The flu is not the same as the common cold; flu symptoms are usually more severe, and you will often miss more work or school than you would with a cold. Influenza can also be transmitted by saliva , nasal secretions , feces and blood . Infections either occur through direct contact with these bodily fluids, or by contact with contaminated surfaces. The symptoms, which include fever, headache, cough, sore throat and muscle aches, appear quickly Influenza Report has also been published in Chinese, Croatian, German, Indonesian, Mongolian, Serbian, and Slovenian . Health officials are concerned that a major bird flu outbreak could occur in humans if the virus mutates into a form that can spread more easily from person to person.People at increased risk for complications that require hospitalization are young children, adults age 65 and older, and those with serious medical problems. Influenza also may cause myositis, exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease , Reye's syndrome, myocarditis , pericarditis , transverse myelitis and encephalitis.

Influenza is a viral infection of the lungs characterized by fever, cough, and severe muscle aches. Although the common cold is sometimes confused with influenza, it is a much less severe disease and caused by a different virus. In more serious cases, influenza causes pneumonia, which can be fatal, particularly in young children and the elderly. If you wish to be informed about new chapters or editions, you may subscribe to the Influenza Report Alert . It can cause mild to severe illness, and at times can lead to death. The grimmest scenario would be a global outbreak to rival the flu pandemic of 1918 and 1919, which claimed millions of lives worldwide. Influenza usually appears in epidemic form and affects many people at once. Although it affects all age groups, the highest incidence occurs in school children.

Malaria is a disease transmitted by the bite of infected Anopheles mosquitoes. In spite of India's National Malaria Eradication programme, this disease which had been under control has suddenly made a comeback. The resurgence of malaria is now a heavy burden on India. Most American cases of malaria develop in travelers who have recently returned from parts of the world where malaria is widespread. These prophylactic drug treatments are simply too expensive for most people living in endemic areas. Malaria infections are treated through the use of antimalarial drugs , such as chloroquine or pyrimethamine , although drug resistance is increasingly common.

Malaria is an infectious disease that is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions. Approximately 300 million people worldwide are affected by malaria and between 1 and 1.5 million people die from it every year. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. Of these areas, sub-Saharan Africa has the highest occurrence of P falciparum transmission to travelers from the US. Malaria-carrying Anopheles species mosquitoes tend to bite only between dusk and dawn. Malaria is one of the most common infectious diseases and an enormous public-health problem. Malaria remains one of the world's leading infectious killers, particularly of children in sub-Saharan Africa. The disease is caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium . The situation has become even more complex over the last few years with the increase in resistance to the drugs normally used to combat the parasite that causes the disease.

Malaria is the most deadly vector borne disease in the world. Malaria is an infection of the blood that is carried from person to person by mosquitoes. Each year in the U.S., there are an average of 1000 imported infections; a few cases of locally acquired, mosquito-transmitted infection from an imported case; and an average of four deaths from falciparum malaria. The parasites multiply within red blood cells , causing symptoms that include fever , anemia , chills , flu-like illness , and in severe cases, coma and death. Malaria-causing Plasmodium species metabolize hemoglobin and other RBC proteins to create a toxic pigment termed hemozoin . The parasites derive their energy solely from glucose, and they metabolize it 70 times faster than the RBCs they inhabit, thereby causing hypoglycemia and lactic acidosis. Unfortunately, no vaccine is currently available for malaria. Instead preventative drugs must be taken continuously to reduce the risk of infection If you're traveling to malaria-endemic places take precautions before, during and after your trip. Treatment for malaria is with antimalarial drugs.

Measles is an acute febrile eruption, which is a worldwide phenomenon. It is an extremely infectious disease. It occurs in children in epidemics especially during the first eight years. In India it is common during the months of January-March. A virus causes measles. Measles are also called Rubeola. Measles is a contagious disese of children. Measles rarely strikes adults, but if it does, it leaves them prostrated for quite some time - more common in warm than in cold weather.

Measles , also known as rubeola , is a disease caused by a virus , specifically a paramyxovirus of the genus Morbillivirus . It causes a total-body skin rash and flu-like symptoms, including a fever, cough, and runny nose. Measles is a leading vaccine-preventable childhood killer in the world. Millions of children still remain at risk from measles and many children, particularly under the age of five, will die from it. Measles is spread through respiration (contact with fluids from an infected person's nose and mouth, either directly or through aerosol transmission), and is highly contagious—90% of people without immunity sharing a house with an infected person will catch it. As a respiratory disease, measles virus normally grows in the cells that line the back of the throat and in the cells that line the lungs. However, vaccination programs are incomplete in much of the world, but global health organizations are working hard to address this problem. In fact, experts estimate that 10% of young adults are currently susceptible to rubella, which could pose a danger to any children they might have someday. The widespread nature of the disease is why vaccination programs are still necessary in countries where few cases of measles occur.

The thought of measles may bring to mind the red, blotchy rash that often accompanies this disorder. Since measles is caused by a virus, symptoms typically go away on their own without medical treatment once the virus has run its course. Because of the Measles Initiative's success in Africa, the program has expanded into Asia, where the measles burden remains high. Reports of measles go back to at least 600 BCE, however, the first scientific description of the disease and its distinction from smallpox is attributed to the Persian physician Ibn Razi (Rhazes) 860-932 who published a book entitled "Smallpox and Measles" (in Arabic: Kitab fi al-jadari wa-al-hasbah ). Before a vaccine against rubella became available in 1969, rubella epidemics occurred every 6 to 9 years. Kids ages 5 to 9 were primarily affected, and many cases of congenital rubella occurred as well. Approximately 30 million to 40 million cases of measles occur worldwide each year, resulting in more than 750,000 deaths. But while your child is sick, it's important to make sure that he or she has plenty of fluids and rest, and to keep your child from spreading the infection to others. Similar to rubeola, lifetime immunity usually occurs after you have rubella.

Mumps is an acute communicable disease of viral origin characterised by painful enlargement of the parotid glands. Mumps is common in children between the age of 5-9 years. One attack of mumps gives lifelong immunity. The disease has been recognized for several centuries, and medical historians argue over whether the name "mumps" comes from an old word for "lump" or an old word for "mumble." As a secondary language feature, you can abbreviate nearly all commands and native functions to a single character to save space; this was a common feature of languages designed in this period (eg, early BASICs). Outbreaks of mumps still occur in the United States, and mumps is still common in many parts of the world, so getting a vaccination to prevent mumps is important.

Mumps is an acute , contagious disease that causes painful swelling of the salivary glands. It was designed to make writing database-driven applications easy while simultaneously making efficient use of computing resources. These glands, which produce saliva for the mouth, are found toward the back of each cheek, in the area between the ear and jaw. Your odds of contracting mumps aren't very high. Mumps was common until the mumps vaccine was licensed in 1967. The virus is contagious for about a week before the disease breaks out, which can make it difficult to track down the source of infection. MUMPS has no data types. Numbers can be treated as strings of digits, or strings can be treated as numbers by numeric operators ( coerced , in MUMPS terminology). Coercion can have some odd side effects, however. As in the prevaccine era, most cases of mumps are still in children ages 5 to 14, but the proportion of young adults who become infected has been rising slowly over the last two decades. A single space separates a command from its argument, and a space, or newline, separates each argument from the next MUMPS token. Commands which take no arguments (eg, ELSE ) require two following spaces.

Mumps is a disease caused by a virus that usually spreads through saliva and can infect many parts of the body, especially the parotid salivary glands. Mumps is a viral infection that primarily affects the parotid glands — one of three pairs of salivary glands, located below and in front of your ears. Additionally, there are built-in operators which treat a delimited string (eg, comma-separated values ) as an array. Before the vaccine, up to 200,000 cases of mumps occurred each year in the United States. Since then, the number of cases has dropped dramatically. The conceit is that one space separates the command from the (nonexistent) argument, the next separates the "argument" from the next command. Newlines are also significant; an IF , ELSE or FOR command processes (or skips) everything else till the end-of-line. However, other infections can also cause swelling in the salivary glands, which might lead a parent to mistakenly think a child has had mumps more than once.

Plague is an acute disease caused by Yersina pestis. It is one of the most lethal infectious disease known. The plague bacteria is present in India where rodent menace exists. It is transmitted to humans typically by the bite of a flea. Plague may be known as bubonic, septicemic or pneumonic. Plague bacteria could conceivably be put into a form that could be sprayed through the air, infecting anyone inhaling the bacteria and causing pneumonic plague. In 2003, 9 countries reported 2118 cases and 182 deaths. 98.7% of those cases and 98.9% of those deaths were reported from Africa. Today the distribution of plague coincides with the geographical distribution of its natural foci.

Plague in populated areas is most likely to develop when sanitation is poor and rats are numerous. The high death rate from plague in rats forces their fleas to seek alternative hosts including humans. The plague bacteria uses rat fleas for its development which is spread by the flea to its natural host the rat. Plague is a severe, and potentially deadly, infection. It has laid claim to nearly 200 million lives and has brought about monumental changes, such as the end of the Dark Ages and the advancement of clinical research in medicine.

The plague has caused more fear and terror than perhaps any other infectious disease in the history of humankind. The incidence is the number of new cases of a disease that occur within a defined population over an established period of time. Frequently either prevalence or incidence, or both, are given as a rate , meaning the number of cases in a fixed number of people, e.g., cases per 100,000. Individual cases of disease in widely separated geographic areas or otherwise independent cases are said to be sporadic . In people, plague has three forms: Bubonic plague, infection of the lymph glands; septicemia plague, infection of the blood; and pneumonic plague, infection of the lungs. More recent pandemics through the late 19th century killed millions of people worldwide. Improved living conditions and health services have made such large-scale outbreaks of natural plague unlikely, but occasional isolated plague cases continue.

Plague is a life-threatening infection caused by the organism Yersinia pestis, the bacterium that caused the 14th-century Black Death plague pandemic. The bacteria multiply inside the flea, sticking together to form a plug that blocks its stomach and causes it to become very hungry. The flea then voraciously bites a host and continues to feed, even though it is unable to satisfy its hunger. The Black Death was one of the great epidemic scourges of mankind. It swept across Europe and Asia in a series of devastating pandemics during the Middle Ages. Septicaemic form of plague occurs when infection spreads directly through the bloodstream without evidence of a "bubo". More commonly advanced stages of bubonic plague will result in the presence of Y. pestis in the blood. Septicaemic plague may result from flea bites and from direct contact with infective materials through cracks in the skin.

Polio is a condition caused by the poliovirus. Polio is a serious public health problem in India. One a person is exposed to polio, it usually takes about three to five days for symptoms to appear. Polio is a serious illness. It can cause paralysis (when you can't move your arms and legs) or even death. Thanks to the success of a global immunisation programme, polio has now been eradicated from most countries in the world and will hopefully soon be a thing of the past. Polio is a very serious disease, which can lead to paralysis or even death. One a person is exposed to polio, it usually takes about three to five days for symptoms to appear. However, from the digestive tract (stomach and intestines), the virus also can get into the blood stream and be carried to the nervous system (brain and spinal cord). The killed-virus vaccine immunized people against the effects of the virus, but the virus could still spread from person to person.

The polio virus has an affinity for the central nervous system, which they usually reach by passage across the blood-brain barrier. Also the motor nerves supplying muscles are particularly vulnerable to infection. However, those who were struck by the virus and survived may find that years later they're victims of a second strike. If the virus gets into the brainstem (bulbar polio), muscles needed for breathing, swallowing and other vital functions become paralyzed, and the patient may die.

Polio is a viral disease which may affect the central nervous system. Polio (also called poliomyelitis ) is a contagious, historically devastating disease that was virtually eliminated from the Western hemisphere in the second half of the 20th century. In about one of every hundred infected persons, the virus attacks nerves inside the spine that send messages to muscles in arms, legs and other areas. This can result in partial or complete paralysis. At the height of the polio epidemic in 1952, nearly 60,000 cases with more than 3,000 deaths were reported in the United States alone Initial attempts to develop a vaccine were hampered by the difficulty of obtaining enough virus. In about 5 percent of cases, the polio virus manifests in a mild form ( abortive polio ) with flu-like symptoms, in a nonparalytic form (aseptic meningitis) or in a severe form called paralytic polio. People who have minor or nonparalytic forms recover completely.

The poliovirus causes most of its infections in the summer and fall. The injected vaccine, acting through the bloodstream, immunizes the individual but does not reduce the potential for spreading the wild virus. Second, because the oral vaccine acts in the gut, it confers immunity there and reduces the spread of the wild virus. Polio is a very serious disease, which can lead to paralysis or even death .Although polio has plagued humans since ancient times, its most extensive outbreak occurred in the first half of the 1900s before the vaccination , created by Jonas Salk, became widely available in 1955.

Rabies is an acute viral disease of the central nervous system that affects all mammals. It is transmitted by infected secretions usually saliva. Most exposures to rabies are through the bite of an infected animal. Treatment consists of treatment to the wound plus a series of rabies shots, which prevent symptoms and death resulting from rabies infection. If you think you've been exposed to an animal with rabies, call your doctor as soon as possible Fortunately, rabies can be prevented with a vaccine and, if you have been bitten, there is every chance that you can be treated before the symptoms develop. Rabies may also spread through exposure to infected domestic farm animals, groundhogs , weasels and other wild carnivores Any animal bites - even those that don't involve rabies - can lead to infections and other medical problems. As a precaution, you may want to call your child's doctor any time your child has been bitten.

Rabies is a frequently fatal, acute viral infection. Rabies is a serious viral disease that affects the central nervous system. It is transmitted to people from infected mammals. Treatment of an infected person as critical. In non-vaccinated humans, rabies is almost invariably fatal after neurological symptoms have developed, but prompt post-exposure vaccination may prevent the virus from progressing. Very rarely, rabies has been transmitted by exposures other than bites that introduce the virus into open wounds or mucous membranes. A twitching around the animal bite, a trademark symptom of rabies, may appear in addition to a fever above 105 degrees Fahrenheit (40.5 degrees Celsius), agitation, and hallucinations. People are most often infected by the bite of a dog, bat or monkey. In Europe the virus is mainly carried by the fox. None of the 22 imported cases received post-exposure prophylactic treatment for rabies either in the country of origin or in the UK. In 2003 it was recognised that UK bats may carry a rabies-like virus, European Bat Lyssavirus 2 (EBL2).

Although rabies infections in people are rare, they can cause serious health problems. But if you recognize the warning signs of a rabies infection early and get medical help, your child can make a full recovery. The virus is transmitted in saliva from the bite of an infected animal. Rabies primarily attacks the nervous system and causes an encephalitis After a bite by a rabid animal, a child may develop a fever, headache, and general malaise. If someone gets bitten by an animal that has rabies, quick treatment can prevent the illness. Most rabies cases reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) each year occur in wild animals, including raccoons, skunks and foxes. Infected bats have transmitted most of the recent rabies cases in people in the United States.

Rubella is a three-day mild measles. However, if a pregnant woman gets it, it may lead to seriousfetal infection and malformation. It is caused by the rubella virus. Most rubella infections today appear in young, non-immunized adults rather than children. In fact, experts estimate that 10% of young adults are currently susceptible to rubella, which could pose a danger to any children they might have someday.

Rubella can occur in susceptible persons by natural influx of the virus via the nasopharynx. Congenita lrubella results from the transplacental transmission of the virus to the fetus from the infected mother and may be associated with growth retardation, infiltration of the liver and spleen, and pneumonia.

Rubella is not as contagious as measles. However, once a person has rubella, she/he has immunityfor life. Even though it is a mild childhood illness CRS causes many birth defects. Deafness is the most common, but CRS can also cause defects in the eyes, heart, and brain. Rubella outbreaks once were common in the United States. In fact, experts estimate that 10% of young adults are currently susceptible to rubella, which could pose a danger to any children they might have someday.

Rubella is a contagious viral infection with mild symptoms associated with a rash. Rubella -commonly known as German measles or 3-day measles - is an infection that primarily affects the skin and lymph nodes. It is often mild and an attack can pass unnoticed. However, this can make the virus difficult to diagnose. The virus usually enters the body through the nose or throat . Rubella and measles are both contagious viral infections best known by the distinctive red rash that may appear on the skin of those who contract either illness. However, rubella is neither as infectious nor usually as severe as measles, which is why rubella is also called three-day measles. Kids ages 5 to 9 were primarily affected, and many cases of congenital rubella occurred as well. If the mother is infected within the first 20 weeks of pregnancy, the baby will have congenital rubella syndrome .

Rubella is usually a mild viral illness involving the skin, the lymph nodes, and, less commonly, the joints.When a woman is infected with the rubella virus early in pregnancy, she has a 90% chance of passing the virus on to her fetus. It is caused by the rubella virus ( not the same virus that causes measles), which is usually transmitted by droplets from the nose or throat that others breathe in.There is one important exception: If a pregnant woman contracts rubella, especially during her first trimester, the virus can cause death or serious birth defects in the developing fetus. It is characterized by a rash, swollen glands and, especially in adults, joint pain. The rash usually lasts about three days and may be accompanied by a low fever. The name German measles has nothing to do with Germany . It comes from the Latin germanus , meaning "similar", since rubella and measles share many symptoms.



Tetanus is a neuralgic disorder, characterised by increased muscle tension and spasms (Trismus). The disease is caused by a bacteria called clostridium tetani. This organism is foundin soil and in animal feces. This disease is commonin rural areas of India where soil is cultivated. Before immunizations (vaccines, or shots that are given to help the body fight certain illnesses) were available, neonatal tetanus was a common cause of newborn death because the disease is almost always fatal in infants. Prior to immunizations, neonatal tetanus was much more common in the United States. Now, routine immunizations for tetanus produce antibodies that mothers pass to their unborn babies. These maternal antibodies and sanitary cord-care techniques have made newborn tetanus very rare in developed countries. Tetanus may be fatal despite treatment. The disease is rare in the United States, with less than 100 cases of tetanus reported annually.

Tetanus in the unimmunised follows an acute injury, open wound, lacerations and abrasions. In developing countries of Africa, Asia, and South America, tetanus is far more common. Because of improved surgical procedures and techniques for cutting the umbilical cord, however, newborn tetanus is now rare in developed countries. Starting at 2 months of age, all babies in the United States are routinely vaccinated against tetanus. If deposited in a wound, the bacteria can produce a toxin that interferes with the nerves controlling your muscles. Localized tetanus presents itself as a mild condition with manifestations restricted to muscles near the wound. It may progress to the generalized form.

Tetanus injury in most cases is trivial. All age groups are involved. Wounds may get contaminated with the spores of the organism. The spores germinate within the wound and toxin is produced.This toxin binds to the peripheral nerves and is transported thereafter to the spinal cordand the brain.

Tetanus is a medical term indicating a prolonged contraction of skeletal muscle fibers. Tetanus is a serious bacterial disease that leads to stiffness of your jaw muscles and other muscles. It typically arises from a skin wound that becomes contaminated by a bacterium called Clostridium tetani , which is often found in soil. A cut, puncture wound, laceration or other wound can lead to a tetanus infection and toxin production if you don't have immunity. It can also travel to other parts of the body through the bloodstream and lymph system. As it circulates more widely, the toxin interferes with the normal activity of nerves throughout the body, leading to generalized muscle spasms. These bacteria produce the toxin (poison), tetanospasmin, which is responsible for causing tetanus. This poison affects the place where nerves and muscles meet.

Tetanus is a disease caused by the toxin of the bacterium Clostridium tetani that affects the central nervous system , sometimes resulting in death. Infection usually originates from a contaminated wound, often a cut or deep puncture wound. Once the bacteria are in the body, they produce a neurotoxin (a protein that acts as a poison to the body's nervous system) known as tetanospasmin that causes muscle spasms. Common symptoms are muscle spasms in the jaw (hence the common name lockjaw ), followed by difficulty swallowing and general muscle stiffness of other parts of the body In the United States, because of widespread immunization and careful wound care, the annual number of cases among children is between 50-100 cases.

Typhoid Fever disease is caused by a bacteria called Salmonella typhi. It is a common diseasein the sub continent and affects all age groups. The poor hygiene conditions, open sanitation habits, flies, sale of exposed food, and illiteracy is responsible for this disease.The incubation period is 3 to 60 days. The disease is transmitted from human to human via food or drinking water, and it is therefore mainly hygiene and sanitary conditions that determine its spread. Vaccines against typhoid fever are available, but they're only partially effective and are usually reserved for people who may be exposed to the disease or are traveling to areas where typhoid fever is endemic. Typhoid fever is still common in the developing world, where it affects about 12.5 million persons each year. Inflammation of the small and large intestine follows. In severe infections, which can be life threatening, sores may develop in the small intestine.

Typhoid fever is an illness caused by the bacterium Salmonella Typhi . Since ancient times, these bacteria have thrived during wartime and during the breakdown of basic sanitation. It can be life-threatening, but antibiotics are an effective treatment. Today, typhoid fever is rare in industrialized countries, although it remains a serious health threat in the developing world. The bacteria is deposited in water or food by a human carrier, and is then spread to other people in the area. It is recognized by the sudden onset of sustained fever, severe headache, nausea and severe loss of appetite. It is sometimes accompanied by hoarse cough and constipation or diarrhoea. When treated with antibiotics, most people feel better within a few days, although a small percentage - especially older adults and those with chronic diseases - may die of complications. The bacteria then multiply in the blood stream of the infected person and are absorbed into the digestive tract and eliminated with the waste.

In the year 1906, 3,000 New York state residents contracted typhoid fever, a contagious and life-threatening bacterial illness. Classic typhoid fever is a serious disease. This improvement is the result of improved environmental sanitation. Mexico and South America are the most common areas for U.S. citizens to contract typhoid fever. The disease is transmitted from human to human via food or drinking water, and it is therefore mainly hygiene and sanitary conditions that determine its spread. Typhoid fever spreads through contaminated food and water or through close contact with someone who's infected. Case-fatality rates of 10% can be reduced to less than 1% with appropriate antibiotic therapy. Paratyphoid fever shows similar symptoms, but tends to be milder and the case-fatality rate is much lower.

Whooping Cough is an acute infection of the respiratory tract, seen only in children. It is typically a prolonged illness with an average duration of 6-8 weeks. The incubation period is 7-10 days. Anyone can get whooping cough, but the health effects are usually much worse for children less than a year old. In Canada, whooping cough now kills one to three infants per year, usually those who are unvaccinated, or under-vaccinated. With proper care, most teenagers and adults recover from whooping cough without complications. Whooping cough is more serious in children, especially infants younger than 6 months of age.

Whooping cough - known medically as pertussis -is a highly contagious respiratory tract infection. Pertussis, also called whooping cough, is caused by Bordetella pertussis bacteria and is extremely contagious. Before a vaccine was available, pertussis killed 5,000 to 10,000 people in the United States each year. In the more advanced stages, it's marked by the symptom that gives the disease its name: a severe, hacking cough followed by a high-pitched intake of breath that sounds like "whoop." Worldwide, there were over 45 million cases of whooping cough and 409,000 deaths in 1997—making this easy-to-prevent disease one of the leading causes of illness and death. Pertussis vaccine is most commonly given in combination with the vaccines for diphtheria and tetanus in the vaccine known as “DPT.” Today only a few get whooping cough. Treatment of whooping cough is supportive, meaning that treatment is directed at the symptoms, e.g., cough; however, young infants often need hospitalization if the coughing becomes severe.

Whooping cough - or pertussis - is an infection of the respiratory system caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis (or B. pertussis ). Although it initially resembles an ordinary cold, whooping cough may eventually turn more serious, particularly in infants. The bacterium responsible for the infection, Bordetella pertussis, was not isolated until 1906. Each year, 5,000-7,000 cases of whooping cough (pertussis) are recorded each year in the United States. Whooping cough is the most common vaccine-preventable disease among children younger than 5 years in the United States. Symptoms of the infection include prolonged, violent, coughing spasms that often cause thick mucus and severe inhaling difficulties. Since then, however, the incidence of whooping cough has been increasing, primarily among children too young to have completed the full course of vaccinations and teenagers whose immunity has faded .

Chicken Pox is a highly contagious condition. It affects both of all age groups. It is however a common occurrence amongst children of 3-8 years of age. Immunity for life. Adult chicken pox is rare. But when it occurs it can be a serious attack with complications. Chickenpox spreads in tiny droplets of saliva and nasal mucus coughed out by an infected person. If a woman comes into contact with chickenpox or shingles when pregnant, there's no problem if she's had it before, because this gives your body immunity to it (re-infection is rare). Unlike chickenpox which normally fully settles, shingles may result in persisting post-herpetic neuralgia pain Chickenpox is very common and highly contagious. Approximately 3 million cases occur each year in the United States.

Chickenpox was once considered a rite of passage for most children. Before 1995 -when a vaccine for chickenpox became available in the United States - about 4 million Americans, mostly children, contracted chickenpox each year People who get the virus often develop a rash of spots that look like blisters all over their bodies. The blisters are small and sit on an area of red skin that can be anywhere from the size of a pencil eraser to the size of a dime. Kids can be protected from VZV by getting the chickenpox vaccine, usually between the ages of 12 to 18 months, though sometimes the vaccine is given to older kids, teens, and adults. Symptomatic treatment, with calamine lotion to ease itching and paracetamol (known in the U.S. as acetaminophen) to reduce fever, is widely used. It doesn't do any harm because it's kept under control by the immune system; the part of the body that fights infection. Later in life, viruses remaining dormant in the nerves can reactivate causing localised eruptions of shingles . This occurs particularly in people with compromised immune systems, such as the elderly, and perhaps even those suffering sunburn. However, the chickenpox vaccine is a safe, effective way to prevent chickenpox and its possible complications . The most common reason for the virus to reactivate is getting older. Reactivation of the virus causes a condition called shingles, a painful blistering skin rash that typically occurs on the face, chest or back, in the same area where one or two of the body's sensory nerves travel.

Chickenpox is one of the classic childhood diseases, and one of the most contagious. Chickenpox is caused by a virus called varicella zoster (say: var-uh- seh -luh zas -tur). But the good news is that chickenpox is a common illness for kids and most people get better by just resting like you do with a cold or the flu. Chickenpox is rarely fatal (usually from varicella pneumonia ), with pregnant women and those with depressed immune systems being more at risk. Pregnant women not known to be immune and who come into contact with chickenpox may need urgent treatment as the virus can cause serious problems for the fetus. Most people think of chickenpox as a mild disease -and, for most, it is. Chickenpox usually lasts about two weeks and rarely causes complications. But the disease can be serious, even in healthy children.

Elephantiasis are worms that dwell in the tissue beneath the skin and in the lymphatic system. Filariasisis a very common condition amongst people of India living in the coastal regions of Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Elephantiasis partially takes its name from "the Elephant Man", the carnival stage name of Joseph Merrick . The name refers to the resemblence of Merrick's limbs to the thick, baggy skin on the limbs and trunks of elephants. Careful hygiene and other measures that prevent and control subsequent bacterial and fungal infections in limbs or genitals in which the lymphatic system has been damaged can reduce disfigurement and suffering.

There are many types of filaria worms. The commonest is Wuchereria Bancrofti and Brugia Malayi. Humans are the only definite hosts for this parasite. The mosquito spreads this disease. Usually infection is established only with repeated and prolonged exposure to infective larvae. After being infected by a mosquito, the larvae travel to the lymphatic system where they develop into adult worms. The offspring are termed microfilariae. They circulate in the blood or migrate to the tissue beneath the skin.

The principal changes result from inflammatory damage to the lymphatic system, which is caused by adult worms. These worms live within the lymphatic system and the lymph nodes. They cause lymphatic dilatations and thickening of the walls. These regions are infiltrated by cellsof the body causing gross changes in the tissues leading to the tortuosity of the lymphatics and damage to the vessel valves. With obstruction to the flow of lymph there is nowa stasis and a hard brawny edema develops in the overlying skin. With the death of worms further inflammatory changes take place leading to further complications in the lymphatic function.

Elephantias is also called lymphatic filariasis. elephantiasis , abnormal enlargement of any part of the body due to obstruction of the lymphatic channels in the area (see lymphatic system ), usually affecting the arms, legs, or external genitals. Elephantiasis generally results from obstructions of the lymphatic vessels. It is most commonly caused by a parasitic disease known as lymphatic filariasis . This is the severely disfiguring and disabling condition of elephantiasis. Recovery from filariasis is possible and surgery sometimes helps, but any elephantiasis that develops during the disease cannot be cured. Ivermectin, an antifilarial drug, has been effective with a single dose. Nonfilarial elephantiasis is thought to be caused by persistent contact with volcanic ash. Elephantiasis partially takes its name from "the Elephant Man", the carnival stage name of Joseph Merrick. Albendazole, in combination with others drugs, is being used in a program of mass drug administration undertaken under the auspices of the World Health Organization in an attempt to eliminate filariasis.

Alternatively, elephantiasis may occur in the absence of parasitic infection. Lymphatic filariasis, also known as elephantiasis, is best known from dramatic photos of people with grossly enlarged or swollen arms and legs. This nonparasitic form of elephantiasis, known as nonfilarial elephantiasis or podoconiosis, generally occurs in the mountains of central Africa. This blockage causes fluids to collect in the tissues, which can lead to great swelling, called "lymphedema." The adult worms live in the lymphatic system, causing local inflammation, fibrosis, and obstruction, and resulting in the characteristic enlargement and thickening of the skin. Diethylcarbamazine often kills the adult worms or impairs their reproductive capabilities, and the antibiotic doxycycline, which works by killing symbiotic bacteria that live inside the worms, also eliminates adult worms.

Hansen's Disease is a chronic infectious disease caused by the leprosy bacillus. It affects mainly the peripheral nerves, the skin, muscles, eyes, bones, testes and internal organs. It is one of the oldest disease known to mankind. The word leper comes from a Greek word. In India it is knownas "KushtaRoga"and is attributed to a punishment from God.

South East Asia has the highest number of leprosy cases in the whole world. It is a major public health problem in India. The prevalence of leprosy in India is 6.7 per 10000 population. The numbers of infectious cases varies between 15-20 per cent. India has the highest recorded number of leprosy patients in the whole world. The treatment of choice is a multidrug therapy (MDT) using diaphenylsulfone (Dapsone), rifampicin (Rifadin), and clofazimine (Lamprene). Surgery can reconstruct damaged faces and limbs. Over millennia the leprosy bacterium has undergone "massive gene decay" -- the loss of many genes and therefore it has largely lost the ability to adapt. The term Hansen disease instead of leprosy is now preferred by some experts, because of it being less perjorative.

Spread of infectionis via nasal discharge either by blowing the nose or sneezing in public. Leprosy cases harbour millions of leprosy bacilli in their nasal mucosa. Leprosy is a social disease. It is common amongst the poor due to overcrowding, poor housing and lack of hygiene. It can spread by close contact as well as from person to person and skin to skin contact. Leprosy has an incubation period of 3-5 years. This disease can cause severe deformity of the feet, hands and face. The bacteria that cause leprosy thrive in cool areas of the body such as the skin, nerves near the skin surface and in oral and nasal mucus membranes. The bacterium responsible for leprosy is called Mycobacterium leprae or, for short, M. leprae. There it is able to withstand the onslaught of enzymes and other forces by virtue of possessing a peculiarly resistant waxy coat and thanks also to its association with lowered cellular immunity . The condition is marked initially by hyperesthesia (excess sensation) succeeded by anesthesia (lack of feeling) and by paralysis, ulceration, and various other problems, ending horribly in gangrene and self-mutilation.

Types of Leprosy

1. Indeterminate type: This denotes early cases with one or two vague hypo pigmented patches with definite sensory impairment. Common on knees and elbows.

2. Tuberculoid type: This type denotes those cases with one or two well defined lesions which may be flat or raised, hypo pigmented or reddish and with no sensations.

3. Borderline type: There are four or more lesions which may be flat or raised, well or ill defined, hypo pigmented or reddish with no sensations.

4. Lepromatus type: There is diffuse infiltration or numerous flat or raised, poorly defined, shiny, smooth, symmetrically distributed lesions. The lesions are bacteriologically positive.

5. Pure neurotic type: There is only nerve involvement. There are no skin lesions.

Leprosy, also known as Hansen disease, is a chronic infectious disease with a wide range of clinical manifestations. At that point, a multi-drug treatment was devised, combining dapsone with clofazimine and rifampin. This treatment has proven to be the most effective treatment for many years. In treating the tuberculoid leprosy, the multi-drug treatment must be followed for approximately six months, while in the case of lepromatous leprosy, the treatment can last as long as two years. Preventing the spread of Hansen's disease is, for the present, limited to treating individuals after they contract the disease. Hansen's discovery preceded Robert Koch's demonstration of the bacterial cause of anthrax by 3 years. Hansen's research helped to establish fundamental principles in microbiology, immunology , and public health .

It is a chronic granulomatous disease of the skin, mucous membranes, nerves, lymph nodes, eyes, and internal organs such as the liver, spleen, and testicles. Only about five percent of the people who are infected with the bacteria actually develop the disease. The immune system generally prevent the development of leprosy. As this type of leprosy advances, nodules may form on both sides of the body. For thousands of years, leprosy was one of the world's most feared communicable diseases, because the skin and nerve damage often led to terrible disfigurement and disability. Even after treatment and the infection is cured, there may still be disability and disfigurement. It is recommended that annual examinations be done for at least five years after the last contact with any person who is infectious.

HERPES ZOSTER is a sporadic disease. It is the consequence of the reactivation of latent virus from the spinal cord. This infection usually occurs in adults. It produces localized vesicular skin lesions confined to a dermatome and severe neuralgic pain in peripheral areas innervated by the nerves arising in the inflamed root ganglia. Herpes zoster results from reactivation of varicella virus that has lain dormant in the cerebral ganglia (extramedullary ganglia of the cranial nerves) or the ganglia of posterior nerve roots since a previous episode of chickenpox. It is a disease generally of the middle age and elderly.

Herpes zoster is an acute , localized infection with varicella-zoster virus, which causes a painful, blistering rash. After the initial exposure, herpes zoster lies dormant in certain nerve fibers.Whereas varicella is generally a disease of childhood, herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia become more common with increasing age.  Following resolution of the chickenpox, the virus lies dormant in the dorsal root ganglia until focal reactivation along a ganglion's distribution results in herpes zoster (shingles). Historically, it was thought that shingles incidence increased due to an age-related decline in immunity; however, recent studies suggest that incidence of shingles is linked to the reduced frequency of periodic exogenous (outside) exposures to children with varicella (chickenpox) due to the increasing vaccination of that population. A temporary weakness in immunity (the body's ability to fight infection) may cause the virus to multiply and move along nerve fibers toward the skin. Eye problems caused by severe or chronic outbreaks of herpes zoster may include:  glaucoma , cataract , double vision, and scarring of the cornea and eyelids This condition is known as zoster sine herpete and may be more complicated, affecting multiple levels of the nervous system and causing multiple cranial neuropathies, polyneuritis, myelitis , or aseptic meningitis. Medical treatments like chemotherapy or radiation for cancer, drugs taken to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, and cortisone taken for a long time, can make someone susceptible.

Herpes zoster , commonly known as shingles, is caused by the same virus responsible for chicken pox. It may become active as a result of many factors such as:  aging, stress, suppression of the immune system, and certain medications. Although the exact precipitants that result in viral reactivation are not known certainly, decreased cellular immunity appears to increase the risk of reactivation. Herpes zoster manifests as a vesicular rash, usually in a single dermatome. Factors that decrease immune function, such as human immunodeficiency virus infection, chemotherapy, malignancies and chronic corticosteroid use, may also increase the risk of developing herpes zoster. These exposures produced an immunologic boost that helped suppress the reactivation of shingles. Shingles incidence is high in the elderly (over 60), as well as in any age group of immunocompromised patients Although children can get zoster, it is more common in people over the age 50. Illness, trauma, and stress may also trigger zoster. This acutely painful phase usually lasts several weeks; however, some continue to experience pain or neuralgia long after the outbreak has cleared. 


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