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Методическая разработка "Деньги" по иностранному языку для СПО по специальности Банковское дело

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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ, НАУКИ И МОЛОДЕЖНОЙ ПОЛИТИКИ КРАСНОДАРСКОГО КРАЯ


ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ БЮДЖЕТНОЕ ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ

КРАСНОДАРСКОГО КРАЯ

«НОВОРОССИЙСКИЙ КОЛЛЕДЖ РАДИОЭЛЕКТРОННОГО ПРИБОРОСТРОЕНИЯ»

(ГБПОУ КК НКРП)











Методическая разработка по теме

Money

Russia, Great Britain, the United States of America

(historical review)


Деньги России, Великобритании и США

(исторический обзор)


ОГСЭ.03. Иностранный язык (английский)


для специальности

38.02.07 Банковское дело














2016






СОГЛАСОВАНО

На заседании Совета по методическим

вопросам от ______ _________ 2016 г.

протокол № ____

Председатель Совета по методическим

вопросам

_________ Е.В. Заслонова


УТВЕРЖДАЮ

Зам. директора по УР

_________ Т.В. Трусова

______ ________ 2016 г.


Рассмотрено на заседании УМО

филологических дисциплин

от ______ _________ 2016 г.

протокол № ____

Председатель УМО ________ М.А. Марарь







Организация – разработчик: государственное бюджетное профессиональное образовательное учреждение Краснодарского края «Новороссийский колледж радиоэлектронного приборостроения» (ГБПОУ КК НКРП)



Разработчик:




Преподаватель

ГБПОУ КК НКРП


_________________



Ткалина Е.Н.



Рецензенты:



Тихонова С.П.

Преподаватель высшей квалификационной категории ГБПОУ КК НКРП



Солодилова Н.В.


Преподаватель иностранного языка филиала БГТУ им. В.Г.Шухова











Пояснительная записка


Методическая разработка по теме "Money of Russia, Great Britain and the USA: historical review" /"Деньги России, Великобритании и США: исторический обзор" предназначена для углубления и совершенствования знаний, умений и навыков во всех видах речевой деятельности на иностранном языке студентов по специальности Банковское дело средних специальных учебных заведений.

Цели обучения студентов иностранному языку в среднем профессиональном образовательном учреждении предполагают:

  • развитие коммуникативной иноязычной компетенции в основных видах речевой деятельности: говорении, аудировании, чтении и письме;

  • формирование умений иноязычного общения по темам и ситуациям, связанным с экономикой и финансами;

  • развитие умений самостоятельной работы с профессионально ориентированной литературой с целью получения нужной информации;

  • развитие навыков самостоятельной работы в освоении языка;

  • развитие творческого потенциала студентов, их интеллектуальных способностей в процессе языковой подготовки.

Данная разработка по теме "Money of Russia, Great Britain and the USA: historical review /Деньги России, Великобритании и США: исторический обзор" предусматривает расширение лексического запаса, продолжение работы по автоматизации первичных умений и навыков, практическое использование языка в различных формах коммуникации. В процессе выполнения заданий по видам чтения, переводу, аннотированию и реферированию, в ситуативных диалогах, ролевых играх, дискуссиях осуществляется выработка умения использовать язык в новых для студентов ситуациях, имитирующих естественное общение.

Практическое владение языком включает: умение читать литературу по специальности с целью извлечения нужной информации при минимальном использовании словаря; владение различными видами чтения - изучающим, ознакомительным, просмотровым, поисковым; умение оформить полученную информацию в виде реферата, аннотации, сообщения, доклада; умение принять участие в устном общении с коллегами - носителями языка в рамках тем и ситуаций, обозначенных в программе, включая собственное развернутое высказывание и восприятие такового на слух; умение самостоятельно повышать уровень иноязычной коммуникативной компетенции.

Методическая разработка по теме "Money Russia, Great Britain and the USA: historical review /Деньги России, Великобритании и США: исторический обзор" включает:

























Содержание




Money


Russia


1. Paper Money of the Russian Empire

The first Russian paper money was issued in 1769 under Catherine the Great. It was the banknotes of 25, 50, 75 and 100 roubles value. The banknotes were rather plain, one-sided, printed in one colour. They had the frame, the text, the label and the signatures of four officials. It was easy to falsify this money. The counterfeiters took out the figure “2” and drew the figure “7”. In 1786 the denominations of the Russian money were changed in order to prevent the manufacturing of the false money: the banknotes of 75 roubles value became impassible. To make paper money widely used the banknotes of small value (5 and 10 roubles) were issued. Besides the new sort of paper for money printing was used. The first Russian money was inflationary. The budget of the country had been showing a loss with the expenses for the military needs covered by issuing more and more paper money. The currency reform was necessary.

Preparations for the first currency reforms lasted for about 20 years; the currency reform was completed in 1847 by E.F.Kunkrin. The main purpose of the Kunkrin’s currency reform was to make a paper rouble be equal to a silver rouble. The first step of the currency reform was issuing new banknotes of 5, 10, 25, 50, 100 and 200 roubles value in 1818-1819. The second step of the currency reform was issuing the deposit slips of 3, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 roubles value. Everyone who made a contribution in silver coins received deposit slips. The third step of the currency reform was issuing the credit slips. In 1847 new money, the state credit slips was issued, the old banknotes, deposit and credit slips became impassible. New money came in 1, 3, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100 roubles denominations. A paper rouble became equal to a silver rouble.

Having the printing technology improved the design of the Russian money issued after 1866 became more complicated. It was for the first time when paper money had the portraits of Russian tsars placed in the banknotes. Since then it has become a tradition.

A gold standard was introduced by Great Britain in 1816. All European countries joined the gold standard in the last third of the XIX century. To join the gold standard Russia had to perform the second currency reform. The second currency reform was implemented by S.Y.Vitte in 1897. The main purpose of the second currency reform in Russia was to provide gold backing to paper money. This meant that gold coins were in circulation alongside with paper money. Everyone could bring the gold to coin money. It was allowed to change the gold coins for different kinds of paper money: banknotes, checks, obligations. The possibility of export and import of the gold coins and paper money without limitations facilitated the development of foreign trade. The gold savings in the Treasury increased greatly. The new credit slips were issued. The credit slips of 5, 10 and 25 roubles value issued in 1892-1895 had a symbolic image of a women in a Princess clothes and the Monomakh’s Hat leaning on a shield with a two-headed eagle in it. The banknotes of small value had the same appearance as the banknotes issued before, but the text on changing the bills for metal money was different. The credit slips of large value issued in 1898-1899 were the most beautiful paper money of the Russian Empire.

In 1905 the paper money of a new design reflecting new tendencies in art was issued.

The First World War worsened the economic situation in Russia. In summer 1915 lack of money of small value was urgent, the banknotes for 1, 2, 3, 5 and 50 kopecks were issued. This was the last money of the Russian Empire.


  1. Answer the questions

  1. When was the first Russian paper money issued?

  2. Why was it easy to falsify the first Russian paper money?

  3. What measures were taken to prevent the manufacturing of the false money?

  4. Why was currency reform necessary?

  5. How long did the preparations for the first currency reform last?

  6. What was the main purpose of the Kunkrin’s currency reform?

  7. How many types of paper money existed during the period from 1818 to 1847?

  8. When has it become a tradition to place the portraits of famous people in the bank notes?

  9. What is a gold standard?

  10. Who performed the currency reform leading to the implementation of the gold standard in Russia?

  11. Why did gold savings in the Treasury increase?

  12. What was the most beautiful money of the Russian Empire?

  13. Why did the Russian paper money of a new design appear in 1905?

  14. What was the value of the last money of the Russian Empire?

  15. Why was the money of small value issued in 1915?

  16. Describe any of the banknotes of the Russian Empire.

2. Quasi-money

Quasi-money is a very interesting economic phenomenon. Governmental money reflects the history of the state, quasi-money represents the most difficult periods of the history of the state.

After the February revolution in 1917, Russia suffered from a money hunger, which increased after the Great October Socialist Revolution when printing state paper money stopped. Besides, local people in power didn’t support the revolution and in different regions of the country there were the similar problems. One of them was absence of small-value bank notes to pay salaries and wages, to buy products.

In the organized in the North of the country Northern Region (Severnaya Oblast’) it was decided to issue quasi-money – the checks for 3, 5, 10 and 25 roubles. The checks were printed in Petersburg, the drawings for the checks were made by a well-known painter and a black-and-white artist S.V.Chekhonin. In the check of 25-roubles value you can see a polar bear and a walrus shown against a background of arctic lights, that’s why in everyday practice these checks were called “walruses” (“morzhi” or “morzhovki”). The year of issue (1918) was not shown in the checks, there was a twice repeated letter and a three-digit number, and these checks were signed by the officials of the branch bank office.

The frame with the figure pointing the value of the check was placed in the reverse side of the bank note, there was also a decorated vignette with the coat-of-arms of the city of Archangelsk inside the frame: the flying archangel armed with a flaming sword and a shield hitting the thrown down devil.

The checks were designed for the circulation in the Archangelsk province only. This quasi-money due to the respectable appearance was eagerly accepted by the population. In summer 1918 in order to prevent speculative activity with the checks of the Archangelsk’s branch of the State Bank it was decided to register and stamp the checks. To register the check meant to put a special stamp on the reverse side of the bank note. In the stamp the crown above the two-headed eagle was thoroughly cut off. The stamped checks were signed by Prince Ivan Kurakin. In 1920 these checks became impassable.

In the North of the country the tsar money was in circulation alongside with these checks after the Great October Socialist Revolution. The bank notes had the perforation “ГБСО” (the State Bank of the Northern Region). It was easy to imitate the perforation, to determine if the perforation is true or false was also easy, false perforation could be recognized by touch. Besides people used the Provisional Government money (“dumki” or “kerenki”). Also there existed money manufactured in England.

In the South of Russia conditions for the first quasi-money manufacturing were quite different. In the Kuban the ataman (Cossack chieftain) and the military government didn’t support the revolution and the Soviet power. In February 1918 the governmental detachment of the Kuban Army left Ekaterinodar. They took away silver coins, some money of small value and about 2,000,000 roubles of 1000-roubles value bank notes issued by the Provisional Government from the State Bank. Local people didn’t have enough money of small value to sell food and forage to the army; they couldn’t give change for the 1000-roubles bank notes.

The Military Government of the Kuban decided to issue quasi-money of small value: 1, 3 and 5-roubles bank notes. There were no good printing equipment to print money in the army, besides there was little paper. The first money of the Kuban krai government was simple, printed in black colour and had little decoration – a frame made of crosses. Though this money had a secret drawing of a key as an element of security. In a few days the money was renamed and became short-term obligations. Manufacturing of this quasi-money started. Officials signed them, labeled with numbers, and put a stamp. They worked hard for three days from early in the morning till late at night, but managed to sign only 49,550 roubles.

The Soviet power set in the Chernomorsk-Kuban Soviet Republic also issued the quasi-money. When the Kuban krai government returned and occupied Ekaterinodar, they announced that the money of the Chernomorsk-Kuban Soviet Republic were invalidate.

Different kinds of paper money were used in the Kuban – the tsar money and the Provisional Government money; the money circulated in Rostov-on-Don was considered as foreign currency and exchanged at an exchange rate. The question of money was urgent, the Kuban krai government wanted to be independent financially; they bought a typography in Rostov-on-Don, planning to issue compulsory for all money. The drawings for the compulsory money were done by A.A. Yunger known as an author of the design of Rostov-on-Don bank notes.


1. Answer the questions:

  1. What is quasi-money?

  2. Is it an interesting economic phenomenon?

  3. Why did quasi-money appear in Russia after the Great October Socialist Revolution?

  4. Why didn’t local people in power support the revolution?

  5. Who was at the head of the organized in the north of the country Severnaya Oblast’?

  6. When and where were “morzhovki” issued?

  7. Who made the drawings for the checks?

  8. What was shown in the front side and in the reverse side of Arkhangelsk’s checks?

  9. Why was it decided to register the checks?

  10. What other kinds of money circulated in the north of the country alongside with the checks?

  11. When did the checks become impassible?

  12. Were conditions for the first money manufacturing in the south of the country the same as in the north or different?

  13. How did the first money of the Kuban krai Government look like?

  14. Did the Soviet power in the Kuban issue quasi-money?

  15. Were there the similar financial problems all over the country?

  16. When was quasi-money forbidden?


  1. Are the sentences true or false?

  1. Quasi-money is issued by the state.

  2. Quasi-money can be issued by any person.

  3. Quasi-money is issued by the local governments.

  4. After the revolution quasi-money was issued to pay salaries and wages.

  5. After the revolution quasi-money was issued to give change.

  6. Alongside with quasi-money after the revolution some other kinds of money were used.

  7. Archangelsk checks are used till now.

  8. In the Kuban the obligations were issued.

  9. The money of other regions was considered in the Kuban as foreign currency.


3. Take any bank note you have and answer the questions:

  1. When and where was it issued?

  2. What is its value?

  3. What is shown in the facial side and in the reverse side of the bank note?

  4. What is the colour of the bank note?

  5. Does the bank note have perforation?

  6. Is it stamped?

  7. Is the circulation of this bank note limited?

  8. What can you buy for this sum of money?

3. Soviet Paper Money

The first Soviet state paper money appeared in 1919 under the circumstances of the Civil War and the intervention. The Bolsheviks planned to have the economy of administrative type, when all the goods produced in the country had to be gathered and then distributed, the economic policy of that time is called “war communism”. But a money hunger in the country was urgent and in general during the Civil War there were eight issues of money. Most of the first Soviet money was plain, one-sided and printed in one colour. It was possible to print such money locally, and there are the facts that local painters made the drawings of some kinds of the existing Soviet money and local powers printed the necessary amount of money in different regions.

It is necessary to pay attention that during this period there was the paper money with the proletarian slogan “The workers of the world, unite!” Money which had the slogan written in seven languages (Russian, French, Italian, English, German, Chinese and Arabian) was called “the Babylonian money”.

Another interesting example of the money printed in 1919 is the money with the year of issue 1918 and the coat-of-arms of the two-headed eagle without a crown. Of course this is a huge discrepancy; the explanation of this discrepancy is the fact that for this money the Bolsheviks used the drawings which were prepared by the Provisional Government.

The population of Russia after the revolution suffered from hunger and poverty, there was not enough goods, raw materials and fuel, many factories and plants closed, the unemployment had risen. The Government understood that the economic police had to be more flexible and in 1921 the Russian Government undertook the transition to the “New Economic Policy”. One of the features of this period was the currency reform. They wanted to have credit money and issued “chervontsi”. It was declared that this money had the gold backing.

In December 1922 the Russian Federation, the Ukraine, Byelorussia and the Caucuses Republics united and formed the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics. The first money of the USSR with the state symbols of the USSR was issued.

In 1927 the main task of the Soviet country was industrialization. The first 5-years plan was approved. The main figures of the plan were corrected by Stalin. He wanted to make the USSR become a strong industrial state. The resources were distributed accurately, all the country lived in a rigid labour regime.

Though the first 5-years plan was not fulfilled, the plan for the second 5-years period was not less rigid. It led to the great industrial growth, and at the Congress of the Communist Party in 1937 it was declared that the first stage of communism, socialism, had been built. In 1936 Stalin’s Constitution which was the mask for the state policy and disguised the state terror was approved.

In general during the period from 1924 to 1938 there were nine issues of the Soviet paper money. The money issued in 1937 can be considered as a kind of political advertising. It had the pictures of the men of labour. The drawings were done by I.I.Dubasov.

After the Great Patriotic War people worked very hard to raise the country from the ruins. In 1946 a new Constitution, the Constitution of the won socialism, was approved. For the first time the food or ration cards were canceled, in 1947 there was the next currency reform. The USSR issued new money, both credit slips for 1. 3 and 5 roubles designed by I.I.Dubasov and bank notes for 10, 25, 50 and 100 roubles.

In 1953 Stalin died. In 1956, at the XX Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Stalin’s methods of governing were criticized. Many freedoms declared in the Constitution became real, the state and social organizations were reorganized, the federal status of many peoples in the USSR (Balkar, Ingush, Kalmyk, Chechen) was restored. In 1957 the Karelian-Finnish Soviet Socialist Republic was reorganized into the Karelian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. From that time the USSR consisted of 15 republics and the coat-of-arms of the USSR was changed: there were 15 coils of ribbon round the ears instead of 16.

The last currency reform in the USSR was in 1961. The drawings for the money were done by I.I.Dubasov and S.A.Pomansky. The money became horizontally-oriented, the credit slip for 1 rouble was the smallest one, the pairs of banknotes for 3 and 5, 10 and 25, 50 and 100 roubles were of the equal size. It made the manufacturing and the work with the money easier. This money was in use till 1991 when the appearance was slightly changed.

In December 1991 the USSR broke down. Though some bank notes issued in 1992 by the State Bank of Russia had the symbols of the USSR, which was an interesting from the modern point of view mistake.


  1. Answer the questions:

  1. When was the first Soviet state paper money printed?

  2. Was the first Soviet paper money plain and one-sided?

  3. Why did some money of Soviet Russia have the two-headed eagle without a crown?

  4. How many currency reforms did Soviet Russia perform?

  5. How many times was the Soviet money issued?

  6. Can we say that paper money of the state is a kind of political advertising?

  7. What kind of money was called “the Babylonian money” and why?

  8. When was it decided to issue “chervontsi”?

  9. Why did the country try to have credit money and what does it mean?

  10. How did industrialization influence the appearance of the Soviet money?

  11. How many times was the money of 1947 issued and why?

  12. When was the last currency reform in the USSR?

  13. Who made the drawings for the Soviet money?

  14. Why did paper money issued by the State Bank of Russia after the USSR had broken down have the symbols of the USSR?

4. Paper Money of Post-Soviet Russia

When the former USSR had been finally splitting into 15 independent states, during the period of transition towards the market economy Russia started economic reforms. The main features of the reforms were liberalization of the prices and privatization of the state enterprises. In the beginning of 1992 the prices became free and determined by demand and supply. The prices for the goods had risen 150 times, it was a confiscation of the savings of the population. When in 1992 privatization started, people didn’t have money to buy shares. In autumn 1992 all people of Russia received the privatization checks (vouchers) which were supposed to be used for buying shares. It was allowed to invest these checks into the shares of enterprises, which had to bring profit to their owners. Many of the funds which sold their shares to the population for vouchers later disappeared.

Economic reforms were difficult, Prime Ministers and Vice Prime Ministers were assigned and left their positions one after another. Each of them had his own points of view on how the reforms had to be fulfilled. The military enterprises and enterprises of the fuel and energy industries needed heavy investments, besides the government thought that the employees of the budget sphere had to be socially protected. The inflation was very high. During a period of high inflation there were different issues of banknotes, the value of the banknotes became higher and higher, and reached the denomination of 500,000 roubles. In 1993 there were 40,000 private enterprises in Russia. Private and state enterprises had the accounts in different banks. There were about 2,000 commercial banks in Russia. The bank system was very complicated; all banks had close ties, performed interbank payments and interbank lending.

In 1997 a monetary reform took place, a new rouble replaced old ones at 1:1000 rate. In August 1998 the government announced about the refusal to pay debts and to have the dollar rate fixed by means of using the resources of the Central Bank. Many people wanted to withdraw their money from their bank accounts, but the banks couldn’t meet the demand. The bank system of Russia collapsed. The banks lost the trust of the population. People preferred to convert their savings into dollars and to keep them at home. The counterfeiters used the situation, a great amount of the false money appeared. In 2004 the modified banknotes of 1997 were introduced, now they have improved security features.


1. Answer the questions

    1. What is the reason of the USSR splitting?

    2. What were the main features of the economic reform in Russia?

    3. Was the price raising a confiscation of the savings of the population?

    4. Who received the privatization checks?

    5. How did people use vouchers?

    6. Why was the inflation in Russia during the period of transition to the market economy high?

    7. What was the highest denomination of the banknotes issued in Russia in 1992 – 1997?

    8. What is the bank system?

    9. How many banks were there in Russia in the 90ies of the XX century?

    10. Were the banks tied?

    11. What was the purpose of the monetary reform in 1997?

    12. What was the reason of the bank system collapse in 1998?

    13. Why did people prefer to convert their savings into dollars?

    14. Why did the state issue the modified banknotes?


The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland


5. Modern British Currency System

A pound sterling is the official unit of currency in the UK. 100 pence (like pennies) make a pound. Pence (also called 'p'), coin units come in 2, 5, 10, 20, and 50 pence denominations and also ₤1 and ₤2 coins. Paper currency comes in ₤5, ₤10, ₤20, and ₤50 denominations1.

Scotland has its own paper notes with the same value amounts, English paper notes are accepted in Scotland too. But it's best to get rid of your Scottish money before you journey back to England – they are sometimes frowned on in the south.

The Isle of Man issues currency with its own imprint in the same denominations as the UK except for a ₤5 coin. UK money is legal tender on the island, but the money of the Isle of Man is not accepted in the UK.

Northern Ireland is, of course, part of the UK and has the same currency. Not so the Republic of Ireland. It has adopted the Euro.

The Euro is accepted in many business establishments in the UK, but not all, so to avoid a hassle, get your money changed into the local currency. Euro notes come in 5, 10, 20, 50 and up denominations. Coins are in the same denominations as the UK ones.

Older British Currency System

Pound: A pound was the basic unit of currency. It came in the form of a paper bill, called a note, or a gold coin, called a sovereign. The slang term for a pound is a quid and there are other slang terms for various amounts of money. A monkey is 500 pounds, a pony is 25 pounds. Shilling: There were 20 shillings to the pound. The shilling was the workhorse of the currency. It was used to buy food and household necessities like coal, candles and soap. The slang term for a shilling was a bob.

Penny: The smallest unit of currency, the plural of which was pence. There were 12 pence to a shilling and 240 pence to a pound.

These were the basic coins of the realm, but not all. Some other terms which were used for some special coins - multiples and fractions of shillings and pence. And here they are:

Coins

Value

Guinea:

A gold coin worth one pound, one shilling. The slang term for guinea was a yellow boy. The guinea was used in professional transactions. A gentleman paid his tailor in shillings, but his barrister in guineas. In one of Elizabeth Mansfield's Regency Romances, the hero goes out carrying his money in guineas. The owner of an inn is surprised to see a yellow boy in payment – he would have been used to being paid in shillings.

Florin:

A coin worth 2 shillings

Crown:

A coin worth 5 shillings

Half-crown:

A coin worth 2.5 shillings

Tup pence:

A coin worth 2 pence

Threepence:

A coin worth 3 pence

Groat:

A coin worth 4 pence

Tanner:

A coin worth 6 pence

Ha'penny:

A coin worth 1/2 of a penny

Farthing:

A coin worth 1/4 of a penny

Mite:

A coin worth 1/8 of a penny


The Pound

The basic unit of money of the United Kingdom is the pound, also called the pound sterling. Today the pound is equal to 100 pence, the British adopted the decimal system in 1971.

Things were far more complicated in the past. The pound was subdivided into 20 shillings. The shilling was subdivided into 12 pennies. The guinea was equal to one pound one shilling. It was a gold coin used in fixing prices of valuable goods. There also were crowns, 5-shilling silver coins; half crowns worth 2 shillings and 6 pence; florins, 2-shilling silver coins; bobs worth 12 pence, a sixpence was a 6-penny coin and a 3-penny coin was called a "three pence". There also were "ha'pennies", copper coins, worth half a penny, and farthings, or quarter-penny coins.









The United States of America

6. The USA Currency


The dollar ($) is the unit of currency of the United States, it consists of 100 cents (¢).Today there are coins of the denominations 1¢ (a penny), 5¢ (nickel), 10¢ (dime), 25¢ (quarter), 50¢ (half dollar officially, sometimes referred to as a fifty-cent piece), and $1 (dollar officially, but frequently referred to as a dollar coin).

The US dollar was originally created and defined by the Coinage Act of 1792. The first US dollars were silver or gold coins, but in 1862, paper money was issued without the backing of precious metals, due to the Civil War. Silver and gold coins continued to be issued and in 1878 the link between paper money and coins was reinstated. This disconnect from gold and silver backing also occurred during the War of 1812. Gold coins were withdrawn in 1933, silver coins continued to be issued for circulation until 1964, when all silver was removed from dimes and quarters, and the half dollar was reduced to 40% silver. Silver half dollars were last issued for circulation in 1969.

Currently printed denominations are $1, $2, $5, $10, $20, $50, and $100.

The dollar has also been adopted as the official and legal currency by the governments in a few other countries (Canada, Taiwan, Australia, Zimbabwe).

Americans charge several hundreds billion dollars on their credit cards every year. Plastic money has become an important part of American lift-style. When you want to pay for something, you’ll hear the question: “Cash or charge?” It is possible to buy what you want without waiting and collecting a necessary sum of money for a purchase, though there is a disadvantage: a high interest on the remainder if the price for a purchase exceeds the limit of a stipulated credit.

  1. Translate from Russian into English

1. Предшественниками современных кредитных карт были карточки, которые выпускали крупные американские отели, нефтяные компании и магазины в начале XX века. 2. Эра современной кредитной карты началась в 1949 году с появления Diners Club. 3. Эта карта позволяла делать покупки в торговых точках по всей Америке. 4. В 1958 году на рынок кредитных карт вышла компания American Express. 5. В конце 60-х годов Bank of America и Interbank провели совместную компанию рассылки карт по почте. 6. В Европе кредитные карты существовали с 1950-х годов, когда British Hotel & Restaurant Association выпустила карту BHR. 7. В СССР первой организацией, которая стала принимать к оплате кредитные карты, был «Интурист». 8 . Все расчеты по международным кредитным картам проходили через Внешэкономбанк СССР.


Supplementary Reading


7. Electronic Money

With the virtualization of economic activity such phenomenon as e-commerce, e-trading, e-banking, e-funding, e-insurance came into being. People do business of selling goods and services, bonds and shares and even currency sitting at home. For dealing in the Internet they use online systems of payment. To use their services, it is necessary: to be registered on their site, to fill in the questionnaire, to get unique identification number, to top-up an account. It is possible to store money in roubles, dollars, euro and to make purchases in online shops, to pay for the services of mobile communication (Yandex.Money http://money.yandex.ru), to buy air ticket, to order advertising in the network, to reserve a room in the hotel (WebMoney www.wmtransfer.com). In Russia people basically use WebMoney or Yandex.Money. E-gold (http://e-gold.com) is widespread abroad. It is possible to convert money stored in different purses. For this purpose people use certain services, for example, ROBOXchange (www.roboxchange.com). It is convenient enough and the interest rate for the service is low. Nowadays online systems of payment basically promote each other than compete. The competition starts if there aren’t enough users for these systems.

A lot of people do window-shopping on the Internet. People who sell goods or services through the Internet are e-tailers. They have web-sites which serve as the shops and sometimes as warehouses. To manage online shops they use special software, for example Shop Script by Articus www.shop-script.ru or ArwShop www.arwshop.ru. The developers of the software for organizing of the Internet shops offer different features of the shops. In general the Internet shop demonstrates the products just like as in the showroom of the store, there is a basket – a section which gives the customer information about the movement of his order, and a customer’s account. E-tailers also provide technical support and post-sales servicing of their products. They use different kind of payment including merchant accounts to pay for the goods or services by credit cards. To make the online shop be easy to find on the Internet it is necessary to index its pages. To attract more visitors to the online shop e-tailers pay for the link to their site placed on the well-known sites. The sellers are looking for the solutions which can make e-business more effective but not all those people who visit the online shop buy something and as a result e-tailers have to pay for the visits without buying. A new way to hold the customers and probably to increase sales is to use a conversational agent, an animated character, that appears on the customer’s screen and can answer questions and chat with the customer just like sales representatives chat with the customers in the stores. A conversational agent is a computer program which uses artificial intelligence to interact with the customer.

Not long ago the purpose of every business was maximizing of the profit. Now the companies are working to maximize equity value. Shares of different companies are bought and sold at the stock market. Due to the Internet the number of investors at the stock market and of the brokers providing their services through the Internet is increasing. Financial investments are very risky, for example for every bio-tech company which succeeds there are nine others which fail. The companies which have performed well over many years, called blue-chip companies, are the only exception. Blue-chip shares are a fairly sure investment, but they are expensive to buy. In general when the company is at the top, the time to get high incomes by dealing with its shares has gone. Having the money to invest and wishing to take risks it is better to go for a balanced portfolio with shares from different sectors.

Traditionally people invest temporarily free money into currency. It is possible to buy and sell currency or to open a currency account at a brick and click bank, though e-banking is rapidly developing and there are the banks offering predominantly electronic services: giving the information about the state of accounts, money transmission, settling bills, receiving of the credit cards and loan requests, exchange transactions, broking, trust and insurance services.


1. Answer the questions

  1. Do you use online systems of payment?

  2. Is it dangerous and risky to have a purse on the Internet?

  3. What can you spend electronic money for?

  4. Do you do window shopping on the Internet?

  5. What are the main sections of the Internet shop?

  6. What companies develop software for the online shops?

  7. Do the companies sell the shares on the Internet stock market?

  8. What kinds of electronic services do the banks offer?

8. Stock Market Game

You have €10,000 to invest. Read the information about six companies and their share price and decide which companies you will invest in. You must:

1. invest all your money;

2. invest in at least three of the companies in the list.


Zapp Games – producers of video games and consoles.

Cape Andromeda – a company supplying capital and know-how to new businesses. It has an established reputation for choosing winners.

Xercon Pharmaceuticals – a large pharmaceutical company with an extensive bio-tech research programme.

Rosco's Supermarkets – leading supermarket chain - good yearly dividends.

HBG Commodities a managed investment fund specializing in commodities.

Hunter Defence Systems – a world-leader in hi-tech military equipment – good yearly dividends.

Write your choices below in the column “Beginning” and work out the value of the shares in your portfolio.

Company

Beginning

Round 1

Round 2

Round 3


Share price

No. of shares

Total value

Share price

No. of shares

Total value

Share price

No. of shares

Total value

Share price

No. of shares

Total value


Zapp Games

Andromeda

Xercon Pharm.

HBG Comm.

Rosco's Supermarkets

Hunter Defense Systems

10

20

25

40

75


50













Total: €10,000







Look through the new share prices for Round 1. Then calculate the new value of the shares in your portfolio and fill in the column “Round 1”. Read Financial News for Round 2 and fill in the column for “Round 2”. Do the same for Round 3. Are you a successful investor?

Round 1

Here is the financial news for round one. Shares in Zapp Games went up to €30 following their announcement of a new games console in time for Christmas. There was good news as well for Hunter Defence Systems, which has just signed a €3bn contract for equipment for the Caronesian army - shares rose to €75. HBG Commodities fell sharply to €20 after the White House confirmed a slowing down of the US economy. Shares in Rosco's rose slightly to €80. There was no change for Xercon Pharmaceuticals or Cape Andromeda.

Round 2

Here is the financial news for round two. Shares in Zapp Games continued their rise and soared to €120 as the company reported record orders for its new games console. Shareholders in Hunter Defence Systems panicked at the news of a coup d'etat in Caronesia. Shares fell back to the €50 level. HBG Commodities recovered and reached €30 as Europe began to leave recession. Shares in Rosco's plummeted to €60 after the company announced disappointing sales in the last quarter. The business has been badly affected by the rise in heavy discounters such as Lidar. Shares in Xercon Pharmaceuticals soared to €50 following its announcement that its new arthritis drug has received international approval. There was bad news from Cape Andromeda, the venture capital company, after it revealed that its investment in bio-technology firms had lost the company €20 million. Shares halved to €10.

Round 3

Zapp Games was forced to recall 20,000 consoles when a fault was discovered. Shares plummeted to €5 as thousands of orders were cancelled. The future of the company is in doubt. Shareholders in Hunter Defence Systems were happy to hear that the order was confirmed by the new regime in Caronesia. Shares recovered to €75 following the news. HBG Commodities returned to the €100 level as Chinese businesses demanded more and more raw materials to feed the growing economy. Xercon rose to €75 with the announcement of yet another new drug. Shareholders in Rosco's were pleasantly surprised by the news that there had been heavy consumer spending in the period before Christmas. Shares in the company jumped to €80. The best news of the day was for Cape Andromeda, whose investment in the plastic microchip area finally paid off. Shares tripled in value to €30.


1. Answer the questions

  1. What goods does Zapp Games produce?

  2. Did Zapp Games receive many orders for its new game console?

  3. Did they receive international approval?

  4. Are they a profit-making company?

  5. What do the companies usually do if the quality of their goods is inferior?

  6. What kind of company is Cape Andromeda?

  7. Is investing in a bio-tech company very risky?

  8. Can you call Cape Andromeda a blue-chip company?

  9. Are the shares of Cape Andromeda expensive?

  10. What is it necessary to do in order to avoid a great risk?

  11. What is Xercon Pharmaceuticals’ business?

  12. Is a bio-tech research programme of Xercon Pharmaceuticals extensive?

  13. Does a research programme give profit or need heavy investments?

  14. Do they produce one or several kinds of drugs?

  15. What kind of drug received international approval?

  16. What kind of company is HBG Commodities?

  17. Does the profit of investment funds depend on the economic situation in the world?

  18. Does the price of the shares of the investment fund fall or grow if there is a slowing down in the economy?

  19. Does the price of the shares of the investment fund fall or grow big countries leave recession?

  20. Does slowing or growing economy need more raw materials?

  21. Why were Rosco's sales in the last quarter disappointing?

  22. Are the discounts offered in Rosco’s supermarkets big?

  23. Do the sales have seasonal hesitation?

  24. When do the sales increase and decrease?

  25. What kind of goods do people usually buy before Christmas?

  26. What contract has Hunter Defence Systems signed?

  27. Where is Caronesia situated? Is it a real country?

  28. Why did the shares of Hunter Defence Systems fall?

  29. What is coup d’etat?

  30. Are the new regimes responsible for the agreements signed and contracts concluded by the previous governments?

Discussion

Study the controversial theses below. After studying them, split into two groups. One group shall find reasons and evidence to defend the theses while the other shall develop arguments against the theses.

    1. Banknotes one gets as a salary are/aren’t his property.

    2. People should/shouldn’t keep all money they have in the bank.

    3. Parents should/shouldn’t give their children pocket money.

    4. The members of a family should/shouldn’t know how much each member earns.

    5. People should\shouldn’t convert all money they have into hard currency.

    6. Electronic money should/shouldn’t replace paper money very soon.

    7. Every person should/shouldn’t play in the stock markets.

What do you thing about money?

What will there be if the money disappears?




































Приложение 1












look through

просмотреть

loose the trust

потерять доверие

loyalty card

дисконтная карточка, карточка постоянного покупателя






















Приложение 2


TEST 1


1. What do you call the picture of the person on the face of the bank note?

  1. portrait

  2. painting

  3. smiley face

2. Whose face is on the 100 dollar bank note?

  1. Hamilton

  2. Jefferson

  3. Lincoln

  4. Washington

  5. Franklin

  6. Grant

  7. Jackson

3. How many seals are there in the facial side of the 100 dollar bank note?

1
    1. 2

    1. 3

    1. 4

    1. 5

4. What is the colour of the seal of the Department of the Treasury?

red
  1. yellow

  1. green

  1. blue

  1. black

  1. brown

5. Where is the inscription “In God We Trust” situated?

  1. in the facial side of the bill

  2. in the reverse side of the bill

6. How many figures are there in the serial number of the bank note?

4
  1. 5

  1. 6

  1. 7

  1. 8

  1. 9

7. What is there in the reverse side of the 100 dollar bank note?

  1. the Palace of Independence

  2. the Capitol

  3. the White House

  4. the Treasury

  5. the Lincoln Memorial

8. Find and name a banknote which doesn’t exist.

UK. Pound banknotes

US. Dollar banknotes Russian banknotes 9. Who (what city) isn’t shown in the banknote? UK
  • Isaak Newton


  • Charles Dickens


  • Admiral Nelson


  • George Stephenson


US
  • John Kennedy


  • Anraham Lincoln


  • George Washington


  • Andrew Jackson


Russia
  • Yaroslavl


  • Tula


  • Moscow


  • St. Petersburg

Crossword

  1. Товар, товары

  2. Экономика (страны)

4. Компания, фирма

5. Сельское хозяйство

8. Страна в Европе

10. Денежная единица в США

11. Импорт, импортирование

12. Сокровище

14. Счет, отчет

15. Финансы, финансирование

18. Страна в Европе

21. Денежная единица в России




TEST 2

Choose the right variant

1. What was the title of Oliver Cromwell?

  1. Lord Chancellor

  2. Lord Protector

  3. Prime Minister

2. What were the incorporators of the Bank of England?

  1. most of them were bankers

  2. most of them were peasants

  3. most of them were the citizens of London

3. When was the first paper money in England issued?

  1. in 1688

  2. in 1694

  3. in 1707

4. What kind of state was Great Britain under William of Orange and Mary?

  1. an absolute monarchy

  2. a parliamentary monarchy

  3. a constitutional monarchy

5. When did the country get the name Great Britain according the Act of Union with Scotland?

  1. in 1688

  2. in 1694

  3. in 1707

6. How many colonies in the North America did Great Britain have by the end of the 18th century?

  1. 50

  2. 13

  3. 5

7. Why were many industries, transport, the Bank of England nationalized after World War II?

  1. the nation suffered economic difficulties

  2. the socialist idea was very popular

  3. Great Britain had to pay contribution

8. Why did the Bank of England get independence in 1997?

  1. Privatization of the state sector of economy was a dream of Margaret Thetcher.

  2. This is the main point of monetarism, an economic theory claiming that the money supply is the basic influence on the economy.

  3. In May 1997 the Government gave the Bank responsibility for setting interest rates to meet the Government's stated inflation target.

9. Complete the sentences

TEST 3

  1. Make sentences using the historical information.

Example: Columbus discovered America on October 12, 1492.

2. Find correct answers for the questions

Who was the first American President?

a. Thomas Jefferson

  1. Who wrote a large part of the Declaration of Independence?

b. Clark Gable


  1. How many years did the Civil War last the USA?

c. General Lee

  1. Who played the role of Rhett Buttler in the screen version of the novel “Gone with the wind”?

d. George Washington

  1. Who was he commander of the Confederate Army during the American Civil War?

e. the Potomac


  1. What is the capital of the USA?

f. 4 years

  1. What river is the capital of the USA situated on?

g. 8 years

  1. How many years did the War of Independence last?

h. Washington

  1. What street is a financial centre of New York?

i. Abraham Lincoln

  1. Who wrote the Emancipation Proclamation?

j. Wall Street


  1. It is know that American English differs from British English. Write American English words

Across: 1. cinema 3. football 7. flat 9. bisquit, 10. form, 11. trousers

Down: 2. holiday, 4. autumn, 5. sweet, 6. shop, 8. trainers, 9. tin


TEST 4


1 Кроме Банка Англии фунты стерлингов в Великобритании выпускают Банк Шотландии, три североирландских банка, банк на острове Джерси и на острове Мэн. На банкнотах указано:

The States of JerseyIsle of Man GovernmentAllied Irish BankBank of Scotland



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Дата добавления 02.10.2016
Раздел Иностранные языки
Подраздел Другие методич. материалы
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