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Методическая разработка для подготовки к ВПР 7 класс

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1.     Особенности подготовки обучающихся к выполнению задания «Чтение текста вслух».

В ВПР основными критериями оценивания «чтения вслух» являются: интонация и произношение слов.

Рассмотрим подробнее критерий «интонация». Английская интонация включает в себя несколько компонентов. В проверочной работе уделяется внимание следующим из них: тон; паузы и фразовое ударение.

Тон.

В английском языке встречается два основных тона:

восходящий (Rising Tone) ;

нисходящий (Falling Tone) .

Рассмотрим на примере английских предложений конкретные случаи использования  восходящего и нисходящего тонов.

Восходящий тон

Вопросительные предложения:

общий вопрос

альтернативный вопрос

разделительный вопрос

 

 

Are you speaking to Jessica?

Would you like tea or coffee?

You don’t share my point of view, do you?

 

Обстоятельство в начале предложения.

 

Sometimes I play the piano.

Last Monday I was at home.

Распространенное подлежащее.

 

My friend and I were in the park.

Однородные члены предложения при перечислении.

 

There are fruits, cakes and drinks on the table.

I’m going to buy tomatoes, meat, and eggs.

При обращении к кому-либо.

Dan, come here.

Приветствие и прощание.

 

Hello!

Good morning!

Good bye!

See you to morrow!

Побудительные предложения и вежливые просьбы.

 

Sit down, please.

Could you help me?

May I come in?

Нисходящий тон

Повествовательные предложения.

 

Her name is Helga. She works in our office.

Утверждения.

 

Of course.  Sure.   Certainly.

Специальный вопрос.

 

What time does the bus leave?

What’s your name?

Восклицательные предложения.

 

How clever she is!

What a lovely day!

Побудительные предложения.

Приказы, распоряжения.

 

Don’t open the window. Close my book.

 Алгоритм работы над заданием «Чтением текста вслух» представлен несколькими этапами.

Предварительный этап: подбираем соответственно возрасту небольшой отрывок аутентичного текста.

Основной этап:

 1) Снимаем языковые трудности (лексические, грамматические, фонетические). Лучше записывать в словарь.

 2) Первое прослушивание текста. Следим по тексту за диктором.

 3) Второе прослушивание предполагает работу с карандашом. Обозначаем интонационный рисунок стрелочками , .

4) Проверка результата. Можно организовать работу в парах. Ученики сравнивают свои варианты.

5) Проверка по «эталону». Ученикам предъявляется текст с разметкой, по которому они могут проверить свой

 6) Слушаем текст с остановками после каждого предложения. Повторяем интонацию диктора (при необходимости, прослушиваем и повторяем предложения несколько раз).

7) Читаем весь текст вместе с диктором, уделяя особое внимание тону.

8) Читаем текст ещё раз, при этом следует уменьшать громкость диктора так, чтобы на первый план вышло чтение учеников. Затем можно, например, включать аудио и в процессе чтения уменьшать громкость до ноля в середине текста или в конце текста. Ученики не должны отстать от записи сбиться с ритма.

 9) Самостоятельное чтение вслух, максимально приближенное к «эталону».

Рассмотрим в качестве примера упражнение:

 October 31 is a night for fun and fright. Children of all ages dress up in costumes. There are little girls who dress up as fairies , princesses and ballerinas. There are little boys who dress up as firefighters , policemen and super heroes. You also have the children who dress up as furry animals or ghoulish ghosts. One thing is cer -tain, no matter what costume you choose , there is sure to be a lot of candy and chocolate involved on Hal-lo-ween .

 

 

Паузы.

Правильный ритм английского предложения обеспечивается не только чередованием ударных и неударных слогов, но и с помощью пауз.

Паузы позволяют слушателю понять то, что уже было сказано, а также подготовиться к пониманию того, о чём пойдет речь далее.

В критериях оценивания устной части ВПР снижается балл за «необоснованные, неестественные паузы». Рассмотрим случаи, в которых наличие пауз считается обоснованным.

Как правило, в предложениях паузы появляются перед смысловыми группами – «синтагмами». Паузу на письме обозначают вертикальной палочкой «|» внутри предложения и как две палочки «||» между предложениями.

Случаи, требующие паузу, рассмотрены в таблице:

Обращение.

Kate, | what are your plans for tomorrow?

Вводное слово.

Unfortunately, | I haven’t read this news.

В разделительном вопросе.

It is very late already, | isn’t it?

В повествовании между двумя простыми предложениями.

простыми предложениями.

It was an early morning. || The weather was unusually warm.

В сложносочиненных предложениях.

Banana ice-cream for me | and a glass of juice for my friend.

В сложноподчиненных предложениях (между главной и придаточной частью).

He will let you know | when he gets home.

 

Тренировочное упражнение. Продолжаем работать с тем же текстом, в котором обозначали стрелочками интонацию. Алгоритм работы такой же, как и с восходящим и нисходящим тоном. Важно, чтобы при работе с паузами ученик объяснил её наличие в том или ином месте.  В результате получается следующее:

October 31 | is a night for fun and fright. || Children of all ages | dress up in costumes. || There are little girls | who dress up as fairies, | princesses |and ballerinas. || There are little boys | who dress up as firefighters, | policemen | and superheroes. || You also have the children | who dress up as furry animals | or ghoulish ghosts. || One thing is certain, | no matter what costume you choose, | there is sure to be a lot of candy and chocolate | involved on Halloween. ||

 

Фразовое ударение.

 Фразовое ударение – выделение голосом слова или группы слов в высказывании.  Оно служит основой ритмической структуры фразы, выделяет смысловой центр предложения. Фразовое ударение помогает говорящему придать важность слову или словам и сосредоточить на них внимание слушающего. Традиционно различают три степени фразового ударения: главное, второстепенное и слабое.

Степень фразового ударения

Объяснение на примере

Главное

My 'friend 'took part in the 'chess competitions.

Слова friend, took и chess являются смысловым центром предложения и сильнее выделяются голосом.

Второстепенное

Слово part характеризуется примерно тем же тональным уровнем, что и слова friend, took и chess, но всё же несколько ослабленно по сравнению с ними.

 

Слабое

Слова my, in the, competitions характеризуются

самым низким тональным уровнем в данном предложении.

 

В английском языке, как правило, ударными являются следующие части речи:

­ существительные: The `cat is under the `chair.

­ прилагательные: The flower is `beautiful.

­ числительные: Mary is `nine.

­ наречия: She swims `well.

­ вопросительные местоимения (what, where, when, why): `Why are you crying?

­ указательные местоимения в начале предложения: `These cups are on the table and `those ones are in the cupboard.

Упражнение: снова слушаем текст и обращаем внимание на слова, которые диктор выделяет голосом, проставляем ударение.  Учащиеся объясняют почему диктор выделяет то или иное слово.

К концу занятия ученики должны без затруднений самостоятельно прочитать отрывок с правильной интонацией. В качестве домашнего задания дети работают с аудиозаписью, готовят выразительное чтение.

Прочитайте текст вслух. У вас есть полторы минуты на подготовку и полторы минуты, чтобы прочитать текст вслух.

  № 1 Physical Education is one of the subjects taught at school. Students do many different sports, exercises, and activities. There are many types of physical fitness. Physical education keeps kids and adults fit and active. It is very important for their health and well-being.

Scientists have shown that brain development and physical exercise go hand in hand. Physical education can help academic success. It is important to educate people in the field of healthy and smart ways to stay active.

№ 2 The Internet entered the life of people in the 20th century. It took us less than ten years to face the fact of its spreading all over the world, including the developing countries. It has become not only the hugest information resource in the world, but one of the most rapid means of communication. People from different countries have got an opportunity to communicate with each other in quite a short time. In comparison with a snail-mail or even airmail, an e-mail gets over distance and time, borders of states with a fascinating speed.

Thus, people get closer to each other. Now they have got a chance to get to know each other better, to become aware of what is common among nations and unites them, and what is different.

№ 3 Sleep is food for the brain. During sleeping, important body functions and brain activity occur. Skipping sleep can be really harmful. You can look bad, you may feel moody, perform poorly. Sleepiness can make it hard to get along with your family and friends and hurt your scores on school exams. Teens need about 8 to 10 hours of sleep each night to function best. Unfortunately, most teens do not get enough sleep.

Not getting enough sleep or having sleep difficulties can limit your ability to learn, listen, concentrate and solve problems. You may even forget important information like names, numbers, your homework or a date with a special person in your life. Moreover, lack of sleep can lead to aggressive or inappropriate behavior.

 

№ 4 The earth's soil is home to large populations of natural agents that help promote the environment. While mushrooms have the ability to support Mother Nature, they are also capable of promoting our own health, from helping strengthen our immune system to preventing some diseases. One study showed that substituting red meat with mushrooms may support a healthy weight. So, adding more mushrooms to your diet may help improve diet quality.

What is more, many medications are derived from mushrooms. Studies show that mushrooms have cancer-fighting properties.

At the same time, not all mushrooms may be good for our health. Some species are toxic and can cause serious health problems. We should avoid eating these harmful varieties of mushrooms at all costs.

 

№ 5 Scientists have discovered that being an only child doesn't just lead to differences in behaviour. It actually influences a child's brain development. The participants in this latest study were given tests to measure their intelligence and personality. In addition, their brains were scanned with special machines.

Although the results didn't show any difference in intelligence between the two groups, they did reveal that only children are more flexible in their thinking. But according to personality tests, they are not always really nice people.

As for the brain scanning, only children had more volume in the areas associated with language understanding. By contrast, the brains of only children had less volume in the areas which are responsible for emotions.

 

№ 6 Why do cats purr? Humans tend to think that purring is a sign of happiness in a cat, but there are other reasons why our pets produce these particular sounds. Purring is a habit that develops very early in a cat's life. The most usual time for purring is in company. It can be a sign of social pleasure. Moreover, it can mean that the cat is asking to be fed or stroked.

Strangely, vets also report that cats will purr when they are in great pain or even before death. It is not good to show weakness as this could encourage larger animals to eat you. The purr may just mean: «Everything's fine, I'm on top of the world. Nothing to see here, go away please».

№ 7 There are numerous health benefits of owning a pet. The lowered blood pressure of a dog owner, for example, can be explained by the increased exercise taken on a daily basis. Going for a walk with your pet can also facilitate your social interaction, which can improve mood and reduce stress levels. If you live alone, pets can help overcome loneliness and encourage the feeling of responsibility for another being. Pets can also teach people with learning difficulties to communicate with the outside world. That is the miracle of pet ownership.

There is the inevitable downside to pet ownership. The death of a pet can lead to the same, or similar feelings of loss that we experience when we lose a human member of our family.

 

№ 8 The Ancient Egyptian pyramids are some of the most impressive structures ever built by human. Many of the pyramids are still present today for us to see and explore.

The pyramids were built as burial places to the Pharaohs. As part of their religion, the Egyptians believed that the Pharaoh needed certain things to take with him in the afterlife.

Deep inside the pyramids lays the Pharaoh's burial chamber which would be filled with treasure and various items for the Pharaoh to use in the afterlife. The walls were often covered with carvings and paintings. Near the Pharaoh's chamber would be other rooms where family members and servants were buried. There were often smaller rooms that acted as temples and larger rooms for storage. Narrow passageways led to the outside.

 

№ 8 Modern cell phones are capable of much more than just sending and receiving phone calls. Mobile phones used in today's world allow users to send and receive text messages, emails, photos and videos as well as access the internet, play games, listen to music, use GPS and more. The cell phone has become an important communication tool that is used by people all over the world to keep in contact with each other at any time.

Despite all the positive benefits of cell phones, there are also some negative side effects which include the danger of cell phones being used while driving, students cheating on tests by using their cell phone to access information. Cell phones are often banned in classrooms due to the distractions they can cause.

№ 9 A recent study shows that some male cockatoos create their own musical tools for drumming. The drumming and rhythm seem to be an extra component made to impress the ladies. Each bird has its own distinct style. Other animals (e.g. frogs and birds) use drumming and music to communicate as well, but cockatoos can drum at a steady rhythm, with a totally unique style, for up to half an hour — which takes quite a bit of practice.

Moreover, plenty of animals use tools, but far fewer make those tools themselves.

Among humans, a regular beat is associated with group-based activity, especially dancing. As for the cockatoos, drumming with a regular beat is a done solo.

№ 10 Writers have the reputation for being lonely. However, every now and then they forget about bonds of friendship with one another. Hemingway and Fitzgerald met in Paris in 1925. Fitzgerald had already published a few novels. Hemingway had not even published his first yet. Although despite the feeling of jealousy, the two became really close friends. Fitzgerald even helped edit "The Sun Also Rises". Fantasy giants Lewis and Tolkien first met at Oxford University, where both of them belonged to a group of writers known as The Inklings. They had a very intimate friendship, Tolkien even played a key role in converting Lewis to Christianity. That is not to say their friendship was perfect, however. They bickered over the quality of each other's work, and they finally drifted apart.

 

№ 11 It's not always easy to know how to be there for your friends. At first,try to understand a situation from your friend's point of view. Ask questions to get a sense of the problem or issue, but the main thing is to listen to them. You don't have to have all the answers, and don't assume that your friend wants advice — they might just want to talk so that they can work it out for themselves.

If your friend has a medical or mental health issue, a good way to offer support is to learn about what they've been diagnosed with. Being interested in what they're going through shows you care, and that you plan to stick around no matter what's going on. Ask them what they need.

If you're worried about someone and you want to be there for them, ask them what they need. You'll then know what they find helpful during tough times, and you can offer them support in a way that's genuinely helpful.

Hugging your friends is a great way to show you care for them. Physical contact can be really comforting, especially when someone feels alone.

 

№ 12 We go to a theatre to see a play, that is to say, a performance given by actors and actresses. A play of a serious character, dealing with important human problems is called a tragedy. A play of a humorous, lighter character is a comedy.Dramatists are called playwrights nowadays, and there are no longer such great dramatists as Shakespeare or Show.

If we want to go to a theatre, we buy tickets at a box office and show them to an attendant at an entrance. In the building, there is a hall, a large foyer and a cloakroom where we leave our overcoats, hats, etc. An audience can walk in the foyer in the intervals. Many doors lead to an auditorium consisting of stalls, boxes, and balconies. In front of the auditorium, there is a curtain separating it from a stage. The curtain rises when a play begins and falls at the end of each act.

 

№ 13 I will never forget my first visit to the Bolshoy Theatre. My mother bought two advance tickets for a performance of the ballet "Sleeping Beauty" by Tchaikovsky. We had come to the theatre long before the performance began. A sign at the entrance of the theatre said "full house". Many people were standing at the entrance of the theatre asking if we had an extra ticket.

We left our coats in the cloakroom and bought a programme from the usher to see what the cast was. I remember we were glad to see that Ulanova was dancing the main part. When we walked into the hall, the orchestra was tuning in their instruments. We found our seats which were in the stalls and went exploring the theatre. My mother showed me the boxes, the pit, the dress-circle and the balconies.

At 12 sharp, the lights went down. The conductor appeared, and the overture began. After the overture, the curtain went up. I had never seen anything more wonderful. The scenery and the dancing were superb. The ballet seemed to be a fairy tale. When the last curtain fell, the house burst into applause. The performance was a great success with the public. It was one of my brightest memories.

№ 14 Michelangelo Buonarotti is considered one of the greatest artists of the Renaissance. He is looked at as an equal counterpart to Leonardo da Vinci and Rafael. He was a true Renaissance man; a poet, an artist, a sculptor and an architect.

Michelangelo was born in a banking family just outside of Florence. When he was very young, his mother died, and his father sent him to live with a stone cutter's family.

Michelangelo always wanted to be an artist and he hated school. After studying for two years, Michelangelo discovered his true passion — sculpture. His father unwillingly sent him to the school for sculptors founded by the great Lorenzo de Medici. Lorenzo was a great patron of the arts and saw Michelangelo's talent early.

To enhance his knowledge of the human body, Michelangelo visited the monastery of San Spirito to examine the dead. At night he would dissect the corpses in secret. By knowing what the body looked like under the skin, and how the muscles work, he was able to create life-like drawings.

 

№ 15 Art has always been an interesting endeavor and it has been for a rather long period of time. Artists throughout the years have made a name for themselves and left lasting legacies that allowed many art lovers today to thank them for. And art, in any of its forms, has many stories to tell. There are plenty of stories about certain famous artists and their works. Such an example can be Leonardo da Vinci. Although many may have heard about Leonardo da Vinci's most famous artwork, the Mona Lisa, only a few may have known that it took the renowned artist 12 years just to paint and perfect Mona Lisa's lips. No wonder people are still trying to consider her mystical smile. During the time when the famous artwork was stolen from the Louvre in 1912, there were six replicas that were sold as originals, each at a very handsome price. This was done for a good three years until the original painting was finally recovered. Another thing to mention about Leonardo da Vinci is that he wrote all his personal notes in reverse, requiring others to use a mirror in order to read them. 

№ 16 Sports is something which almost all of us have done at some point in our lives. But, there are a few people who take it to a whole new level and do some of the most daring sports possible. Scuba diving is not for the faint-hearted. It was wonderful to explore the underwater world, but it is filled with many dangers. If a diver ascends too fast to reach the surface, it can lead to a life threatening condition. Then there is always a chance of getting attacked by such dangerous underwater animal as a shark. Mountain Climbing involves climbing up and down the mountains. The climbers are exposed to many risks. The sport requires the climbers to be extremely fit and you have to have years of experience before moving on to climb some of the tougher mountains.

 

№ 17 Robots start to play an active role in the medical check-ups of patients. They can do it at a distance if a patient is very far away from the hospital. Robotic technology is very important in telemedicine, but these days robots go one step further. They can mow patrol hospital corridors and call on the rooms to check on patients' health. After the examination of the patient, the robot can put all the results on record for the doctor to see and make further instructions to the medical staff. Medical robots look like a mobile cart with a video screen and medical monitoring equipment. The cart "knows" which way to go and which patients to monitor at a given time. This device frees the doctors' time.

 

№ 18 Chinese food is famous all over the world. Chinese cuisine has countless delicious and fantastic dishes. Ingredients of Chinese food are various and sometimes shocking to foreigners. Chinese cuisine varies even across China. There are many regional cuisines with different flavours: spicy, sweet, sour. China has its own unique dining culture and etiquette, which foreign visitors may find quite different from what they are used to. Chinese use chopsticks to pick up food, not knives and forks. There are usually not salt or pepper shakers, or tomato sauce on the table, but you may find bottles of soy sauce, vinegar, and chilli paste on the table. Some Chinese restaurant can be quite noisy and smoky where people don't control their talking volume or smoking. Tips are not expected in Chinese restaurant, as the service fee is included in the food price.

 

№ 19 Many pieces of clothing are invented for a functional purpose before they ever become fashionable, but as they become symbolic of a certain kind of lifestyle, certain items become expressive of meaning. For example, cowboy boots originated as functional footwear for men working in the West. Cowboys were seen as rugged and individualistic because of the demands of their occupation, and cowboy boots have persisted as a choice fashion item for people wishing to express these values. Even when worn far from ranches or cows, cowboy boots continue to signify values that appeal to people everywhere. Fashion is often fueled by the desire to be different enough to stand out but similar to belong to the group that your clothing helps to identify.

№ 20 What are the best careers for the future? How will everything change? Is it possible to prepare for the jobs of tomorrow — today? Many of us would love to have definite answers for these questions. Unfortunately, nobody can say for sure what the future holds. The best we can do is make intelligent guesses based on past and current trends. Still, even such guesses can help us imagine some pretty astonishing possibilities.

Here's one thing we know: change will keep happening. America and the rest of the world will experience social, cultural, economic, environmental, and technological changes. Some of these changes can be foreseen (such as the likely impact of climate change). But many of them can't be predicted. New challenges may arise without any warning. And "happy accidents" may lead to positive new discoveries that solve long-standing problems.

 

№ 22 In the past, wealthy people travelled to distant parts of the world to see great buildings, works of art, learn new languages, experience new cultures, and taste different cuisines. During the Roman Republic, coastal resorts were popular among the rich. Modern tourism can be traced to what was known as the Grand Tour, which was a traditional trip around Europe, especially Germany and Italy, undertaken by mainly upper-class. Mass tourism developed with improvements in technology, which allowed to transport a large number of people in a short period of time to places of leisure interest, so that greater numbers of people could began to enjoy the benefits of their leisure time. Nowadays, tourists have a wide range of budgets and tastes, and a wide variety of resorts and hotels have developed to cater for them. For example, some people prefer simple beach vacations while others want more specialized holidays and quieter resorts.

№ 23 

What is the most popular sport in the world? Football, of course! This is the favourite game in 160 countries in the world. Millions of people play football on the streets, in parks and of course in a football pitch. In Russia this sport is very popular, too. Many people play football with friends at weekends and watch it on television. Russia was awarded the 2018 FIFA World Cup on the 2nd of December 2018, hosting the tournament for the first time. The event took place from 14 June to 15 July 2018, in which the Russian team had its best performance since the 1966 tournament, reaching the quarter-finals for the first time since the breakup of the Soviet Union, where they lost to eventual finalists Croatia.

Unfortunately, Russia has never won any football World Cup. That is why Russian fans are very pessimistic. They think up jokes about Russian football players, but deep in their hearts they hope that someday Russia will definitely win!

 

№ 24 Every person loves the place where he or she was born, but people are always wondering whether the country or the city is the ideal place to live. Let us consider what the advantages and the disadvantages of life in the city and life in the country are. It is clear that fishing, walks in the forest or just enjoying the sunrise can be a part of your daily life if you live in the countryside. Besides, living in the countryside is cheaper and safer than in a city. Finally, life in the countryside is quiet, peaceful, and healthy.

The problem of employment in the countryside is really crucial today. It is especially acute for young people and professionals. In 330 BC, Aristotle wrote that, by nature, a man belonged to a city. Many people love busy city life. The first thing that needs to be said is living in a metropolis provides plentiful opportunities, both in career and studies. Different sorts of enterainment such as museums, music halls, theaters, exhibitions, restaurants, nightclubs are located in cities.

However, among the disadvantages, there are high prices, crime, enormous traffic jams with overcrowded noisy streets. Also, pollution is the greatest disadvantage of city life today.

№ 25 Life in a city is much easier than in the country — developed transport system, sewerage system, sports clubs, shopping mails, etc. Modern men are too sophisticated for simple country pleasures. There is far more entertainment in a city than in the country. Cities offer high concentration of good things in life: big stores, restaurants, theatres, cinema, art galleries. Life is more convenient in a city, as services are always better there. It is possible to go out, make friends and never be cut off from them by weather conditions. Generally, people do not mind what you do in a city. In the country, everybody knows you and expects you to live and behave in a certain way. Moreover, life is never dull in a city; people always have something to do there.

It is needless to say that citizens are more advantaged in education. Students have museum classes and excursions. They can attend lectures and preparatory courses, and therefore have more chances to enter this or that university. After graduating from a university, the residents of big cities are more likely to find a prestigious and well-paid job. They are more communicative, more experienced. They usually have more friends and relatives to help them. In a city, people have more chances to succeed.

№ 26 Men and women button their clothes differently. There is a good reason for the difference. Buttons were first used for clothes more than 700 years ago. Buttons were expensive then, and only rich people could buy them. Most men are right-handed, so men’s clothes were made to be buttoned easily by right-handed men. In those days most rich women were dressed by their right-handed servants. The servants faced the women to button their clothes. Women’s clothes had buttons on the left so they could be buttoned easily by the servants.

№ 27 Kites are popular toys on windy days. We can make a kite of paper, plastic or cloth. We need to stretch it across a light frame. Kites fly high in the air at the ends of long strings. Kites come in many sizes and shapes. For example, some kites have a very simple shape, but others can be in the shape of animals. It is better to fly a kite when there are two people. One person holds the kite facing the wind. The other person holds the kite's string. Many children and even adults fly kites for fun. There are even kite clubs and special events.

 

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Методическая разработка для системной подготовки к устной части ВПР по английскому языку для 7 класса по разделу чтение. Материал состоит из краткого описания особенности чтения текста на английском языке (фонетика,тон). 27 подобранных по лексическим темам текста послужат дополнением к заданиям учебника

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