Государственное бюджетное профессиональное образовательное учреждение Краснодарского края
«Новороссийский социально – педагогический колледж»
по английскому языку
«COMPUTER SYSTEMS: AN OVERVIEW»
Данная разработка предназначена для расширенного изучения английского языка в области информационных технологий. Представленный материал позволяет не только углубить знания в английском языке, но и овладеть основами компьютерной грамотности. Разработка содержит тексты из оригинальной литературы, посвященные теме «Компьютеры и информационные системы», учебные задания, способствующие усвоению и запоминанию специальных терминов по компьютерным технологиям, задания для развития навыков чтения, свертывания и развертывания информации при составлении рефератов на английском языке.
Автор: Чатоева Ольга Михайловна,
преподаватель английского языка.
COMPUTER SYSTEMS: AN OVERVIEW
Text 1. COMPUTER SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
As we know all computer systems perform the functions of inputting, storing, processing, controlling, and outputting. Now we'll get acquainted with the computer system units that perform these functions. But to begin with let's examine computer systems from the perspective of the system designer, or architect.
It should be noted that computers and their accessory equipment are designed by a computer system architect, who usually has a strong engineering background. As contrasted with the analyst, who uses a computer to solve specific problems, the computer system architect usually designs computer that can be used for many different applications in many different business. For example, the product lines of major computer manufacturers such as IBM, Digital Equipment Corporation and many others are the result of the efforts of teams of computer system architects.
Unless you are studying engineering, you don't need to become a computer system architect. However, it is important that as a potential user, applications programmer or systems analyst you understand the functions of the major units of a computer system and how they work together.
Types of computers
The two basic types of computers are analog and digital. Analog computers simulate physical systems. They operate on the basis of an analogy to the process that is being studied. For example, a voltage may be used to represent other physical quantities such as speed, temperature, or pressure. The response of an analog computer is based upon the measurement of signals that vary continuously with time. Hence, analog computers are used in applications that require continuous measurement and control.
Digital computers, as contrasted with analog computers, deal with discrete rather than continuous quantities. They count rather than measure. They use numbers instead of analogous physical quantities to simulate on-going or real-time processes. Because they are discrete events, commercial transactions are in a natural form for digital computation. This is one reason that digital computers are so widely used in business data processing.
Machines that combine both analog and digital capabilities are called hybrid computers. Many business, scientific, and industrial computer applications rely on the combination of analog and digital devices. The use of combination analog devices will continue to increase with the growth in applications of microprocessors and microcomputers. An example of this growth is the trend toward installing control systems in household appliances such as microwave ovens and sewing machines. In the future we will have complete indoor climate control systems and robots to do our housecleaning. Analog sensors will provide inputs to the control centre of these systems, which will be small digital computers.
Ознакомьтесь с терминами текста 1.
Architecture — архитектура
структура architect— разработчик архитектуры (системы, структуры)
Unit— устройство, модуль, блок, элемент, составная часть accessory equipment — вспомогательные устройства engineering background— техническая подготовка, квалификация
Analyst ['æn list] — аналитик системный разработчик
Product line — серия (компьютерных) продуктов manufacturer — изготовитель, производитель, разработчик application programmer — прикладной программист to simulate — моделировать, имитировать
Voltage — напряжение
Pressure — давление, сжатие
Digital computer — цифровой компьютер
Hybrid computer — смешанного типа, аналого-цифровой компьютер discrete — дискретный; отдельный
Continuous quantity — непрерывная величина
On-going process —продолжающийся, постоянный, непрерывный процесс
To rely — основываться на ч.-л., полагаться
To install — устанавливать, размещать, монтировать, настраивать
Household appliances — домашние приборы /устройства
Microwave oven — микроволновая печь
Indoor climate control system — система регуляции температуры в доме
1. Просмотрите текст еще раз. Ответьте на вопросы, используя информацию текста.
1. Who designs computers and their accessory equipment? 2. What is the role of an analyst? 3. Is it necessary for a user to become a computer system architect? 4. What functions do computer systems perform? 5. What types of computers do you know? 6. What is the principle of operation of analog computers? 7. How do digital computers differ from analog computers? 8. Where are digital and analog computers used? 9. What are hybrid computers? 10. Where do they find application?
2. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих словосочетаний:
Функции ввода; хранения; обработки; управления и вывода информации; познакомиться; системные блоки; для начала; вспомогательные устройства; разработчик компьютерной системы; хорошая компьютерная подготовка; различные сферы применения; корпорация цифрового оборудования; прикладной программист; системный разработчик; главные устройства компьютерной системы; моделировать физические величины; измерение сигналов; в отличие от; иметь дело скорее с дискретными, чем непрерывными величинами; в режиме реального времени; коммерческие операции; цифровое вычисление; аналого-цифровые компьютеры; тенденция к установке систем управления; бытовые приборы.
3. Образуйте (и переведите) имена существительные от приведенных ниже глаголов с помощью суффиксов:
A. -er, -or
То control, to compute, to design, to use, to manufacture, to work, to simulate, to operate, to protect, to process, to deal, to perform, to examine, to program, to execute, to transmit, to convert, to print, to consume, to record.
B. -tion, -sion
To organize, to collect, to combine, to apply (ic), to represent, to add, to corporate, to transact, to compute, to produce, to operate, to execute, to protect, to substitute, to prepare, to invent, to decide, to eliminate, to communicate, to correct, to inform.
To require, to measure, to equip, to invest, to accomplish, to improve, to develop, to achieve, to displace, to govern, to move, to establish, to replace.
4. Переведите предложения, содержащие Participle I и Participle II, в функции обстоятельства.
1. When entering the Internet, I always find a lot of interesting information. 2. Though never built Babbage's analytical engine was the basis for designing today's computers. 3. When written in a symbolic language programs require the translation into the machine language. 4. While operating on the basis of analogy analog computers simulate physical systems. 5. When used voltage represents other physical quantities in analog computers. 6. Being discrete events commercial transactions are in a natural form for a digital computer. 7. As contrasted with the analyst, the computer system architect designs computers for many different applications. 8. While dealing with discrete quantities digital computers count rather than measure. 9. When using a microcomputer you are constantly making choice — to open a file, to close a file, and so on. 10. As known all computer systems perform the functions of inputting, storing, processing, controlling, and outputting.
Text 2. HARDWARE, SOFTWARE, AND FIRMWARE
The units that are visible in any computer are the physical components of a data processing system, от hardware. Thus, the input, storage, processing and control devices are hardware. Not visible is the software — the set of computer programs, procedures, and associated documentation that make possible the effective operation of the computer system. Software programs are of two types: systems software and applications software.
Systems software are the programs designed to control the operation of a computer system. They do not solve specific problems. They are written to assist people in the use of the computer system by performing tasks, such as controlling all of the operations required, to move data into and out of a computer and all of the steps in executing an application program. The person who prepares systems software is referred to as a systems programmer. Systems programmers are highly trained specialists and important members of the architectural team.
Applications software are the programs written to solve specific problems (applications), such as payroll, inventory control, and investment analysis. The word program usually refers to an application program, and the word programmer is usually a person who prepares applications software.
Often programs, particularly systems software, are stored in an area of memory not used for applications software. These protected programs are stored in an area of memory called read-only memory (ROM), which can be read from but not written on.
Firmware is a term that is commonly used to describe certain programs that are stored in ROM. Firmware often refers to a sequence of instructions (software) that is substituted for hardware. For example, in an instance where cost is more important than performance, the computer system architect might decide not to use special electronic circuits (hardware) to multiply two numbers, but instead write instructions (software) to cause the machine to accomplish the same function by repeated use of circuits already designed to perform addition.
Ознакомьтесь с терминами текста 2.
Hardware — аппаратное обеспечение; аппаратура; оборудование software — программное обеспечение; программные средства system software — системное программное обеспечение
Application software — прикладное программное обеспечение firmware — встроенное /микропроцессорное программное обеспечение
Visible units — видимый блок, устройство
Procedure — процедура, процесс; метод, методика; алгоритм to associate — соединять; объединять; связывать
Associated documentation — соответствующая документация to execute applications programs — выполнять прикладные программы payroll — платежная ведомость
Inventory control — инвентаризация; переучет investment analyses — анализ инвестиций (капиталовложений) to protect — защищать
Read-only memory (ROM) — постоянное запоминающее устройство (ПЗУ)
To refer to — относиться к; ссылаться на
To substitute — заменять; замещать
To cause — заставлять, вынуждать; причина, основание
To accomplish — завершать, заканчивать; выполнять, осуществлять
Performance — производительность; быстродействие; рабочая характеристика
1. Ответьте на вопросы, используя информацию текста.
1. What is hardware? 2. Give the definition of software. 3. What are the types of software? 4. What are systems software? 5. What kind of tasks do systems software perform? 6. Who prepares systems software? 7. What are applications software? 8. What problems do applications software solve? 9. What is firmware? 10. How can a computer system architect use firmware?
2. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих словосочетаний:
Видимые устройства; система обработки данных; аппаратное обеспечение; набор компьютерных программ; соответствующая документация; эффективная работа; системное программное обеспечение; прикладное программное обеспечение; системный программист; платежная ведомость; переучет; анализ инвестиций; прикладная программа; работающий только в режиме чтения; постоянное запоминающее устройство; последовательность команд; в случае; производительность; электронная цепь; умножать числа; заставить машину выполнять ту же функцию; выполнять сложение.
3. Вспомните значение новых слов и попытайтесь перевести словосочетания, употребляемые с этими словами.
Architecture: communication architecture; computer architecture; disk architecture; microprocessor architecture; network architecture; security architecture; system architecture; virtual architecture.
Software: system software; application software; database software; disk software; educational software; game software; management software; simulation software.
Hardware: computer hardware; device hardware; display hardware; memory hardware; mouse hardware; network hardware; system hardware; video hardware.
Procedure: accounting procedure; computational procedure; control procedure; data-processing procedure; decision procedure; error-correcting procedure; formatting procedure; installation procedure; management procedure; solution procedure.
Protection: computer protection; data protection; device protection; display protection; error protection; hardware protection; software protection; resource protection; security protection; system protection; virus protection.
4. Озаглавьте каждый компонент текста и составьте небольшой реферат к нему выполните письменный перевод.
STEPS IN THE DEVELOPING OF COMPUTERS
1. In 1948 due to the invention of transistors there appeared the possibility to replace vacuum tubes. The transistor occupied an important place on the way to computer development. The potential advantage of the transistor over the vacuum tube was almost as great as that of the vacuum tube over the relay. A transistor can switch flows of electricity as fast as the vacuum tubes used in computers, but the transistors use much less power than equivalent vacuum tubes, and are considerably smaller. Transistors are less expensive and more reliable. They were mechanically rugged, had practically unlimited life and could do some jobs better than electronic tubes. Transistors were made of crystallic solid material called semiconductor.
With the transistor came the possibility of building computers with much greater complexity and speed.
2. The integrated circuit constituted another major step in the development of computer technology. Until 1959 the fundamental logical components of digital computers were the individual electrical switches, first in the form of relays, then vacuum tubes, then transistors. In the vacuum tubes and relay stages, additional discrete components, such as resistors, inductors, and capacitors were required in order to make the whole system work. These components were generally each about the same size as packaged transistors. Integrated circuit technology permitted the elimination of some of these components and integration of most of the others on the same chip of semiconductor that contains the transistor. Thus the basic logic element — the switch, or "flip-flop', which required two separate transistors and some resistors and capacitors in the early 1950s, could be packaged into a single small unit in 1960. The chip was an important achievement in the accelerating step of computer technology.
3. In 1974 a company in New Mexico, called Micro Instrumentation Telemetry System (MITS) developed the Altair 8800, a personal computer (PC) in a kit. The Altair had no keyboard, but a panel of switches with which to enter the information. Its capacity was less than one per cent that of the 1991 Hewlett-Packard handheld computer. But the Altair led to a revolution in computer electronics that continues today. Hardware manufacturers soon introduced personal computers, and software manufacturers began developing software to allow the computers to process words, manipulate data, and draw. During the 1980s computers became progressively smaller, better and cheaper.
Today the personal computer can serve as a work station for the individual. A wide array of computer functions are now accessible to people with no technical background.
1. Подберите вместо пропусков подходящее по смыслу слово
1. Computers and their ______ equipment are designed by a computer system architect.
a) Engineering; b) accessory; c) specific.
2. Digital computers use numbers instead of analogous physical ______.
a) symbols; b) equipment; c) quantities.
3. Systems ______ are usually stored in read-only memory.
a) hardware; b) software; c) firmware.
4. A computer is a machine with a complex network of electronic ______ that operate switches.
a) circuits; b) cores; c) characters.
5. In modern electronic computers the ______ is the device that acts as a switch.
a) integrated circuit; b) diode; c) transistor.
6. A number of actions that convert data into useful information is defined as______.
a) data; b) processing; c) data processing.
7. Computers can store, organize and retrieve great amounts of information, far beyond the______ of humans.
a) capacities; b) capabilities; c) accuracy.
8. The analyst ______ a computer for solving problems, while the computer system architect ______ computers.
a) requires; b) designs; c) uses.
9. The use of______ computers will continue to increase with the growth in applications of microprocessors and minicomputers.
a) analog; b) digital; c) hybrid.
10. The development of third generation computers became possible due to the invention of______.
a) integrated circuits; b) electronic tubes; c) transistors.
2. Согласуйте слова в левой колонке с их интерпретацией, предложенной справа.
1. Computer a) a combination of interconnected circuit elements produced in a chip to perform a definite function;
2. Analog computer b) a sequence of instructions enabling the computer to solve a given task;
3. Digital computer c) a tiny piece of silicon containing complex electronic circuits used inside all computers;
4. Hardware d) a system which processes and stores great amount of data solving problems of numerical computation;
5 Software e) a device which can carry out routine mental tasks by performing simple operations at high speed;
6 Program f) electronic and mechanical equipment in a computer system;
7 Programming g) a set of programs, procedures and associated documentation;
8 Integrated circuit h) the process of preparation a set of coded instructions for a computer;
9 Chip i) a device that has input and output represented in the form of physical quantities;
10 Transistor j) a small piece of a semiconductor that greatly reduced power consumption of a circuit.
3. Раскройте скобки, употребляя:
А. Правильную неличную форму глагола
1 Computing is a concept (embraced; embracing; for embracing) not only arithmetic, but also computer literacy. 2. We can make the computer do what we want (inputted; to input; by inputting) signals (turning; turned; without turning) switches on and off. 3. Computers have a means (by communicating; of communicating; communicated) with the user. 4 Computers work according to the instructions (giving; given; to give) to it by users. 5. The transistor (inventing; invented; for inventing) in 1948 completely changed the vacuum tubes.
Б. Глагол в действительном или страдательном залоге
1. Computers (applied; are applied; are applying) for automatic piloting and automatic navigation. 2. The programs (write- have written; are written) to help people m the use the computer system. 3. As digital computers (count, counted; are counted) quickly, they widely (use; used; are used) in business data processing. 4. Once data (entered; have entered, have been entered) correctly into the data processing system the possibility of error (reduced; is reduced; are reduced). 5. It is known that an analyst (use; uses; is used) a computer to solve specific problems.
4. Прочтите текст и выберите правильные ответы на поставленные ниже вопросы к тексту.
FROM THE HISTORY OF COMPUTER DEVELOPMENT IN RUSSIA
As it is well known, Russian scientists made great contribution into the development of computers. Russian mathematician P. Chebyshev who lived in the 19th century was interested in calculators. Among many other mechanisms invented by him there was an arithmometer designed in 1876. It was one of the most unique calculating machines of the time. At the beginning of the 20th century Academic A.Krylov constructed a mechanical integrator for solving differential equations.
The first Soviet computer, a small-size computing machine (MESM) was tested in 1950 under Academician S.Lebedev. Next year it was put into operation. In a year MESM was followed by BESM, a large- size electronic computing machine, with 8000 operations per second.
Serial production of computers in the USSR has been started since 1953. That year U.Basilevsky headed the design and manufacture of computer STRELA. 1958 witnessed the production of M-20, computers of the first generation under the guidance of S.Lebedev. The first generation of electron tube computers was followed by the second generation of photo transistor computers, using magnetic logic elements.
Starting with 1964 semiconductor computers Academician B.M.Glushkov URAL, BESM-4 and M-220 were produced. Under Academician Glushkov small-size computers MIR, MIR-2 and DNEPR were designed and tested at the Institute of Cybernetics.
In the late 60s together with other members of the Council of Mutual Economic Assistance the Soviet Union started on the program of Unified Computer System, the program concerned with the third generation of computers with high-speed performance and program compatibility (совместимость).
1. What was one of the first achievements in the sphere of calculating in Russia?
a) calculator; b) arithmometer; c) mechanical integrator.
2. When was the first Soviet computer put into operation?
a) in 1950; b) in 1951; c) in 1952.
3. Who headed the serial production of computers in the
a) A.Krylov; b) S.Lebedev; c) U. Basilevsky.
4. Which machine was the first in the development of the first
a) MESM; b) STRELA; с) М-20.
5. When did the production of the third generation computers begin?
a) late 60s; b) early 70s; c) late 70s.
I. Quiz-game "What do you know about computers?" (Who is the first to give the right answers to the questions below?)
1. What does "a computer-literate" person mean?
2. What is the role of computers in our society?
3. What is electronics?
4. Where are electronic devices used?
5. What invention contributed to the appearance of electronics?
6. When and where was the transistor invented?
7. What advantages did the transistor have over the vacuum tube?
8. When was the integrated circuit discovered?
9. What is the essence of the integrated circuit?
10. What is microelectronics?
11. What techniques does microelectronics use?
12. What scales of integration are known to you?
13. What do you understand by microminiaturization?
14. What was the very first calculating device?
15. Who gave the ideas for producing logarithm tables?
16. Who invented the first calculating machine?
17. How was the first calculating machine called?
18. What was the first means of coding data?
19. What Business Corporation was the first to produce computers?
20. In what fields were the first computers used?
21. When was the first analog computer built?
22. What was the name of the first digital computer?
23. Who built the first digital computer?
24. What is ENIAC? Decode it.
25. Who contributed the idea of storing data and instructions in binary code?
26. What does binary code mean?
27. What were computers of the first generation based on?
28. What invention contributed to the appearance of the second generation computers?
29. What was the essence of the third computer generation?
30. What is the basis of the fourth computer generation?
31. What is a computer?
32. What are the main functions of the computers?
33. What is a program?
34. What are data?
35. What is data processing?
36. Name four advantages of computer data processing.
37. What is capacity storage?
38. What is hardware?
39. What is software?
40. Who designs computers?
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