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Инфоурок / Иностранные языки / Другие методич. материалы / Методическая разработка по английскому языку на тему "WORLD ATTITUDES TOWARDS TRADE AND PROTECTION"

Методическая разработка по английскому языку на тему "WORLD ATTITUDES TOWARDS TRADE AND PROTECTION"

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Государственное бюджетное профессиональное образовательное учреждение Краснодарского края

«Новороссийский социально – педагогический колледж»






Методическая разработка

по английскому языку

по теме



«WORLD ATTITUDES TOWARDS TRADE AND PROTECTION»













Новороссийск, 2016

WORLD ATTITUDES TOWARDS TRADE AND PROTECTION

 

After the Wall Street crash of 1929, the world plunged into the Great Depression. Countries found their exports falling dramatically and many suffered severe balance of payments difficulties. The response of many countries was to restrict imports by the use of tariffs and quotas. Of course, this reduced other countries’ exports, which encouraged them to resort to even greater protectionism. The net effect of the Depression and the rise in protectionism was a dramatic fall in world trade. The volume of world trade in manufactures fell by more than a third in the three years following the Wall Street crash. Clearly there was a net economic loss to the world from this decline in trade.

After the war there was a general desire to reduce trade restrictions, so that all countries could gain the maximum benefits from trade. In 1947, 23 countries got together and signed the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). Today there are some 130 members of its successor organisation, the World Trade Organisation (WTO), which was formed in 1995. The members of the WTO account for over 90 per cent of world trade. The aims of GATT, and now the WTO, have been to liberalise trade. Periodically, member countries have met to negotiate reductions in tariffs and other trade restrictions. There have been eight rounds of such negotiations since 1947. The three major ones were the Kennedy Round (1964-1967), the Tokyo Round (1973-1979) and the Uruguay Round (1986-1993). The Kennedy Round led to tariff reductions averaging 35 per cent. The Tokyo Round involved agreements for tariff reductions of about 33 per cent, but many of the reductions in the event were less than those agreed.

In addition to the negotiated reductions in trade restrictions, GATT provides various rules governing trade:

Most favoured nation clause. This requires that any trade concession that a country makes to one member must then be granted to all signatories.

• The general prohibition of quotas (but with notable exceptions: e.g. agricultural imports.)

• Special arrangements for developing countries to permit them a greater use of protection than developed countries.

• The forbidding of any member from taking retaliatory action against countries it suspects of unfair trade practices.

The balance of payments problems that many countries experienced after the oil crisis of 1973 and the recession of the early 1980s led many politicians round the world to call for trade restrictions. Although a tariff war was averted, there was a gradual increase in non-tariff barriers, such as subsidies on domestic products, the prohibition of imports that did not meet precise safety or other specifications, administrative delays in customs clearance, limits on investment by foreign companies, and governments favouring domestic firms when purchasing supplies.

Quotas were increasingly used, especially against Japanese imports. In most cases these were ‘voluntary’ agreements. Japan, on a number of occasions, agreed to restrict the number of cars it exported to various European countries. Similar restrictions applied to Japanese televisions and videos. Over 200 voluntary restraint arrangements (VRAs) (also known as voluntary export restraints (VERs)) were inforced around the world in 1990.

The problem of increasing non-tariff barriers has been recognised in the Uruguay Round of GATT negotiations, and arrangements have been sought to dismantle many of them.

 

I. Study the following vocabulary list:

plunge

- бросаться, погружаться; влезать в долги

  plunge into

- попадать, ввергать, доводить

resort to

- прибегать к, обращаться за  помощью

   resort

- обращение, прибежище

effect

- n следствие,результат,   действие, влияние

  v выполнять, совершать, осуществлять

    net effect

- чистое следствие

  effective

- действительный, эффективный

  effectiveless

- безрезультатный,   неэффективный

  effectiveness

- эффективность

event

- событие, случай, результат

    in the event

-  в конечном результате

most favoured nation

- страна, на которую    распространяется      

  режим  наибольшего  благоприятствования  

  в  торговле

concession

- уступка, концессия

  make concessions

- идтинауступки

  concessive

- уступчивый

grant

- n предоставление, дотация,   уступка

  v предоставлять, допускать, разрешать

sign

- подписывать

  signature

- подпись

  signatory

- сторона, подписавшая документ

prohibit

- запрещать, мешать,   препятствовать

  prohibition

- запрещение

  prohibitive

- препятствующий,  запретительный

recess

- отодвигать назад

  recession

- спад, снижение

avert

- предотвращать, отводить,  отвлекать

  aversion

- отвращение, антипатия

  avertible

- предотвратимый

precise

- определенный, точный, четкий

  precisely

- точно, именно

specifications

- спецификации, условие;   инструкция  по 

  обращению

customs

- таможенное управление

    customs clearance

- таможеннаяочистка

voluntary

- добровольный, сознательный

  volunteer

- n доброволец; 

  v предлагать, вызываться добровольно

restrain

- сдерживать, держать в рамках

  restraint

- ограничение, сдержанность

arrange

- устраивать, договариваться

  arrangement

- соглашение; договоренность; устройство;

  организация

arrangements

- планы; меры; мероприятия

dismantle

- снимать, разбирать; устранять

 

II. Pronounce correctly:

plunge, dramatically, severe, encourage, resort, effect, successor, liberalise, negotiate, Tokyo, Uruguay, clause, concession, grant, signatory, retaliatory, recession, precise, administrative, clearance, Japanese, voluntary, dismantle.

 

III. Couple the words with their synonyms in brackets:

crash, response, to encourage, to reduce, decline, desire, restriction, to negotiate, in the event, prohibition, to permit, signatory, to avert, to dismantle

(to lower, limitation, to prevent, party, bankruptcy, to stimulate, wish, recession, in the end, to eliminate, to allow, to carry on talks, reply, embargo)

 

IV. Find the following English word-combinations in the text and translate them into Russian:

to plunge into the Great Depression, to suffer difficulties, to resort to protectionism, net effect, to gain benefits, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, the World Trade Organisation, to account for, rounds of negotiations, to govern the trade, most favoured nation, prohibition of quotas, notable exceptions, retaliatory action, oil crisis, to avert the war, to meet precise safety and other specifications, customs clearance, voluntary restraint, arrangement, to dismantle non-tariff barriers

 

V.  Find in the text the English equivalents for the following word-combinations:

отношение к торговле, платежный баланс, ограничивать импорт, спад в торговле, общее желание, организация-преемник, вести переговоры, в конечном результате, идти на уступки, сторона договора, подозревать в чем-либо, экономический спад, постепенное увеличение, административная отсрочка, в ряде случаев, ”добровольное” соглашение

 

VI. Give English equivalents for the following. Consult your dictionary:

negotiations

вести переговоры; ведутся переговоры; переговоры на высшем уровне; путем переговоров; потерпеть неудачу в переговорах; обсуждение условий контракта; переговоры по вопросам о таможенных тарифах; переговоры о заработной плате

  recession

вызывать экономический спад; падение спроса; спад деловой активности; спад, охвативший всю экономику; спад в темпах роста; инфляционный спад; долгосрочный спад; краткосрочный спад

  arrangement(s)

в соответствии с соглашением; частное соглашение сторон; соглашение о закупках; компенсационное соглашение; административная структура; организационная структура; штатное расписание; организация рабочего места; мероприятия по технике безопасности; меры переходного характера 

VII. Match the following words and phrases to make complete expressions from the text:

A.

Great

crisis

net

organisation

dramatic

delays

decline

exceptions

trade

Depression

tariff

fall

successor

clearance

make

action

notable

effect

retaliatory

in trade

oil

restrictions

non-tariff

reductions

administrative

a concession

customs

barriers

B.

balance

economic

Organisation

Wall

restraint

arrangements

net

televisions

crash

World

of payments

difficulties

most

Street

and videos

unfair

Trade

nation

Japanese

favoured

loss

voluntary

trade

practices

 

VIII. Complete the blank spaces with prepositions where necessary:

1. .... 1929 the world plunged .... the Great Depression.

2. The response of many countries was to restrict imports .... the use ..... tariffs  

    and quotas.

3. The volume of trade ..... manufactures fell .... more than a third.

4. The net effect .... the Depression and the rise .... protectionism was a

    dramatic fall .... world trade.

5. Clearly there was a net economic loss to the world ..... this decline .... trade.

6. The members .... the WTO account .... over 90 per cent of world trade.

7. The Tokyo Round involved agreements .... tariff reductions of about 33

    percent, but many of the reductions .... the event were less than those agreed.

8. Although a tariff war was averted, there was a gradual increase .... non-tariff

    barriers, such as administrative delays .... customs clearance and limits ....

    investment by foreign companies.

9. Japan, .... a number of occasions, agreed to restrict the number ..... cars it

    exported to various European countries.

 

IX. Complete the text using the words in the box:

multilateral talks, international organisations and agreements, reductions in tariff levels, nontariff barriers to trade, disputes, rules of conduct, community, substantial, cuts, protection

 

After the end of World War II, several new ….. were instituted. One of these was GATT. GATT serves two main purposes in the international ….. . First, it sets ….. for international commerce and serves as an arena for hearings aimed at resolving international commercial ….. . Second, the GATT has provided a forum for a serues of ….. aimed at lowering levels of ….. around the world. Between 1947 and 1979 there have been seven rounds of these talks. Each round has led to ….. around the world. Each has begun because Congress had provided renewed authority to the President to negotiate tariff ….. .

The two most well-known and successful of these multilateral negotiations were the Kennedy Round talks held between 1964 and 1967 and the Tokyo Round talks held between 1974 and 1979. Both sets of talks led to ….. reductions in tariff levels of industrialised countries. The second round also produced some initial agreements on the reduction of certain ….. . 

X. Explain what is meant by:

balance of payment difficulties, to liberalise trade, rules governing trade, retaliatory action, to avert tariff war, customs clearance, voluntary restraint arrangement 

XI. Discuss with your partner:

- the features of the Great Depression and its results;

- the formation, activity and aims of the GATT and the WTO;

- the results of the three major rounds of negotiations of member countries;

- various rules provided by the GATT to govern trade;

- the reasons for a gradual increase in non-tariff barriers;

- the use of quotas against Japanese imports.

XII. Read, translate and summarize the text:

The Uruguay Round of the multileteral trade talks within the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) ended in Geneva on December 15,1993.

The 7-year negotiations in the ever-expanding GATT community resulted in a unique package of agreements on reciprocal liberalization of trade. Multilateral regulations will now apply to the merchandise and services which, due to various reasons, have stayed outside the international commerce for decades.

These include agricultural products, textiles, financial and telecommunications services, and air transportation. GATT countries also hammered out provisions for the trade in the intellectual property and set guidelines for national investment policies.

The WTO, which succeeded the GATT, would comprise not only the agreements concluded at both the Uruguay  and Tokyo conferences, but also the New Agreement on Trade in Services.

Economists have yet to assess the impact of the new regulations on the world trade and the global economy. However, the preliminary estimates by Western experts indicate that the liberalization of world trade will stabilize international commerce. Trade turnover is likely to start increasing by $195 billion annually in a decade. The developing world and transitional economies will probably account for $90 billion of this huge increment.

The GATT community, however, while patient toward its members, is often intolerant to outsiders. This tendency is more visible as the world continues to suffer from high unemployment and recession.

Russia applied for GATT membership in June 1993 but the Uruguay Round set new objectives - it will now aim at membership in the WTO. 

 XIII. Translate into English:

Важнейшая, характерная черта экономической политики нового Кабинета - ее тесная связь с номенклатурно-капиталистическим сектором и, соответственно, готовность сохранять мягкие бюджетные ограничения предприятий. Все решения нового Кабинета, начиная с отказа от идеи банкротства и кончая списанием задолженности агропромышленного комплекса, начиная с восстановления непрозрачных форм расчетов и заканчивая возвратом к индивидуальным системам налоговых отношений с крупными плательщиками, могли иметь только один результат - резкое сокращение поступлений денежных средств в бюджет.

В реальном исчислении, пересчитанном по индексу потребительских цен, реальные доходы Федерального бюджета сократились за последние полгода вдвое. В первые месяцы работы правительства, еще не в полном объеме освободившись от популистских иллюзий, характерных для коммунистического большинства, оно пыталось решать эту проблему за счет значительных по масштабу денежных эмиссий, вновь пойдя на крупные дефициты первичного бюджета. Как и следовало ожидать, результатом стал не рост производства, а быстрый разгон инфляции. Именно в декабре руководители правительства наконец понимают, что дальнейшее продолжение этой политики ведет к быстрому нарастанию социальных и политических проблем - с января правительство под влиянием Министерства финансов возвращается к более сдержанной денежной политике, ограничивая масштабы кредитования дефицитов средствами, необходимыми для обслуживания внешнего долга. Именно это послужило базой для стабилизации курса рубля в январе-феврале и некоторого снижения инфляции в феврале.

Но вместе с тем это относительное затишье призрачно, потому что базовые, фундаментальные проблемы финансового кризиса продолжают усугубляться.



 Автор: Чатоева Ольга Михайловна,

преподаватель английского языка 


 

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