Инфоурок / Иностранные языки / Другие методич. материалы / Методическая разработка по теме «Иммунная система. Укрепление иммунитета. Физические нагрузки».
Только сейчас Вы можете пройти дистанционное обучение на курсах повышения квалификации прямо на сайте "Инфоурок" со скидкой 40%. По окончании курсов Вы получите печатное удостоверение о повышении квалификации установленного образца (доставка удостоверения бесплатна).

Открыт приём заявок на новые курсы повышения квалификации:

- «Профилактическая работа в ОО по выявлению троллинга, моббинга и буллинга среди подростков» (108 часов)

- «Психодиагностика в образовательных организациях с учетом реализации ФГОС» (72 часа)

- «Укрепление здоровья детей дошкольного возраста как ценностный приоритет воспитательно-образовательной работы ДОО» (108 часов)

- «Профориентация школьников: психология и выбор профессии» (108 часов)

- «Видеотехнологии и мультипликация в начальной школе» (72 часа)

- «Патриотическое воспитание дошкольников в системе работы педагога дошкольной образовательной организации» (108 часов)

- «Психолого-педагогическое сопровождение детей с синдромом дефицита внимания и гиперактивности (СДВГ)» (72 часа)

- «Использование активных методов обучения в ВУЗе в условиях реализации ФГОС» (108 часов)

- «Специфика преподавания русского языка как иностранного» (108 часов)

- «Экологическое образование детей дошкольного возраста: развитие кругозора и опытно-исследовательская деятельность в рамках реализации ФГОС ДО» (108 часов)

- «Простые машины и механизмы: организация работы ДОУ с помощью образовательных конструкторов» (36 часов)

- «Федеральный государственный стандарт ООО и СОО по истории: требования к современному уроку» (72 часа)

- «Организация маркетинга в туризме» (72 часа)

Также представляем Вашему вниманию новый курс переподготовки «Организация тренерской деятельности по физической культуре и спорту» (300/600 часов, присваиваемая квалификация: Тренер-преподаватель).

Смотреть список всех 216 курсов со скидкой 40%

Методическая разработка по теме «Иммунная система. Укрепление иммунитета. Физические нагрузки».

библиотека
материалов

Государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение среднего профессионального образования города Москвы

«Медицинский колледж имени Клары Цеткин

Департамента здравоохранения города Москвы»











Методическая разработка


по теме «Иммунная система. Укрепление иммунитета. Физические нагрузки».


по дисциплине Иностранный язык (английский)


для специальности


060101 Лечебное дело

для студентов 4 курса














2014 г.


Лексический минимум по теме « Иммунитет»

lack – недостаток, не хватать

relative – относительный

previous – предыдущий

subcutaneous - подкожный

employ – применять, использовать

permanent – постоянный

capacity – способность

a sufficient amount – достаточное количество

occur – случаться, происходить

to invade – вторгаться

to surround – окружать

to destroy – разрушать

recovery - выздоровление

immune – невосприимчивый

previous – предыдущий

tissue – ткань

due to – благодаря

mucous- слизистый

growth- рост

to be able – быть в состоянии

subsequent- последующий

infection – инфекция

produce- производить

disease- болезнь

resistance – сопротивляемость

protective – защитный

virulent – заразный

to prevent – предотвращать

spread – распространение

vital – жизненный

suffer – страдать

moderate – умеренный

listlessness- апатия, безразличие

susceptibility – восприимчивость



















































So, we are going to discuss the problem of immunity today.

What do you know about immunity?



The Science of Immunology


All animal species are equipped to defend themselves against aggressors. Man’s real insight into the nature of infectious diseases is known to have come a hundred years ago.

The science of immunology began with an attempt to understand resistance to infection, which was thought to be the only function of the immune system. Its relationship to hypersensivity was recognized early in the 20 th century and led to explanation of the general biologic functions of the immune system, including a role of immunity to cancer, prevention of tissue transplantation from one individual to another, and the capacity of causing diseases by injuring normal tissue.








































Immunity

Infectious diseases are known to be caused by the invasion and growth of microorganisms in the human body. Infection may result from direct contact with patients or from indirect one.

But the human organism is known to have a specific capacity of resistance against infection, which is called immunity, is being natural and artificial (рис.2). Under various conditions it may be entirely lacking, it may be relative, rarely it may be absolute. A previous attack of an infectious disease produces a more or less permanent protection against subsequent infection.

In the course of their growth in the body many pathogenic microorganisms produce virulent poisons or toxins; they cause the characteristic symptoms of a particular disease. To meet the infection the cells of the body produce a chemical antidote which is specific for this particular infection and is known as an antitoxin. If the patient can produce a sufficient amount of this antidote to neutralize the toxins before the vital organs are injured recovery occurs. If the human body had not this capacity we should suffer from all infectious diseases.

If the toxin can be isolated from bacterial cultures and injected into men an artificial immunity can be produced which results from the formation of antitoxin.

The cellular elements of the tissues also take part in the protection of the organism against the infection. The presence of any infection usually produces leucocytes and bacteria in the tissues are surrounded by white cells or phagocytes which prevent the spread of bacteria destroying them.

If the reaction against invading bacteria is insufficient, vaccines may be injected subcutaneously to produce a more active resistance of the protective mechanisms of the body. Vaccines are employed not only to contribute to the treatment of a disease, but to establish an active artificial immunity.

Health can only be achieved and maintained with the support of a healthy immune system. The immune system is a complex structure of specialized cells, organs, lymphatic vessels, serum factors in the blood and the harmony they require to work well together. The immune system fights off disease-causing microorganisms and engineers the body’s healing processes. Signs of weakened immunity are all signs of increased susceptibility to illness.

Symptoms of weakened immunity may include:

  • fatigue;

  • listlessness;

  • repeated infection;

  • inflammation;

  • allergic reactions;

  • slow wound healing;

  • chronic diarrhea;

  • more than two colds per year;

  • difficulties with memory and concentration;

  • aches and pains;

mood disorders.



How Can I Strengthen My Immune System?

While it is difficult to enhance a normal functioning immune system, there are things that you can do to protect and strengthen your immune system during periods of illness or in the face of chronic disease. The three areas that are most important in protecting and bolstering the immune system are diet and nutrition, exercise, and stress reduction.


Задания для трех групп студентов с дальнейшим обсуждением в группе:


Exercise May Be Just What the Doctor Ordered

Fighting winter colds may be easier for people who exercise on daily basis (рис.3), because regular workouts may boost the immune system and increase resistance to colds and flu.

Too many exercises, on the other hand, may weaken the immune system and pave way for upper respiratory tract infections.

New studies show that people who exercise regularly may get sick less often than those who don’t.

In the walking group, natural killer cell activity increased. Immune – enhancing effects occurred during the walk and about one hour afterwards.

Another moderate exercise may boost the immune system is its stress –relieving capacity. Numerous studies indicate that exercise helps to reduce stress and raise mood. Research also shows that people under severe stress have impaired immune system activity. The physical and psychological stress of excessive exercise puts people at a higher risk of colds and flu.


Food

You can modify your diet by eating less saturated fat and animal protein (particularly red meat), by limiting dairy products (particularly those with fat), by modifying your use of oils and fats, and by eating more fresh fruits,

Try eliminating red meat from your diet or, if necessary, eat it no more than once every 10 days. Also eliminate or reduce your intake of fried meats. Try to replace the meats in your diet with servings of fish, particularly oily fish such as salmon (рис.6).

Eat more fruits and vegetables. Green leafy vegetables such as broccoli are very rich in antioxidants. Add several servings a week to your diet. Do not overcook them and think of creative ways to prepare them. Add more servings of other fruits and vegetables to your diet, as they are rich sources of antioxidants as well.

Add fiber to your diet. Fiber can be found in many types of whole grains. If you are going to add rice, which is healthy, try to add brown rice.

Drink plenty of water.



Stress and immunity

The final component for fine-tuning your immune system is reducing the stress in your life by achieving a higher level of spiritual harmony. Altered mood states such as depression, anxiety, and panic are harmful to the body in many ways. Secondary symptoms such as fatigue, difficulties with memory and concentration, aches and pains, and problems with sleep are common in people with mood disorders. Mood disorders also harm the immune system.

There are many techniques you can use to reduce stress and anxiety in your life. Simple techniques include breathing exercises or taking a walk and appreciating the beauty in the world around you.

Eliminate other negative factors such as drugs, alcohol, and tobacco.



Задания по тексту:

1.Найдите в тексте эквиваленты следующих слов:

недостаток, не хватать-

способность-

вторгаться-

выздоровление-

ткань-

рост-

быть в состоянии-

сопротивляемость-

заразный-

предотвращать-

распространение-


2.Ответьте на вопросы по тексту:


1) What are infectious diseases caused by?

2) What is immunity?

3) What do the cells of the body produce to meet the infection?

4) When can recover occur?

5) What also takes an active part in the protection of the organism against infection?

6) What helps to establish immunity?

7) What is the immune system?

8) What are the signs of weakened immunity?



3. Ролевая игра. Составление диалога « Рекомендации по укреплению здоровья» на основе прочитанных текстов « What Can I Do to Strengthen My Immunity».

Role-play: You are the doctor’s assistant. The patient complains of his problems and asks you to help him with the questions which bother him:

  • Why am I constantly feeling sick?

  • Is my smoking becoming a problem?

  • Am I eating a healthy diet?

  • Can I get help with my stress?

  • Why do I toss and turn during sleep?

  • Can I improve my immune system?

Используйте выражения:

You should… .

I’d like to recommend you… .

I think you should… .

I advise you to … .

You’ better… .

You must … .

You’d rather … .

You’d better not to … .










Эталоны ответов

1.Найдите в тексте эквиваленты следующих слов:

lack – недостаток, не хватать

capacity – способность

to invade – вторгаться

recovery - выздоровление

tissue – ткань

growth- рост

to be able – быть в состоянии

resistance – сопротивляемость

virulent – заразный

to prevent – предотвращать

spread – распространение

2. Ответы на вопросы:

1) Infectious diseases are caused by the invasion and growth of microorganisms in the human body.

2) Immunity is a specific capacity of resistance against infection.

3) The cells of the body produce a chemical antidote to meet the infection.

4) Recover occurs if the patient can produce a sufficient amount of antitoxin to neutralize the toxins.

5) The cellular elements of the tissues also take an active part in the protection of the organism against infection.

6) Vaccines help to establish immunity.

7) The immune system is a complex structure of specialized cells, organs, lymphatic vessels, serum factors in the blood and the harmony they require to work well together.

8) The signs of weakened immunity are fatigue, listlessness, repeated infection,

Inflammation, slow wound healing, allergic reactions, chronic diarrhea, more than two colds per year, difficulties with memory and concentration, aches and pains, mood disorders.


























































Общая информация

Номер материала: ДВ-207121

Похожие материалы