Государственное бюджетное профессиональное образовательное учреждение Краснодарского края
«Новороссийский социально – педагогический колледж»
по английскому языку
« Political system of the UK »
Данная разработка предназначена для студентов средних специальных образовательных учреждений и организаций.
Разработка содержит тексты по теме, упражнения и вопросы, которые способствуют закреплению лексико-грамматических навыков и умений. Особенностью данной методической разработки является ее коммуникативная направленность, предлагающая обучение умению вести беседу на английском языке и пониманию английской речи.
Данная разработка может быть использована для самостоятельного изучения темы.
Автор: Чатоева Ольга Михайловна,
преподаватель английского языка.
1. The constitution.
2. Three branches of government.
3. Political parties.
4. The British Commonwealth of nations.
Political system of the UK
Great Britain is a parliamentary monarchy. Officially the head of the state is the king or queen. The power of the monarch is not absolute but constitutional. The monarch acts only on the advice of the ministers.
The hereditary principle upon which the monarchy is founded is strictly observed. The now reigning monarch, Queen Elizabeth, II is a descendant of the Saxon King Egbert.
The monarch, be it king or queen, is the head of the executive body, an integral part of the legislature, the head of the judicial body, the commander -in-chief of the armed forces of the crown, the head of the Established Church of England and the head of the British Commonwealth of Nation.
1. THE CONSTITUTION.
Practically speaking, there is no written constitution in Great Britain. The term “English Constitution” means the leading principles, conventions and laws, many of which have been existing for centuries, though they have undergone modifications and extensions in agreement with the advance of civilization. These principles are expressed in such documents of major importance as Magna Carta, a famous document in English history agreed upon in 1215 by King John and barons, which set certain limits on royal power and which was later regarded as a law stating basic civil rights; Habeas Corpus Act, a law passed in 1679, which guarantees to a person arrested the right to appear in court of justice so that the jury should decide whether he is guilty; The Bill of Rights, an act of Parliament passed in 1689, which confirmed certain rights of the people; the laws deciding the succession of the royal family, and a number of constitutional acts, separate laws and agreements.
2. THREE BRANCHES
Power in Great Britain is divided among three branches: the legislative branch, the executive branch and the judicial branch.
The legislative branch is represented by Parliament, which consist of two chambers, or two houses: the House of Lords and the House of Commons.
Parliament in Britain has existed since 1265. Having been organized in the reign of King Edward I, it is the oldest parliament in the town.
The House of Lords consists of more than 1000 peers, including the “lords spiritual”: the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Archbishop of York, and 24 bishops of the Church of England. The peers (with the exception of the “lords spiritual”) have the right to sit in Parliament during their lifetime and transmit their right to their eldest sons.
During the present century a new practice has appeared: the practice of “creating” new peers. They are called “life peers”, because their children do not inherit their titles like the children of hereditary peers. New peers are created by the monarch on the advice of the Prime Minister. Sometimes a prominent politician is made a peer, sometimes a leading civil servant who has served the country well. As a result, about one-third of the Lords today are not representatives of hereditary nobility but company directors, bankers, newspaper proprietors and other businessmen.
The members of House of Commons are elected by a general election. The whole country is divided into constituencies, every one of which chooses one delegate. Big cities are divided into several constituencies each. Members of the House of Commons are elected for five years.
Parliament’s main function is to make laws. The procedure of making laws is as follows: a member of the House of Commons proposes a bill, which is discussed by the House. If the bill is approved, is sent to the House of Lords, which, in case it does not like it, has the right to veto it for one year. If the House of Commons passed the bill again the following year, the House of Lords cannot reject it. Finally the bill is sent to the Queen for the “royal assent”, after which it becomes a law.
The executive branch is headed by the Prime Minister, who is appointed by the king (queen). According to tradition, the Prime Minister is the leader of the party that has won the election and has the majority in the House of Commons. The Prime Minister appoints the ministers of the government (about twenty) form the Cabinet. Members of the Cabinet make joint decision or advice the Prime Minister.
The main function of the executive branch of the government is to administer the laws (to see to it that the laws are carried out, actually to rule the country).
The judicial branch interprets the laws.
The highest judicial body is the Supreme Court of Judicature, which consists of two divisions: the High Court of Justice and the Court of Appeal. It is often said that English law is superior to the law of most other countries. Indeed, the English judicial system contains many rules which protect the individual against arbitrary action by the police and the government.
3. POLITICAL PARTIES.
The two main political of Great Britain are the Conservative Party and the Labor Party.
The Conservative Party (otherwise called the Tory Party) is right-wing, tending to be opposed to great and sudden changes in the established order of society. It is against state control of industry.
The Labor Party, sometimes called the Socialists, has a close association with the Trade Unions, although it is not as left-wing as it used to be. It has many supporters, especially among working-class and middle-class people.
4. THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH OF NATION
For centuries British sailors and merchants travelled all over the world, discovered new lands and claimed them for England. Large territories in North America, Africa, the whole continent of Australia, New Zealand, India and a lot of islands in the ocean got under British rule. Thus, gradually, in the course of centuries, the huge British Empire came into begin. After World War II, with the growth of national liberation movement in the world, the countries which were dependent on Great Britain and formed parts of the British Empire began claiming independence. As a result of this movement, the British Empire fell apart. However, centuries-long economic, cultural and political ties of these former colonies and dominions with Great Britain were too strong for them to completely break away from each other, and it was found advisable to maintain the old ties. A new organization was established: the British Commonwealth of Nations, including about 50 independent states which were formerly parts of the British Empire. The British Commonwealth of Nations encourages trade and friendly relations among its members. The Queen is the official head of the Commonwealth.
Is there a written constitution in Great Britain?
Name some important documents which contain the leading principles of government
When was Magna Carta signed? Who signed it?
What does Habeas Corpus guarantee?
When did Parliament pass the bill of Rights?
Which are three branches of state power in Great Britain?
The British Parliament is the oldest parliament in the world, isn’t it? How old is in?
How many peers are there in the House of Lords?
Who are “hereditary peers” and “life pees”?
How are the members of the House of Common elected?
What is the main function of Parliament?
Explain in detail how laws are made
Who is the executive branch headed by?
How is the Prime Minister chosen?
What is the Cabinet? What is the work of the Cabinet?
Which are two main political parties in Great Britain?
What is the Labor Party sometimes called?
How was the British Empire formed?
What is the name of the new association of former British colonies and dominions?
What is the official head of the British Commonwealth of Nations?
1. Fill in the blanks with the correct words from the list:
Superior, interprets, legislative, existed, peers, inherit, laws, approved, veto, executive, majority, Cabinet, administer, confirmed, justice, guaranteed, descendant, reigning, hereditary, parliamentary.
The British Parliament has _________ since 1265.
The judicial branch __________ laws.
Great Britain is a __________ monarchy.
If a bill is __________ by the House of Commons, it sent to the House of Lords.
The Bill of right __________ certain rights of the people.
It is often said that English law is __________ to the law of most other countries.
The monarch in Great Britain is founded on __________ principle.
The most important ministers of the government form the __________.
According to tradition, the Prime Minister is the leader of the party which has the __________ in the Houses of Commons.
The children of life do not _________ their titles.
Habeas Corpus Act __________ to a person arrested the right to appear in court of __________.
The __________ monarch Queen Elizabeth II is a __________ of the Saxon King Egbert.
The main function of the executive branch is to __________ laws.
Many leading principles, conventions and laws have __________ modifications in agreement with the advance of civilization.
The power of the queen of England is not __________.
The __________ branch of power is represented by Parliament.
The House of Lords consists of more than 1000 __________.
Magna Carta set certain limits on royal __________.
The __________ branch of power is headed by the Prime Minister.
Parliament’s main function is to make __________.
The House of Lords has the right to __________ a bill for one year.