( Сборник текстов для аудиторной и самостоятельной работы)
Данное пособие предназначено для отработки навыков письменного перевода и перевода с листа (ПСЛ) с английского на русский язык. Несмотря на кажущуюся легкость ПСЛ по сравнению с устным переводом на слух, на практике такой перевод часто вызывает наибольшие трудности, что в основном объясняется недостаточным знанием учащимися родного языка, неуме-нием адекватно выразить свои мысли, а также сильным влиянием английского текста, что приводит к калькированию, буквализму, нарушению норм русского языка.
I курс 3
II курс 15
Список использованной литературы
Иностранный язык является важным инструментом социализации личности студента. На основе тематического наполнения, методах и приемах подачи материала происходит формирование у студентов представления об окружающем мире и определение своего места в нем. Изучение иностранного языка направлено на достижение следующих целей: практической - совершенствование умений практического владения языком, образовательной - расширение кругозора студентов, воспитательной – развитие умений работать в коллективе и принимать совместные решения.
Перевод - это средство обеспечить возможность общения (коммуникации) между людьми, говорящими на разных языках.
Материал пособия направлен па освоение и развитие практических навыков перевода с английского языка на русский. Целью перевода является установление отношений эквивалентности между исходным и переводным текстом; говоря иначе, оба текста несут в себе одно и то же сообщение; несмотря на самые разные препятствия, которые переводчику приходится преодолевать, удачным считается тот перевод, который соответствует двум критериям:
Точность или достоверность. Характеризуется тем, насколько точно перевод передает смысл исходного текста; делает ли он это, прибавляя или вычитая что-либо из смысла, усиливая или ослабляя какие-либо элементы смысла.
Прозрачность. Здесь речь идет о мере, в которой перевод воспринимается носителем языка не как перевод, а как оригинальный текст на переводящем языке, соответствующий грамматическим, синтаксическим и идиоматическим нормам языка.
Перевод, который соответствует первому критерию, можно назвать «верным переводом»; перевод, отвечающий второму критерию, характеризуется как идиоматический перевод. Используемые критерии оценки достоверности перевода различаются в зависимости от тематики текста, точности содержания оригинала, типа, функции и использования текста, его литературных качеств, социального и исторического контекста.
Методическая разработка предназначена для использования преподавателями английского языка.
Тексты и диалоги могут быть использованы на занятиях с группами 1-2 курсов, со студентами разного уровня знаний.
Why do we learn the English Language?
It is necessary to learn foreign languages. That’s why pupils have got such subject as a foreign language at school. Everybody knows his own language, but it is useful to know foreign languages.
I learn English because I understand that I can use it. For example, if I go to England I’ll be able to speak English there. If I go to the USA, I’ll speak English too. English is used not only in England, but also in other parts of the world.
I learn English because I want to read foreign literature in the original. I know and like such English and American writers as Charles Dickens, Mark Twain, Lewis Carroll and others. I understand that I must learn English. If I know English well, I’ll be able to go to the library and take books by English and American writers in the original, which makes my outlook wider.
I like to read books and I also like to read newspapers, too. If I know, for example, English I’ll be able to read English newspapers and magazines. Knowledge of the foreign languages helps young people of different countries to understand each other, to develop friendship among them. For example, we have a foreign exhibition in Moscow. If I know a foreign language it is easy for me to visit this exhibition.
I like to travel. But it is difficult to visit countries, when you don’t know the language of these countries. If I know the language country, where I am going to it will be easy to travel there. If I want to ask something, I can do it in English.
You can see a lot of advertisements, signboards, names in the streets. They are in foreign languages. Very often they are in English. If you know English, you can read and understand them.
Now we buy many clothes from other countries. If you know English well, you can read something about the size of this or that thing. It is clear for you what it is made of.
There are international friendship camps in the world. If you can speak foreign languages, it will be easy for you to visit such camps and speak with the boys, girls, men and women who do not know Russian. In short, I understand that I have to learn English in a proper way and I try to do it.
Nowadays it is especially important to know foreign language. Some people learn language, because they need it for their work, others travel aboard, for the third studying languages is a hobby. Everyone, who knows foreign language can speak to people from other countries, read foreign authors in the original, which makes your outlook wider.
Nowadays English has become the world’s most important language in politics, science, trade and cultural relations.
Half of the world’s scientific literature is in English. It is the language of computer technology. To know English today is absolutely necessary for every educated man, for every good specialist.
Over 300 million people speak it as a mother tongue. The native speakers of English live in Great Britain, the United States of America, Australia and New Zealand. English is one of the official languages in the Irish Republic, Canada, the South Africa Republic. English is one of the official languages of the United Nation Organization and other political organizations.
The great German poet Goethe said, “He, who knows no foreign language, does not his own one”. That is why in order to understand oneself and environment one has to study foreign languages.
English is the most widespread language on Earth. Throughout the world many people use English as an international language. Some people use it for business or study. There are certain “international” professions, such as airline pilots and air-traffic controllers, which require a working knowledge of English.
There are some rules of memory. It is necessary to repeat the material you’ve learn every three days. If you don’t repeat the material within three days most of the information vanishes as if you never learnt it. It is better to memorize material before you go to bed. You’ll memorize it more quickly. It’s very useful to listen to the material you are learning to memorize the pronunciation. One should also know that we get 90% of information by teaching others, only 20% by listening and 30% by seeing.
English is one of the official languages in the Irish Republic, Canada, the South African Republic. As a second language it is used in the former British and US colonies.
English is one of the official languages of the United Nations Organization and other political organization. It is the language of the literature, education, modern music, international tourism.
My name is Natasha. My surname is Ivanova. I’m seventeen. I was born on the 15 of March, 1989 in Morshansk. I live at Flat 48, House 24, Proletarskya Street. We live on the fourth floor. I go to school. I study at a secondary school number six. I’m tall, dark-haired and even-tempered. They say I look more like my mother. I’ve got my mother’s eyes and personality. I always try to be in a good mood. My favourite subjects are: English, Maths, and Physics. I’d like to learn foreign languages. I like to draw. I finished the Art school. I like to listen to music. I’m found of rock and pop music. My favourite groups are: “Linkin Park”, “Limp Bizkit” and “Blink 182”. My favourite singers are: Madonna, Avril Lavigne. I like classic music too. I usually go out with my friends in the evening during the week. I like to watch TV. My favourite programs are: “Clever Boys and Clever Girls”. My favourite season is summer. I like swimming. It’s good for all body. My favorite kind of sport is volleyball. It is fun.
I want to tell you a few words about my family. First of all some words about my mother. Her name is Elena. She is a doctor. To my mind she is a good- looking woman with dark hair and grey eyes. She is forty, but I think she looks much younger. She is not tall, but slim. My mother keeps house and takes care of us. She is very good at cooking and she is clever with her hands. My sister and I try to help with the housework. We wash the dishes, go shopping and tidy our flat.
Every Sunday I clean my room. I take the vacuum-cleaner and clean the carpets. I sweep the floor, dust the sofa and the armchairs; I try to dust furniture in a proper way. We have got many flowers at home. Twice a week I water them. I like flowers very much. I help my mother to lay the table. I bring plates, spoons, forks and put them on the table.
Every day I wash the dishes after dinner and supper. My mother cooks well; sometime I
help her when she makes cakes. She usually makes them before holidays and on my birthday. If I have time, my mother asks me to go to the shop. I go there and buy bread,
eggs, sugar. Very often I go to the market with my mother. We buy some vegetables, fruit and I help her to carry them. We have got a country house. There is a big garden with many trees, bushes and flowers in it. There is a lot of work in our garden and I help my parents to do it. Every day in the morning I water flowers and plants. I usually take care of strawberries. I think it is very necessary to help the parents.
I’ve got one sister. Her name is Tanya. She is twenty. She is a student. In my opinion she is very kind and friendly. She is very musical besides she plays the guitar very well. My sister looks very like my father.
As for my grandmother, she is a pensioner. She lives near from us. She likes to knit. I must say she is very wise and kind. She likes to surprise us with little unexpected gifts. All of us try to help her. My mother always goes shopping for her and I wash the dishes. My grandfather lives in Tambov. He comes to us for holidays. I love them very much. We have got a lot of relatives. We are deeply attached to each other and we get on very well. To add to this we are all great friends.
I also want to tell you about British family. I know that, a typical British family used to consist of mother, father, and two children. But in recent years they have been many changes in family life. The number of divorces has increased.
The contemporary British child doesn’t have a lot of companionship from brothers and sisters. Because the average family has only one or two children. Most British children live with their parents at list until they finish school at the age of 17. Then many go away to college leaving some parents lonely in the empty nest. Old people take pride their independents enjoy their freedom and don’t want to be a burden to their children. The telephone the ear keeps them in close contact, even when they live in different parts of the country. Christmas is the traditional season for reunion. Family parties may be all the more joyful when they bring together relatives who haven’t seen each other for a while.
I know how the Americans raise their children. They raise them to be independent. It is a part of American culture. Small children learn to do things on their own. They learn to take care of themselves, clean their rooms, help with the dishes and the laundry, spend time away from their parents in day-care or with a baby-sitter. Most teenagers try to find summer or after school jobs, so that they can have their own money. Students usually work part-time and during summer vacations.
When we speak about our flat we like to say “It is cosy”, “It is comfortable”. People must have a very cosy and comfortable flat. It is the place where they live, rest and sleep. They create a pleasant home with their own hands. Everyone in the family is responsible for its cleaning and keeping it in order.
My family and I live in a two-room apartment in a block of flats of the five floors. Our flat is on the fourth floor. There is a living-room, a bedroom, a kitchen, a hall, and a bathroom in it. There is a balcony too.
My room is not large. There is a bad, a wardrobe, a writing-table and chairs. My room faces the North. It is very light.
The living-room is large. There is a small table and a couple of armchairs. There is also a divan-bed and standard lamp near it. In front of the divan there is a TV set. The floor is covered with a beautiful carpet. Carpets of the walls make our living-room very cosy.
In the kitchen we have hot and cold running water, a gas stove, a fridge, a sink, a cupboard and a table with easy-chairs, of course.
There are flower pots on the tables, bookshelves and window-sills, and that makes our flat green and cheerful. There is no place like home.
As our flat is a modern one we have all modern conveniences at home: electricity, gas, running water, central heating.
We have a country house. This house was built by my grandfather. Most houses in the country made of wood in a traditional, decorative Russian style. Recently other kinds of houses have appeared – among them cottages.
Our house is not very large, but it is very nice. There is a porch, a living-room, a bedroom, my room and a kitchen in our house.
My room is not large. My room overlooks the South and it is very light. There is one window in my room. There are white curtains on the window. Near the window there is a desk. The walls are white. There is a sofa to the left of the desk. In the corner there is a low table with a radio and tape-recorder on it. I like my room very much. It is always clean and tidy in my room.
In front of the house there is a small garden in which we grow tulips, roses, lilac bushes and so on. There is a very beautiful birch-tree in front of our house.
At the back of the house there is a garden with apple-trees and a greenhouse. In the greenhouse we grow tomatoes and cucumbers. We grow tomatoes, cabbages, onions and carrots in our vegetable garden.
I love our house.
Life in the city is much easier than in the country – developed transport system, sewerage system, information, sports, shopping malls, etc. Modern men are too sophisticated for simple country pleasures. Life is more convenient in a city: serves are always better here. In the city people live in apartment with central heating, telephone, gas, electricity, radio, TV, the Internet. Many people love the busy city life. It is enough for them to visit a country at week-ends. There is far more entertainment in the city than in the country. Cities offer high concentration of good things in life: big stores, restaurants, theatres, cinemas, art galleries. It is possible to go out, make friends and never be cut off from them by weather conditions. In the city people are more open – minded. Generally, people do not mind what you do in the city. Moreover, life is never dull in the city; people always have something to do here.
But there are a lot of disadvantages of living in a big city. Today’s cities are ballooning. Cost of living is very high in the cities. In addition, people live under constant threat; life is not quite in the cities, it causes stresses and heart disease. In the city people loose tough with land, rhythm, of nature. Everyone who cares about his health tries to move out from city. Cities are not fit to live in, man are born for countryside. Most people in Europe and America try to live in non-industrial cities, which are set down near big cities and can’t be killed by pollution and traffic.
Pollution is the greatest disadvantage of the city life of today. Polluted air is hanging like a brown cloud over the cities. Dirt and smoke are pouring from the buildings and factories. Polluted urban air causes respiratory distress, particularly in children, and elderly people. The increased number of motor vehicles not only jams the city streets but pollute the city air as well. All big cities have problems with air pollution. The exceeding output of industries and urban communities is harmful to the city aquatic system. The result is a foul-
smelling body of water running for a bath or dish washing. Noise pollution is the problem of big cities too. Urban garbage – like food, paper, and cans – on the ground or in the street is one more problem of cities. People don’t always put their garbage in the garbage can. Urban garbage is ugly. It makes the city look dirty, and is spoils the view.
In the countryside I enjoy such simple things of primary importance as sunlight and fresh air. Besides, living in the countryside is cheaper and suffer than in the city. It provides people with more security. There is less crime and, of course, there is less traffic there. Life in the countryside is quite, peaceful, and healthy. I like to be close nature. Here people are friendly and it is much more pleasant in the countryside than in the city. Unfortunately, life in the countryside is rather nard. Working and living conditions are difficult, social and cultural life in the countryside is not full of entertainment. And annually more young people free from the countryside for better life in the city.
1) I’ve just left school, I’ve finished it this year.
2)Now I’m a first- year student of a Textile college.
3)Our college is one of specialized in Morshansk.
4) Our college is famous for its high-quality education and strict discipline.
5) It is very well-equipped.
6) On the first floor there is a changing room, workshops and set of classes.
7) On the second floor there are chemical and physical laboratories, computer class, library, assemble hall, and canteen.
8) Classes begin at 8.30 in the morning.
9) Each lesson lasts 45 minutes.
10) We have pair lessons, as a rule 3 pairs a day.
11) During the break we go to the canteen to have lunch.
12) We usually have much homework to do and it takes me several hours to do it.
13) After classes I don’t go home right away, because we have some out-of-class activities.
14) Our social and cultural life is wеll-organized.
15) We have two terms a year. At the end of each term there are rests exams.
Seasons and weather
There are four seasons of the year: winter, spring, summer and autumn. Each of them lasts three months. Every new year begins in winter, on the first of January. This day is a holiday in our country and people decorate their flats with New Year trees. Winter is usually cold season. It often snows, rivers and lakes are frozen over. The average temperature is about 10 degrees below zero.
The most unpleasant thing about winter is that the sun sets early and rises late – especially in December and January. The days are short, the sky is often grey, nature is sleeping and sometimes it gets rather boring. But at the end of March the weather gets gradually milder. The sun shines more brightly. The days become longer, snow begins melting. Spring comes and nature awakens after a long sleep of winter. All kinds of plants and flowers ( snowdrops, tulips, primeroses, etc. ) come out. The grass is amazingly fresh. The birds return from the South and make their nests. Spring is followed by summer. The weather gets still warmer and sometimes it’s hot. The sky is blue and cloudless . But sometimes there are storms with lightning. The gardens are gay with flowers all summer months. The corn gets golden in the fields. In summer people spend much time in the open air. They find time to go to the forest, to swim in the river, to sunbathe. Summer is a vocation time. Autumn comes in September with the beginning of the school year. Early autumn is still the harvest time, the time when fruits and vegetables become ripe. It is also a very beautiful time of the year, when the weather is still warm and the leaves change their colour from green to yellow and red. Late autumn is less beautiful. It gets colder, the days are shorter, in the morning it often freezes. Last leaves fall from trees and cover the ground. There’s much rain and fog. Birds fly away to warm countries. The landscape gets rather dull. Nature slowly falls asleep for winter. In fact, every season has its fine days and is pleasant in its own way. And it is not difficult to see this beauty.
My small town differs little from tens of other quite provincial towns of Central Russia. It cannot boast any unusual sights or tropical landscapes, which usually draw crowds of tourist. Everything here is simple and quite.
Morshansk is 95 km from Tambov. It belongs to the number of ancient settlements. It is located on the left side of the river Tsna. In 1388-1402 the territory was attacked by Tatars. The river Tsna was navigable. Navigation was of great importance for the town. It was a big commercial centre. Numerous ships and barges brought bread and honey, fish and fur-skins and many other goods for trade. The population of Morshansk grew bigger and bigger. On the 16 of September, 1779 by a special decree of the Russian Empress Ekaterina II (the second) the village Morsha became a town Morshansk. At the beginning of the 19th century Morshansk turned into a big and very important river port.
The grain was brought here from Tambov, Voronezh, Kursk, Penza provinces, and sailed to Moscow, Novgorod. At the beginning of the 20 century there was a cloth mill, a tobacco plant and a flour milling work in Morshansk.
There were three gymnasiums and a real school for the rich. It was a provincial merchant’s town.
Morshansk grew into a prosperous and beautiful town with blooming gardens in and around it. A number of churches with golden domes and crosses decorated it greatly. The Troitsky cathedral is an architectural monument of Russian classicism. It looks impressive. The cathedral was built in 1857 and now it’s open to general public. The Nicolskaya church is considered to be an example of wooden architecture.
The library college building is connected with the name of the poet Shamov. He studied there in 1934-37. You can see a memorial table on it.
A famous Russian surgeon Byistrov worked at the central hospital.
It is impossible to imagine Morshansk without its forest. It has become one of the most popular places of interest. Now there are 7 secondary schools, a gymnasium, 3 colleges, and 3 vocational training schools in our town.
A textile mill, a clothing factory, a tobacco plant are situated in Morshansk. A food industry and a building materials manufacture are developed in our town too. The people are hospitable and friendly.
Russia is one of the largest countries in the world. It occupies about one-seventh part of dry land. It is situated in Europe and Asia. Its total area is over 17 million square kilometers. The country is washed by seas and oceans. There are different types of climate on the territory of the country. It is very cold in the North even in summer. The central part of the country has mild climate: winters are cold, springs and autumns are warm or cool, summers are hot and warm. In the South the temperature is usually above zero all year round, even in winter. Summer is really hot, the climate is very favourable. The climate of Siberia is continental: summers are hot and dry, winters are very cold. Some parts of our country are covered with mountains and hills. There are many rivers in Russia, the longest rivers are the Volga in Europe and the Yenisei and the Ob in Asia. The deepest lakes are the Baikal and the Ladoga. The Russian Federation is very rich in mineral resources, such as oil, natural gas, coal, iron, gold and others. Russia borders on many countries. Among them are Estonia, Latvia, Finland, Poland, China, Mongolia, Korea.
Moscow is the capital of our country. It was founded in 1147. It is a nice city. There are many sights in Moscow. You can see many museums, art galleries, theatres, churches and monuments in our capital.
People of our country are proud of the Moscow Kremlin. There are also many big beautiful cities in Russia. The population of Russia is about 150 million people. 83 per cent of the population are Russians. 70 per cent of the population live in cities.
occupy — занимать coal — уголь
iron — железо climate — климат
lake — озеро temperature — температура
deep — глубокий rich — богатый
sights — достопримечательности per cent — процент (%)
Is the Russian Federation one of the largest countries in the world?
Where is the Russian Federation situated?
What kind of climate is there in the country?
What do you know about the climate in the south of the country?
How many rivers are there Russia?
6 Is Russia a very rich country?
7 What kind of mineral resources has Russia?
8 What kind of lakes are there our country?
9 What is the capital of our соuntry?
10. Are there any sights in Moscow? What are they?
Russia is very large in size. It covers more than 17 million square 12as-relief. It is the largest country in the world. Russia stretches across both Europe and Asia. From West to East it spans almost ten thousand kilometers and has eleven time zones. The population of Russia is about 150 million people. The capital city is Moscow. Russia is very rich in mineral resources, such as gold, oil, coal and gas. It has many long rivers and deep lakes. The Volga is the longest river in Europe and the Yenisei and the Ob in Asia. The Lake Baikal is the deepest lake in the world. Russia borders many countries including Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Ukraine, Byelorussia, Poland, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, China and others.
Within Russia there are many types of climate. There are vast areas of cold treeless tundra in the North. Further South there are forests, steppes and mountains. Let’s remember some of the famous Russians who contributed to the world of science and art. These are M. Lomonosov (the great scientist and founder of Moscow University), K. Timiryazev (the outstanding botanist), D. Mendeleev (creator of the “Table of Chemical Elements”), A. Popov (creator of radio), K. Tsialkovsky and S. Korolev (scientists and inventors in the sphere of spaceship construction), Y. Gagarin (the first cosmonaut in the world), artists: A. Rublyov, A. Ivanov, V. Vasnetsov, V. Surikov, I. Levitan, writers: A. Pushkin, M. Lermontov, N. Gogol, F. Dostoyevsky, L. Tolstoy, M. Sholochov, composers: P. Tchaikovsky, S. Prokofiev, M. Musorgsky, D. Shostakovich, G. Sviridov and many others.
size [saiz] — размер border — граничить
cover — охватывать include — включать, содержать
square — квадратный Finland [ ‘finlƏnd] — Финляндия
stretch — вытягивать Estonia [es’tounjƏ] — Эстония
across — сквозь, через Latvia [‘lætviƏ] — Латвия
both — оба Lithuania [lio’juƏniƏ] — Литва
population — население Ukraine [ju:’krein] — Украина
capital — столица Byelorussia [.bjelƏ ‘r∫Ə] —
rich — богатый resources [ri’so:siz] — ресурсы
coal — уголь Europe [ ‘juƏrƏp] — Европа
Asia —Азия deep — глубокий
lake [leik] — озеро
Moscow is the capital of Russia. It is one of the biggest and most beautiful cities in the world. Moscow is a modern city now. The population of the city is about 9.5 million people. Moscow is a political centre, where the government of our country works.
Moscow was founded in 1147 by Yuri Dolgoruky. The total area of Moscow is about nine hundred square 13as-relief.
We say that Moscow is a port of five seas, as the Moscow-Volga Canal links Moscow with the Baltic, White, Caspian and Black seas and the Sea of Azov.
Moscow is an industrial centre too. There are many factories and plants in it. One of the best-known plants produces many lorries, and the other one produces cars.
Moscow is a cultural centre. There are a lot of theatres, museums, 13as-relief, libraries and cinemas in Moscow.
The Bolshoi Theatre is one of the famous theatres all over the world. If you are fond of painting you can go to the Tretyakov Art Gallery or to the Pushkin Fine Arts Museum and see a lot of interesting portraits and landscapes there. We say the Tretyakov Art Gallery is a treasure – house of Russian art.
Young people like to visit the Central Military Museum. There are many tanks, guns and war documents there.
One can see the Kremlin and Red Square in the city. There are many fine buildings, wide streets, green parks, large squares, churches and monuments in Moscow.
It is necessary to mention such famous monuments as monuments to the great Russian writer Alexander Pushkin and to the first Russian printer Ivan Fedorov. Visiting the capital a lot of foreigners from all over the world come to see these monuments.
One of the highest buildings in Moscow is the Moscow State University. It was founded in 1755 by the great scientist Mikhail Lomonosov.
Transport... Moscow is a very big city and its transport must be comfortable and fast.
One can see a lot of cars, buses, trolley-buses, trams in the streets of our city. The Moscow Metro began its work on the 15th of May, 1935. There were 13 stations at that time. Now it has 190 stations. 0ur metro is a beautiful and convenient one. There are nine railway stations in Moscow and some airports around the city. There are many stadiums in Moscow. The Central Stadium is in Luzhniki. Many competitions and football matches are held there.
The Olympic village was built for the 22nd Olympic Games in Moscow in 1980. It is a big complex for sport games. I live in Moscow and I am proud of this city.
complex — комплекс
be proud of — гордитьс
government – правительство
link — соединять
landscape — пейзаж
mention — упоминать
foreigner – иностранец
convenient — удобный
What is the capital of Russia?
Moscow is a port of five seas, isn’t it?
3. Is Moscow a modern city?
4. Are there many plants in Moscow?
5. Do you like to visit the Tretyakov Gallery?
6. How often do you go to the museums?
7. What do you know about the Moscow State University?
8. There are many kinds of transport in Moscow, aren’t there?
9. How many stations has our metro got?
Some Words About Moscow
Moscow is the capital of Russia. It is one of the biggest and most beautiful cities in the world. Moscow is important political, cultural, educational, scientific and industrial center of Russia. It is Moscow where the Russian Government seats.
Moscow is a city well known all over the world. Many tourists come to our country to visit Moscow and to see its places of interest and attractions. Moscow is famous for its beautiful streets, squares and parks, wonderful monuments and museums, cathedrals and churches.
The Moscow metro is comfortable and rapid. The metro stations are very beautiful. There are more than 150 of them.
Moscow is the railway, highway and airway crossroads. It is also the port of five seas. Every day millions of visitors come to Moscow.
Moscow is the center of Russian science and culture. It is the seat of the Russian Academy of Sciences. There are many research institutes, universities, colleges, schools and libraries in Moscow.
The Moscow State University on the Vorobyevy Hills is the heart of our educational system.
Among the numerous Moscow libraries, the Lenin State Library is one of the largest and well known in the world. Moscow is the pride of Russian people.
Find in the text the English equivalents for the following.
Научный центр, культурный центр, промышленный центр, сердце Москвы, удобный и быстрый, наука и культура, библиотека, город, научно –исследовательский институт, резиденция правительства, порт пяти морей.
Answer the questions.
What is Moscow famous for?
What is the Moscow metro like?
What kind of city is Moscow?
What is the greatest library in Moscow?
How do people come to visit Moscow?
What is the heart of Russian educational system?
Nowadays sports and activities are fashionable in Europe and America. For example, popular marathons are now held everywhere. The big city marathons, in London and New York, are important sporting events. Television cameras and newspapers report them in detail. According to the latest figures the most popular sports in Europe and America are walking, cycling, jogging, playing football and golf. Other popular sports are bowling, badminton, tennis. Some people want to go in for sports seriously, others consider it to be a way to keep fit.
Today all big sport is professional and famous players can make a lot of money. Professional football is a big business and many players do not have any personal connection with the town for whose team they play. Sometimes sportsmen use doping in order to win. I think this is very harmful for health.
Sports play an important part in the life of the British people. All sports are very popular among them. The national sports are: football, golf, table tennis, lawn tennis, racing and darts. The British are fond of football which is of two kinds there: association football (soccer) and rugby. Englishmen like all kinds of racing. Horse-racing, motor-car racing, boat-racing, dog-racing are very popular in England.
Such sports as hockey, soccer, weightlifting, track and field, wrestling, basketball, volleyball, boxing, cross-country skiing, shooting are popular in the USA. The variety and size of the country, its different climates and the people’s love of competitions of any type can explain the large choice of sports in America.
But tasters differ and different people have different attitudes to sport and recreation. Some people prefer to participate in them actively others choose to watch different sports events. Watching other people playing is a popular leisure activity. The major sporting competitions, such as the Olympic Games, are shown on the central TV channels attracting millions of TV – viewers who can be thousands of kilometers away from event.
Although these two kinds of activities are tightly interconnected, participating in sports has more advantages than simply watching sports competitions.
At the foot of the Mount Olympus to honour to the Greek chief God, Zeus the first games were held. The year 776 BC was established by history as the first date of the recorder Olympiad. The Olympic Games were held every five years. People dated events by the Olympiads throughout ancient period. At the end of the 19-th century Baron Pierre de Coubertin revived them. In 1894 he addressed the International Congress of Athletes emphasizing the importance of sports in the people’s life. The first modern Olympic Games were held in Athens in 1896 to signify the succession of the tradition. Since then the Games have been regularly held in different countries of the world.
In 1986 the International Olympic Committee was set up. The IOC makes decision as to the program of the Games, the number of participants and as to where the Games of the next Olympiad are to be held. Over 150 countries are represented in the IOC at present.
Much importance is attached to opening ceremony. The Head of the host country declares the Games open, then the Olympic flag is raised and the Olympic hymn is sung.
Then the Olympic flame is lit that will burn till the end of the Games.
The Olympic torch has been carried from Olympia by torch bearers, one for each kilometer.
The Olympic flag has five coloured interlaced rings, representing the five parts of the world, on a white background. The motto of the Olympic Games is “Citius, Altius, Fortius” (Faster, Higher, Stronger).
Russia joined the Olympic movement in 1952. In 1980 Moscow hosted the 22nd Olympic Games. At the 1992 Barcelona Olympics the team of our country won 45 gold medals.
I I курс
Read the text and answer the questions:
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (the UK) occupies the territory of the British Isles. It consists of four main parts which are: England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh, Cardiff and Belfast.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the official name of the country.
The UK is an island country, it consists of 5,500 islands, large and small. The two biggest islands are: Great Britain to the east and Ireland to the west. They are separated by the Irish Sea.
The area of the country is 244.100 square 1as-relief. The UK is situated off the north-west coast of Europe between the Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea. It is separated from the continent by the English Channel and the Strait of Dover.
The population of the UK is over 57 million people. The main rivers of Great Britain are: the Severn and the Thames. There are many lakes in the northern part of the UK. The largest cities of Great Britain are: London, Edinburgh, Cardiff, Belfast, Glasgow and Manchester.
What is the population of the UK?
What are the main rivers of the UK?
What is the area of the UK?
What are the biggest islands of the UK?
What separates the country from the Continent?
Read the text and answer the questions:
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and
The United Kingdom is situated in the north-west coast of Europe between the Atlantic Ocean on the north and north-west and the North Sea on the east.
The UK includes Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Great Britain, the largest island in Europe, contains England, Scotland and Wales. The United Kingdom has an area of 94,249 square miles. The capital of the country is London. English is the official language.
The population of the UK is nearly 60 million people. The population lives mostly in towns and cities and their suburbs. Four out of every five people live in towns. Over 46 million people live in England. Over 3 million — in Wales. A little over 5 million — in Scotland. About 1.5 million — in Northern Ireland. London’s population is over 7 million people. The British nation consists of the English, the Scots, the Welsh and the Irish.
There are many people of all colours and races in the United Kingdom.
The climate of Great Britain is mild. It is not too hot in summer or too cold in winter. It often rains in England. Rain falls in summer and in winter, in autumn and in spring. Snow falls only in the north and west of the country. The surface of England and Ireland is flat, but Scotland and Wales are mountainous. Many parts of the country have beautiful villages. There are many rivers in Great Britain. The main river is the Thames. Many ships and barges go up and down the river. The longest river is the Severn. It is 350 kilometres long.
There are many universities, colleges, libraries, museums and theatres in the country. The most famous universities are Cambridge University, Oxford University, Glasgow University.
The UK is a parliamentary monarchy. The British Parliament consists of two Houses; the House of Lords and the House of Commons. The Prime Minister is the head of the government. The main political parties of Great Britain are the Labour Party, the Liberal Party, the Conservative Party. The Communist Party of Great Britain was founded in 1920.
The United Kingdom has some mineral resources. Coal and oil are the most important of them. The United Kingdom is one of the world’s most industrialized countries. The main industrial centres are Sheffield, Birmingham and Manchester. The largest cities of the country are London, Birmingham, Cardiff, Manchester, Glasgow, Belfast, Dublin.
Agriculture takes an important sector in economy of the country. The British people grow wheat, fruit, vegetables, oats.
1 mile =1609 метров Mild – мягкий
Flat – плоский, ровный
Monarchy – монархия
Oats – овес
The English – англичане
Suburbs – пригород
1)Where is Great Britain situated? 4) What is the official language in England?
2) What is the area of the 5) How many rivers are there in Great Britain?
United Kingdom? 6) What does the British Parliament consist of?
3) What is the capital of the 7) What are the main political parties in Great
8) When was the Communist Party of Great Britain founded?
9)What are the main industrial centres in Great Britain?
10) Name the largest cities of the country.
11) What do you know about the population of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland?
12) What does the British nation consist of?
13) Are there many people of all colours and races in the United Kingdom?
14) What is the climate of Great Britain?
Read the text and do the exercises:
(Countries & location)
Britain forms the greater part of the British Isles, which lie off the north-west coast of mainland Europe. Great Britain is separated from the Continent by the English Channel. “Great Britain” is a geographical expression but “The United Kingdom” is a political expression. The name is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Irelands. Great Britain comprises England, Wales and Scotland.
Great Britain is in fact the biggest of the group of islands which lies between the North Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. The total is 242,534 sq. Km. Britain is just under 1,000 km long from the south coast of England to the extreme north of Scotland, and just under 500 km across in the widest part.
The population of the United Kingdom is 57 million people. The British Isles today are shared by two separate and independent states. The smaller of these is the Republic of Ireland, with its capital in Dublin. The larger, with London as its capital, is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. This long title is the result of a complicated history. The Island of Great Britain contains three «nations» which were separated at earlier stages of their history: England, Scotland and Wales. Wales had become part of the English administrative system the 16th century. Scotland was not completely united with England until 1707. The United Kingdom is a name which was introduced in 1801 when Great Britain became united with Ireland.
The largest and most densely populated part of the United Kingdom is England. The population of England is 47,837 million people. England is washed by the North Sea, the Irish Sea, the English Channel and the Strait of Dover. The name “England” is derived from the Angles. Roman rule lasted for over 300 years from A. D. 43. The last invasion of England took place in 1066 when Duke William of Normandy defeated the English at the Battle of Hastings. At that time the English language was very much transformed.
The capital of England is London, which is the largest city in Britain. It is situated on the River Thames (the most important one). There are many rivers in England, the longest is the Severn. England is mostly a lowland country. Upland regions are in the north and the south-west. Northern England, Midland and South England — each part is different but very picturesque.
The English like to spend their holiday in the Lake District, which is in the Northern England.
The main industries in England are the wool industry (with its centre in Leeds and Bradford), heavy machinery, shipbuilding, the cotton industry (the centre is Manchester).
Scotland is the most northern part of the island of Great Britain. Its population is over 5 million people. Scotland was inhabited mainly by the Picts.
In the 6th century, the Scots from Ireland (or Scotia) settled in what is now Argyll, giving their name to the present-day Scotland. During the 9th century, the various parts of Scotland united in defence against the Vikings. The powerful monarchy which existed in England threatened Scottish independence throughout the Middle Ages. In 1603 James VI of Scotland became also James I of England when Queen Elizabeth I of England died without children. In 1651 Scotland was united with England, although
Scotland kept its own parliament. In 1707, both countries, realizing the benefits of closer political and economic union, agreed on a single parliament for Great Britain.
The Cheviot Hills mark the boundary between England and Scotland. The greater part of Scotland is surrounded by sea. Scotland includes the Hebrides off the west coast and the Orkney and Shetland islands off the north coast. It is bounded by the North Sea on the east.
Scotland is divided into three parts: the Highlands, the Lowlands and the Southern Uplands. The Highlands are among the oldest mountains in the world. There are a lot of valleys and lakes in this region, the best known lake is Loch Ness.
Most of the population of Scotland is concentrated in the Lowlands. The biggest city is Glasgow. It is an industrial city and an important port in the United Kingdom. Shipbuilding is the leading industry. But other industries such as iron and steel, engineering and coal-mining are highly developed too. The capital of Scotland is Edinburgh. It is the cultural centre of Scotland.
In 1301 after defeating the native princes of Wales, King Edward I of England named his son Prince of Wales. Since then the eldest son of the King or Queen of England has traditionally been given this title. In 1536 Wales was brought into the English system of national and local government by the Act of Union.
Most of Britain was inhabited by Celts until the 4th century. Welsh and English are both official languages in Wales now.
The population of Wales is over 3 million people. About 75% of the people of Wales live in urban districts.
Wales is a highland country of old, hard rocks. North Wales is a country of mountains and deep valleys. South Wales is a land of high hills. The capital of Wales is Cardiff (an industrial city and a port). Cardiff is an administrative and educational centre. Such industries as coal-mining, steel production, electronics, electrical engineering are developed in this part of the country.
The Welsh are fond of folk music, singing and poetry. Welsh literature is one of the oldest in Europe.
A number of kingdoms had emerged in Ireland before the Christian era. Ireland didn’t escape the invasion of the Vikings, who dominated the country during the 10th century. In 1169 Henry II of England launched an invasion of Ireland. He had been granted its overlordship by the English Pope Adrian IV who wanted to bring the Irish church into full obedience to Rome.
The English Civil Wars (1642—1651) led to uprisings in Ireland which were crushed by Cromwell. During the 18th century various efforts were made by British Government to achieve stability. In 1800 the Act of Union between Great Britain and Ireland was signed. The «Irish question» continued as one of the major problems of
British politics during the 19th century. In 1985 the Angle-Irish Agreement was signed in Belfast, the capital of Northern Ireland. The population of Northern Ireland is about 1.5 million people. It occupies one-sixth of the territory of the United Kingdom. 53% of the population live in urban areas. The largest industry is agriculture. The main industrial centre and a large port is Belfast.
1) Answer the questions.
1) When did Scotland and Wales start being governed from London?
2) What are the Welsh fond of?
3) Why is Britain warmer than other countries on the same latitude?
4) How can you explain that London is drier than continental cities?
5) Why is the south of Great Britain better suited to farming than the west or the north?
6) Prince Charles is Prince of Wales. Where does this title come from?
7) What are the main industries in England?
8) What regions is Scotland divided into?
9) When was the Act of Union between Great
Britain and Ireland signed?
2) Fill in the gaps.
1) «Great Britain» is a … expression.
2) Great Britain is a group of islands which lies between … and … .
3) The total area of Great Britain is ….
4) The capital of the Republic of Ireland is ….
5) The name of the United Kingdom was introduced in … .
6) Roman rule in England lasted for over … years.
7) … is an administrative and educational centre of Wales.
8) … mark the boundary between England and Scotland.
9) … dominated Ireland during the 10th century.
10) In 1985 the Anglo-Irish Agreement was signed in ….
3) Choose the right answer.
1.The longest river is
a) the Thames.
b) the Severn.
c) the Avon.
2. England is separated from Scotland by…
a) the Pennines.
b) the Southern Uplands.
c) the Cheviot Hills.
Read the text and answer the questions: London is the capital of Great Britain. It is a very old city. It is two thousand years old. London is not only the capital of the country, it is also a huge port. London is situated upon both banks of the Thames. There 17 bridges across the river. The population of London is about 9 million people. London has got three parts: the City of London, the West End, the East End.
The City of London is the oldest part of London. You can see narrow streets and pavements there. There are many offices, firms and banks in this part of London. The City of London is the financial centre of the United Kingdom.
The West End is the centre of London. There are many sights in the West End. They are, for example, the Houses of Parliament with Big Ben. It is interesting that the clock «Big Ben» came into service in 1859. Big Ben is the biggest clock bell in Britain. It weighs 13.5 tons.
The other interesting place is Westminster Abbey, which was founded in 1050. It is situated in the centre of London. Many great Englishmen were buried in the Abbey: Newton, Darvin and others.
The official London residence of the Queen is Buckingham Palace. It was built in the 18th century.
There are many nice squares in London. Trafalgar Square is one of them and it is in the centre of the West End. One can see a statue of Lord Nelson in the middle of this square.There are many museums, libraries and galleries in London. The Tate Gallery is one of the well-known galleries in London. Henry Tate was a sugar manufacturer. He was fond of paintings and collected many pictures.
The British Museum is a very interesting place in London. It was founded in 1753. The library of this museum has a lot of books. The East End of London is the district for the working people. There are many factories, workshops, docks there. There are many cars and buses in London. There is a tube (an underground) in London, too. It is a nice
one. One can say that the City is the money of London, the West End is the goods of London, the East End is the hands of London.
The Houses of Parliament – здание парламента huge – огромный
The Thames — p. Teмзa pavement – тротуар
Population – население workshop – мастерская, цех
1. What is the capital of Great Britain?
2. What do you know about the population of Great Britain?
3. Are there any beautiful parks in London?
4. Name three main parts of London.
What kind of interesting places are there in London?
6. Where is Trafalgar Square?
7. What do you know about the British Museum?
8. Where is the official London residence of the Queen?
9. The Tate Gallery is one of the well-known galleries in London, isn't it?
10. Have you been to London?
Read the text and do the exercises:
London-the capital of Great Britain
London is the capital of Great Britain, its political, economic and cultural centre. London is an ancient city. It is more than twenty centuries old. The population of London, including its suburbs, is more than nine million people. London is one of the biggest cities in the world and the largest city in Europe. It is situated on the banks of the River Thames.
The City is the financial and the business centre of the country. There are a lot of banks and various offices here. It is the ancient part of London. One of the greatest English churches – St Paul’s Cathedral – is here. It was designed and built by an outstanding English architect Christopher Wren in 1710. St Paul’s Cathedral is the second large church in Europe. Admiral Nelson is buried here. Not far away is Westminster — the administrative centre of London. The Houses of Parliament are situated here. It is the seat of the British Government. The building is very beautiful with its two towers and a big clock called Big Ben. Westminster Abbey where kings and queens are crowned is opposite the Houses of Parliament. The ancient building was founded in the eleventh century. It was destroyed and rebuilt several times. Many famous people are buried here, among them Newton, Darwin, Dickens and Kipling. The West End is the part of London where the rich people live. Fine houses, wide streets, numerous parks are to be found in this part of the capital. The best cinemas, theatres, concert halls, famous shops, comfortable hotels, restaurants, large museums are situated here. The most beautiful London park — Hyde Park — is in this district too. The East End includes the port, the docks stretching for miles and the great industrial areas, which depend on shipping. London is famous for its outstanding places of interest. There are many architectural, art and historic monuments in London such as the British Museum, the Tower of London, the National Gallery, Buckingham Palace, Nelson’s Column and many others. The London Underground is the oldest one in the world. It was opened in London in 1863.
Capital —столица economic — экономический
ancient — древний population — население
Europe — Европа be situated — быть расположенным
bank — 1) берег; 2) 6aнк Thames — Темза
suburbs — окрестности crown – короновать
1. Is London the capital of Great Britain?
2. Is London also a sea port?
3. What is the most significant building in the City?
4. Whom was it designed by?
5. What is Westminster Abbey famous for?
6. Do the Houses of Parliament consist of one or more building? 7. Is the traffic in London heavy?
8. When was the first London Tube built?
Put the questions in English.
1. Лондон – столица Великобритании, да? 5. Назовите знаменитых людей,
2. Из каких частей состоит Лондон? Похороненных там?
3. В какой части Лондона находится порт? 6. Кем был построен собор св.
4.Чем знаменито Вестминстерское аббатство?
Read the texts and do the exercises:
Places of Interest in London
The British Museum
The British Museum was opened in 1753. It grew out of collections of three rich men. George II gave the royal library to the museum in 1757. The collection is enormous, and covers ancient Greece, Rome, Egypt, China and Japan, as well as prehistoric times.
Victoria and Albert Museum
Victoria and Albert Museum ( V&A ) is named after Queen Victoria and her husband Prince Albert. It grew out of the collection of objects bought for the Great Exhibition in London in 1851.
National Gallery has a collection of Italian, Dutch, German and French pictures. The National gallery is rich in paintings by Italian masters such as Raphael and Veronese. It has pictures of European schools of art such as works by Rembrandt, Rubens and El Greco. The gallery is open seven days a week and admission is free.
The Tate Gallery opened in 1897and is named after Sir Henry Tate, who donated his collection of 65 paintings to the nation. Now it is the National Gallery of Modern Painting. There is a large collection of European twentieth-century art there.
The Tower of London is a very old building. It is more than 900 years old. English kings lived in it many years ago, but now it is a museum. People who come to London
like to go to the Tower. It was a fortress, a royal palace and later a prison. The ravens are another famous sign. The legend says that without them the Tower will fall.
The Natural History Museum
The Natural History Museum was first opened to public in April 1881. The museum was just a department of the British Museum. Today, the Natural History Museum is famous throughout the world for its beautiful galleries. The Museum is well known for its exhibition which include “Human biology”, “History of the Earth”, “Discovering mammals”, etc.
Buckingham Palace is the London home of the Queen. When the flag is flying on the top she is at home.
Ben is the name of the huge clock in one of the tall towers of the Houses of Parliament. The Houses of Parliament is the largest modern building in the richest Gothic style completed in 1857. It stands on the left bank of the river Thames and is 940 ft in length. Those who want to get a front view of the building should look at it from a boat on the Thames. Clock Tower, overlooking Westminster Bridge is 316 ft high and 40 ft square. People are allowed to get inside the Tower so they can see the works of Big Ben. There is no lift and there are three hundred and forty steps up to Big Ben. The faces of the clock are very large. The minute hand is 14 ft long, the hour hand is 9 ft, the figures are 2 ft long.
Nelson’s Column is named after the greatest admiral Lord Nelson. It is a very tall column and a figure of Nelson on top of it. Equally famous is the general who led the army at the battle of Waterloo in 1815. This is the Duke of Wellington. His house stands at Hyde Park Corner. It is sometimes named as Number One, London. Like Admiral Nelson, the Duke of Wellington is buried in St Paul’s Cathedral.
Find the English equivalents in the text.
Королевская библиотека, огромный, древний, доисторический, назван в честь, картина, современное искусство, крепость, тюрьма, вороны, легенда, готический стиль, ступени, минутная стрелка, колонна, герцог.
2) Find in the text and put the words in the correct order.
1) gallery, open, the, days, admission, free, a week, is, and, is.
2) London, very, building, Tower, is, a, old, the, of.
3) flying, when, is, on, top, she, at home, the, flag, the, is.
3) True or False
1) Victoria and Albert Museum ( V&A ) is named after Queen Victoria.
2) George II gave the royal library to the museum in 1757.
3) National Gallery has a collection of Italian and Dutch pictures.
4) The National History museum was just a department of the British
5) Buckingham Palace is the London home of the Prime Minister.
6) Ben is the name of the huge clock in one of the tall towers of
7) The legend says that without the ravens the Tower will fall.
8) People are not allowed to get inside the Tower.
9) Nelson’s Column is named after the Duke of Wellington.
10) The Duke of Wellington led the army at the battle of Waterloo in 1815.
Read the text and do the exercises:
Places of interest in London
The Buckingham Palace
The Buckingham Palace is the Royal residence. It was built in 1703 by the Duke of Buckingham. King George III bought the palace in 1761. It is now the official home of Queen Elizabeth and the British Royal Family. There are nearly six hundred rooms in the palace and three miles of red carpet.
Buckingham Palace is like a small town, with a police station, two post offices, a hospital, a bar , two sport clubs, a disco, a cinema and a swimming pool. Two men work full-time to look after the 300 clocks. About 700 people work for the Palace.
The two houses of Parliament, the House of Commons and House of Lords, meet in the Palace of Westminster. It was designed in the Gothic style by the architect Sir Charles Barry and built between 1840 and 1860. The original Palace of Westminster had been a home for the Royal Family until the 16th century. Then it became the meeting place for the Parliament. There was a terrible fire in 1834 and most the original Palace was burnt.
Westminster Abbey was a Norman church of the Benedictine monks in Westminster. The present building in the English Gothic style was started in 1245 by King Henry III. Westminster Abbey is a very important church. Nearly all the English kings and queens since William the Conqueror (1027—1087) were crowned in Westminster Abbey. In 1952, Queen Elizabeth was crowned there.
The Tower of London
The Tower of London was begun by William the Conqueror as a fortress and palace. Later kings made it larger and stronger, and kept soldiers, armour, weapons, treasure, and sometimes important prisoners there. For nine centuries the Tower has kept watch over London and River Thames. It was not until 1850 that the Tower became a tourist attraction. At the center of the Tower of London there is the White Tower (1078). This tower is nearly 30 metres high. The walls are very strong. At the bottom of the tower, the walls are nearly 5 metres thick.
During the reign of King Henry III (1216—1272) a wall and more towers were built. The next king Edward I (1272—1307) built the second wall, outside Henry III’s wall,
and dug the moat.
The palace at the Tower had its own Zoo. It began when Henry III was given three leopards by the German Emperor, a polar bear by King of Norway, and an elephant by the King of France. Soon it became a tradition that there should always be lions at the Tower, for heraldic lions appear in the Royal arms of England.
In 1834 the Tower Zoo was closed, and some of the animals were sent to a new London Zoo in Regent’s Park. The Tower of London has a grim history. It was a fortress, a royal house, a church, a prison, an arsenal and a mint. For many famous people the Tower was a prison. Thomas More, the saint and martyr, Queen Anne Boleyn, the second wife of King Henry VIII, Queen Elizabeth I and Sir Walter Raleigh, the 11as-reli and the friend of Queen Elizabeth I, all spent time as prisoners in the Tower.
Today the Tower is home for about one hundred and fifty people, including the Tower officers, the Yeoman Warders and their families. In fact the Tower is rather like the traditional English village.
The ravens are certainly among the most important residents in the Tower, for — so the story goes — if they ever leave, the Tower will fall and England with it.
I True or false
1) The Buckingham Palace is the museum now.
2) There are nearly eight hundred rooms in the palace and three miles of red
3) About 700 people work for the Palace.
4) The Buckingham Palace was designed in the Gothic style.
5) The Palace of Westminster becomes the meeting place for the Parliament.
6) Westminster Abbey was a Norman church of the Benedict monks in
7) In 1952, Queen Elizabeth was crowned in Westminster Abbey.
8) The palace at the Tower had its own Zoo.
9) For many famous people the Tower was a prison.
10) Today the Tower is home for about one hundred and fifty prisoners.
1) What places of interest do you know in London?
2) What do you know about the history of these places?
Read the text and do the exercises:
London and Its Places of Interest
London is the capital of Great Britain, its political, economic and commercial centre. It is the chief port of Great Britain. It is one of the greatest cities of the world. Its population is about 9 million people.
The origin of the city may be dated as the beginning of the 1st century A. D, when a tribe of the Celtic family settled near the Thames. The Roman town, LONDINIUM, grew up on the two hillocks near St Paul’s Cathedral and Cornhill, not far from the Tower of London. The English are very proud of the long history of their capital. The city became extremely prosperous during the 16th century. Then in 1665 and 1666 two catastrophes occurred: the first was epidemic of plague which killed 100,000 citizens, and the second was the Great Fire which destroyed the whole of the City, including St Paul’s Cathedral. London is a real museum of architecture. Most of the finest buildings date from the second half of the 17th century. At the beginning of the 19th century England was at the height of her power. During Queen Victoria’s long reign (1837—1901) the construction of the Underground began. And the first line between "> At the same time the City became exclusively a commercial centre. The City is one part of London. Traditionally London is divided into: the City, the West End, Westminster and the East End.
The City is the heart of London, its financial and business centre. The City was described as a “busy emporium for trade and traders” as early as Roman times. The City has within its square mile such famous institutions as the Bank of England, the Stock Exchange, the Royal Courts of Justice and Guildhall. The City has its own Lord Major Corporation as well as its own police force. Few people live in this part of London but over a million come here to work.
There’s a lot of famous ancient buildings within the City. The most striking of them is St Paul’s Cathedral, Sir Christopher Wren’s masterpiece. It was built between 1675 and 1710 to replace the 13th century cathedral which had been destroyed by the Great Fire.
The City of Westminster is one of the most famous historic areas in London as it contains both the seat of Government and the crowning place of kings and queens. Westminster was the first important inhabited area outside the City.
The Houses of Parliament and Westminster Abbey face each other across Parliament Square. Westminster Abbey is a beautiful Gothic building. In the 11th century Edward the Confessor founded a great Norman Abbey. But nothing is left of this church. Henry III wanted a brighter and bigger building. Master Henry, John of Gloucester and Robert of Beverly succeeded in the work of constructing Westminster Abbey. The work went on until the 18th century when Nicholas Hawksmoor altered the I and added the towers. Almost all the monarchs since William the Conqueror have been crowned in Westminster and many are buried there.
There are memorials of many statesmen, scientists and writers in Westminster. Westminster Abbey is not a Cathedral. It is a “Royal Peculiar”, royal property. It is dependent directly on the monarch.
The Houses of Parliament — the seat of British Parliament, which is officially known as the Palace of Westminster.
The first building was constructed as early as the 11th century ( the magnificent Westminster Hall was built between 1097—1099 by William Rufus). Most of the old palace was destroyed in a fire in 1834. The present Houses of Parliament were completed in 1865. The Houses of Parliament comprise the House of Lords and the House of Commons. The division of Parliament into two Houses goes back as 700 year.
The West End is the centre of London. There are historical palaces, museums, beautiful parks, large department stores, hotels, restaurants, theatres and concert halls in this part of London. One of the most beautiful palaces is Buckingham Palace, the official residence of the Queen. Palace takes its name from Buckingham House which was built in 1703 as the home of the Duke of Buckingham and then bought by George III in 1762. Today the Queen lives at the Palace for only part of the year and when she is in her residence the Royal Standard is flown. Although the main palace is not open to the public items from the Royal Collection can be seen at the Queen’s gallery. The oldest of all the royal residences in London is the Tower of London. The Tower today bears the official title Of “Her Majesty’s Palace and fortress of the Tower of London.” Founded by William the Conqueror in 1078 the fortress was enlarged several times. Now it is a museum, which houses the national collection of armour and the Crown Jewels. For many centuries the Tower has been a fortress, the Royal residence, the Royal Mint, the first Royal Observatory. But it is perhaps most famous for being a prison. The Yeomen of the Guard (Beefeaters) were originally formed to be a body-guard for Henry VII. They still wear the Tudor uniform chosen by the King and now give guided tours of the Tower. The ravens whose forefathers used to live in the Tower still live there. The Yeomen Raven Master is responsible for feeding and caring for the ravens at the Tower. There is a legend that if the ravens disappear the Tower will fall.
The broad Mall leads from Buckingham Palace to Trafalgar square. Trafalgar Square, named to commemorate Nelson’s great naval victory of 1805, is dominated by Nelson’s Column. On its pedestal there four bronze reliefs cast from captured French cannon, representing scenes from the battles of St Vincent, the Nile, Copenhagen and Trafalgar. The bronze lions at the corners of the pedestals are the work of Landseer.
From Trafalgar Square it is only a short way to Piccadilly Circus. In the centre of Piccadilly Circus is a bronze fountain. It was designed by Sir Alfred Gilbert in 1893.
Downing Street, 10 is the official residence of the Prime Minister.
If you go to the east of the City, you’ll find yourself in the East End. This is an industrial part of London. The Port of London is also in the East End. A great amount of space in London is devoted to parks and gardens. Most of them used to be private gardens or hunting forests of kings and queens. Later they were transformed into their present design. Today nothing could be more relaxing and peaceful than a walk in a beautiful park.
I. Answer the questions
1) What is the population of London?
2) What parts does London consist of?
3) What part of London can be called its centre?
4) What masterpieces of architecture in London do you know?
5) Who is the architect of St Paul’s Cathedral?
6) What is the historical value of the Tower of London?
7) What is the residence of the Queen?
8) What does the legend about the ravens in the Tower say?
9) What events does Trafalgar Square commemorate?
10) Where is the official residence of the Prime Minister?
II. Choose the right answer.
1. London became extremely prosperous during …
a) the reign of King Alfred.
b) the 16th century
c) the 19th century
2.The construction of London Underground began …
a) in the 18th century
b) in the 20th century
c) during Queen Victoria’s reign
3. The heart of London is …
b) the West End
c) the City
4. Westminster’s construction was completed in …
a) the 10th century
b) the 13th century
c) the 18th century
5. The official residence of Queen is...
a) Kensington Palace.
b) Buckingham Palace.
c) the Tower of London.
6. The oldest royal residence is…
a) Buckingham Palace.
b) the Tower of London.
c) Westminster Abbey.
7. The ravens in the Tower of London are taken care of because …
a) they are very old.
b) they are very rare.
c) of a legend.
Read, translate and act the dialogue:
Dialogue “The history of London”
- What awful events did London survive?
- London survived the Plague, which killed nearly 100,000 people, and the Great
Fire which followed.
- Were there many changes in the rebuilding of London after that?
- The rebuilding of London followed the medieval street plan, but the old wooden
houses were replaced by buildings of brick to reduce the future fire risk.
- What was the main course of tremendous destruction of London?
- World War II was. Large areas of London were destroyed by bombs during
World War II.
- What is the name “West End” associated with?
- The name “West End” associated with wealth, luxury and goods of high quality.
- What best-known streets are in the West End?
- The best- known streets are: Whitehall with important government offices,
Downing Street, the residence of the Prime Minister and Fleet Street which
stands for the press.
- What is there in the East End?
- The port of London is in the East End. It is an area of docks, unattractive in
appearance, but very important in the country’s commerce.
- What does Trafalgar Square look like as a rule?
- When the square is not used for demonstrations, it is full of visitors feeding the
pigeons or watching the traffic.
- Why is Trafalgar Square so named?
- The square was so named to commemorate Nelson’s victory at the Battle of
Trafalgar in 1805, and the monument in the centre, known as Nelson’s Column,
is surmounted with a statue of Nelson 16 feet high. The pedestal of the Column
is decorated with as-reliefs representing Nelson’s most familiar victories. At the
base of Nelson’s Column are four lions.
- Who is the security of Tower ensured by?
- The security of the Tower is ensured by a military garrison arid the Yeoman
Warders, or “Beefeaters” who still wear their picturesque Tudor uniform.
- What else is Abbey known for?
- The Abbey is also known for its Poets’ Corner. Graves and memorials to many
English poets and writers are clustered round about.
- Where does the Unknown Warrior lie?
- Near the West Door of the Abbey the Unknown Warrior lies in a simple grave
commemorating the men who died in the First World War.
- Has the Tower of London been built and extended?
- Since the times of William I (the Conqueror) various kings have built and
extended the Tower of London.
Read the text and answer the questions:
The London Underground
The London Underground is the oldest one in the world. The first line was opened in 1870. It was like a tube, that's why it was called the Tube. English people call the old lines the Tube, the new lines — the Underground.
One can see the word «Underground» across a large circle. It shows you where the stations are. When you want to find the metro stations in Moscow you look for the letter «M».
The old Tube runs across the centre. It has got many stations. The London Underground is long. It is about 300 kilometres long and it has got almost 300 Underground stations. Some of them are closed on Sundays. The other stations are closed on Saturdays and Sundays. Many stations of the London Underground have got «Car Park». The price of tickets is not low. It depends on the distance. There are comfortable seats in the carriages at the Underground. The walls are white or grey. There are a lot of advertisements everywhere in the Underground in London. You can see escalators and also lifts at some stations. Only half of the Underground trains in London go under ground, new lines that connect London with the country go over ground.
1) When was the tube opened?
2) How do English people name the old and the new lines?
3) How many stations has the London Underground got?
4) What do you know about the price of tickets in the London Underground?
5) Does the price of tickets depend on the distance?
6) Is the price of tickets high or low?
7) What kind of seats are there in carriages?
8) What can you see everywhere in the London Underground?
9) Are there any lifts in the London Underground?
Read the text and do the exercises:
System of Government
Britain is a parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch – Queen Elizabeth II – as a head of State.
Today the Queen is not only head of State but also an important symbol of national unity. The royal title in Britain is:
«Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of Her other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith.» In law the Queen is head of the executive, an integral part of the legislature, head of the judiciary, the Commander-in-chief of all the
armed forces of the Crown and the Supreme Governor of the established Church of England.
The Queen and the royal family continue to take part in many traditional ceremonies. They visit different parts of Britain; they are involved in the work of many charities. In practice the monarch has no actual power: they say, the monarch reigns but doesn't rule. Queen's power is limited by the Parliament. Parliament is the supreme legislative authority in Britain and the Prime Minister is the virtual ruler of the country.
Parliament comprises the House of Commons, the House of Lords and the Queen in her constitutional role. The Queen summons, prorogues and dissolves Parliament. She opens each session with a speech. It is her duty to make appointments to all important state offices. The Queen must see all Cabinet documents. She has the power to conclude treaties, to declare war and make peace.
The Commons has 651 elected Members of Parliament (MPs).
The Lords is made up of 1,185 hereditary and life peers, and the two archbishops and the 24 most senior bishops of the established Church of England. The centre of parliamentary power is the House of Commons. The leader of the party that obtains a majority in the House of Commons is the Prime Minister. The party which has majority of the seats in the House of Commons is called the Government, and the other is the Opposition. The Government may hold office for five years.
All the affairs of the State are conducted in the name of the Queen, but really the Prime Minister is responsible for every measure submitted to Parliament. As a head of the Government the Prime Minister appoints about 100 ministers, of whom about 20 are in the Cabinet (the senior group which takes major policy decisions). Ministers are responsible for government decisions and individually responsible for their own departments. The Opposition has a duty to challenge government policies and to present an alternative programme.
I. Answer the questions.
1. Is Britain a monarchy?
2. Who is the Commander-in-chief of all the armed forces of the Crown?
3. What are the duties of the Queen?
4. Who rules the country?
5. What is the supreme legislative authority in Britain?
6. How is the Government formed?
II . Explain the meaning of the following words and expressions.
1. The head of State –
2. The power is limited –
3. The leader of the party –
4. Majority of the seats –
5. To hold office for five years –
6. To be responsible for -
7. To present an alternative programme –
III. True or false?
1. Britain is a parliamentary monarchy.
2. The Prime Minister is head of State.
3. The Queen only takes part in traditional ceremonies.
4. Queen's power is limited by the Parliament.
5. The Parliament is the supreme legislative authority.
6. The Lords are elected members of Parliament.
7. The centre of parliamentary power is the House of Commons.
8. All affairs of the State are conducted in the name of the Queen.
9. The Prime Minister declares war and makes peace.
10. Ministers are responsible for their own departments.
Read the text and do the exercises:
The British Parliament works in a large building called the Palace of Westminster (The Houses of Parliament). It contains offices, committee rooms, restaurants, libraries and even some places of residence. It also contains two large rooms. One is where the House of Lords meets, the other is where the House of Commons meets. The British Parliament is divided into two Houses and its members belong to one or other of them. (Only members of Commons are known as MPs — Members of Parliament.) The Commons is more important of the two Houses.
The person who chairs and controls discussion in the House of Commons is the Speaker. He (or she) decides which MP is going to speak next and makes sure that the rules of procedure are followed. In fact, Speaker is, officially, the second important «commoner» in the Kingdom after the Prime Minister. In 1992 for the first time a woman was pointed Speaker, so nowadays MPs address her «Madam Speaker».
Traditionally, MPs were not supposed to be professional politicians. They were supposed to be ordinary people, bringing their experience into Parliament. They were not even paid until the beginning of this century. They were supposed to be doing a public service. But that meant that only rich people could be MPs.
Politics in Britain in the last forty years has become professional. Most MPs are full-time politicians and do another job (if at all) only part-time.
Traditionally the House doesn't sit in the morning. It starts its business at 2.30 p. M. (only on Friday it starts in the morning). MPs’ mornings are devoted to committee work, research, preparing speeches. Weekends are not free for MPs.
The House of Commons is made up of 650 elected members. MPs sit on two sides of the hall, one side for the governing party and the other for the opposition. The first two rows of seats are occupied by the lead members of both parties (frontbenches).
Each session lasts for 160—175 days. A proposed law (a bill) has to go through three stages (readings) to become an Act of Parliament. If the majority of MPs vote for the
bill, it is sent to the House of Lords. When the Lords agree it is taken to the Queen for Royal assent.
Unlike MPs, members of the House of Lords («peers») are not elected. They are holders of an inherited aristocratic title. The House of Lords is therefore a relic of earlier times. The House of Lords has more than 1,000 members, but only about 250 take an active part in the work of House. The House of Lords has little real power nowadays. The power to refuse a proposal for a law (which has been agreed by the Commons) is limited.
The modern House of Lords is a forum for public discussions. The division of Parliament into two Houses dates back as 700 years. Today the elected House of Commons has real political power, although members of the House of Lords occupy important posts.
I Answer the questions.
1.What is the official name of the Houses of Parliament? .
2.Who is the second important person in the Kingdom after the Prime Minister?
3.When was a woman appointed Speaker for the first time?
4.Who has more real power: the House of Lords or the House of Commons?
5.How are the first two rows of seats in the House of Commons called?
6. How many readings has the bill to pass?
II Explain the meaning of the following words and expressions.
1. MPs - 4. Royal assent –
2. The Speaker - 5. Full-time politicians –
3 frontbenches - 6. A relic of earlier time –
III. Complete the sentences.
1. The British Parliament works in a large building, called ….
2. The British Parliament is divided into two ….
3. The Speaker makes sure that the rules….
4. In … a woman was appointed….
5. The House of Commons is made up of … members.
6. When the Lords agree the bill is taken to ... for ....
7. The House of Lords has more than ... members.
8. Members of the House of Lords are holders of....
9. The division of Parliament into two Houses dates back as ....
10. Today the ... has real political power.
Shops in Britain
Most shops in Britain open at 9.00 a. m. and close at 5.00 or 5.30 in the evening. Small shops usually close for an hour at lunch time. On one or two days a week – usually Thursday/ Friday some large shops stay open until about 8.00 p. m. for late
Many shops are closed in the afternoon on one day a week. The day is usually Wednesday or Thursday and it is a different day in different towns.
Nearly all shops are closed on Sundays. Newspaper shops are open in the morning and sell sweets and cigarettes as well. But there are legal restrictions on selling many things on Sunday.
In general, overseas visitors don’t have much difficulty knowing where to buy things. Most shops sell the things that you would not expect them to. One problem is stamps. In Great Britain you can only buy these at the post-offices.
Many large food shops (supermarkets) are self-service. When you go into one of these shops you take a basket and put the things you wish to buy into it. You queue up at a cash-desk and pay for everything just before you leave.
If someone tries to take things from a shop without paying they are almost certain to be caught. Most shops have store detectives who have the job catching shoplifters. Shoplifting is considered a serious crime by the police and the courts.
When you are waiting to be served in a shop it is important to wait your turn. It is important not to try to be served before people who arrived before you. Many people from overseas are astonished at the British habit of queueing.
AT THE CUSTOMS.
Is it your trunk, sir?
Yes, it’s mine.
Have you got any other luggage/
This bag. Shall I open it?
Yes, please. Have you got anything to declare?
I don’t think so. I’ve got a packet of cigarettes for my own use. Is everything OK?
Yes, sir. Thank you.
AT A HOTEL.
Good morning, sir. Can I help you?
Good morning. I’d like a room for tonight.
Single or double?
Have you got a reservation?
What’s your name, please?
My name’s James Morrison.
Yes, we have a room reserved for you. We can offer you a room on the third floor. Is it suitable for you?
Is it a room with a bath and a shower?
Yes, you’ll have everything you need. There is a bath, a refrigerator, a bar, a telephone, a TV-set. If you need anything else you can tell the chambermaid or the manager.
Will you fill in this form and sign the register?
Where shall I sign?
Here, please. Thank you.
What time do you serve meals?
You can have breakfast from eight till ten, lunch from twelve till three,
Dinner is from five till seven. Besides you can have late supper.
How much is the room?
It is thirty dollars a night. The price includes breakfast and VAT (value added tax – налог на добавленную стоимость)
In a shop
Cust: No, it’s all right thanks. I’m just looking around.
Ass: That’s OK.
Cust: (in some minutes) I like this navy-blue jacket very much. Can I try it on?
Ass: Certainly. The fitting room is in the right-hand corner.
Cust: Oh, it suits me very well, doesn’t it?
Ass: That’s a really nice jacket. Pure wool a modern fashion.
Cust: How much is it?
Ass: $ 20. English clothes are really good value. They are so well-made.
Cust: All right. I can afford the price.
Ass: Can I help you?
Cust: Yes, please. I would like to have something from this shopping list.
Ass: Oh, your shopping list is very big. We stock only three items you ask for: butter, milk and cheese.
Cust: Two packets of butter, a pound of cheese and three bottles of milk, please.
Ass: Here they are. Pay a cheque at the cash desk.
Cust: Excuse me, do you happen to know where I could find some ham, minced meat and beef sausages.
Ass: They are sold in the butcher’s.
Cust: And I wonder if you stock any bread here?
Ass: I’m afraid we don’t. You should try at the bakery next door to us.
Cust: Hello, I’m looking for a pullover. Can you show me one?
Ass: Certainly, madam. What kind of pullover do you want?
Cust: A woolen one. Medium size.
Ass: How about this one? It’s very attractive.
Cust: Yes, but it is too thick.
Ass: How about this yellow one?
Cust: Oh, it’s quite nice but it’s too short and I don’t like the colour.
Ass: What colour do you want?
Cust: I think blue or brown will do.
Ass: Well, we have some pullovers of that colour. Here they are. Which one do you like best?
Cust: Can I try this brown one?
Ass: Of course, madam. ... Oh, it fits you perfectly. It’s exactly you size.
Cust: Yes, but I don’t think it suits me. Can I try that blue one? It matches the colour of my eyes.
Ass: Unfortunately, we can’t offer you exactly what you want. The colour, size, material, price are all wrong. Try another shop, please.
Cust: Excuse me, please.
Ass: That’s all right. But you’d better go to a big supermarket. You’ll find it there.
Cust: It was very kind of you to explain me all that. Thank you very much.
Shopping takes much time in everybody’s life. People prefer supermarkets where they can buy thousands of items of consumer goods. Such supermarkets make things easier for housewives. There are several separate department stores under one roof at these supermarkets. At present they often belong different firms which run item individually. Prices vary from department stores under roof at these supermarkets. At present they often belong to different firms which run them individually. Prices vary from department to department. They sell a wide assortment of confectionery and bakery, dry groceries, wines, pastry, fish and caviar, fruits and vegetables, smoked meat and sausage, dairy products, butcher’s meat and fowl and lot jewelers, electrical appliances, perfumery, household goods, sport goods and foot wear, knitted and leather goods, textiles, millinery, hosiery, haberdashery, crockery and glass wear, stationery etc.
There are departments, known as “bargain sales”, where they sell commodities at reduced prices. It is an attempt to get rid of stocks that find no market. “High pressure advertising helps to hoodwink the public into buying. One of the ways of making the public buy more is hire – purchase buying. There are packed up food counters practically in every shop, but self- service food up department and stores are preferable
because they save the customer’s time.
I like to buy fruits and vegetables. They smell good and you feel as if you were in an exotic country. They sell grapes, berries, tangerines, oranges, pineapples, bananas, plums, pears, peaches, grapefruits and so on. When you enter a green grocery you feel you would eat anything they sell: carrots, cucumbers, tomatoes, cauliflower, peas, lettuce, watermelon, onion, cabbage, beets, etc. I like to bargain when shopping. I don’t like to stand in a queue. So I never go to shops with cash-desks because it takes them too long to sum up the purchases. It is convenient to go modern supermarket where checking purchases is automatic.
At the doctors
Mr. Williams: Good morning, doctor.
Doctor: Hello, Mr. Williams. Take a seat. What seems to be the trouble?
Mr. Williams: I’m not sure, doctor. But I haven’t been feeling too well. I think I must have a touch of flu.
Doctor: There’s a lot of it going round at the moment. What are the symptoms?
Mr. Williams: I’m feeling very tired and I’m aching all over. I’ve been sneezing a lot, and feeling pretty feverish, hot and cold all the time. And I’ve got a sore throat.
Doctor: Any vomiting?
Mr. Williams: No, but I don’t feel very hungry. I’ve got no appetite at all.
Doctor: Well, let’s have a look at you. Yes, your throat’s a bit inflamed and your glands are swollen. I’ll write out a prescription for you, but you know the best way to fight off a cold is just to go home, go to bed, and take the medicine and plenty of fluids.
At the dentist’s
Visitor: I have a raking toothache. I can’t eat and I can’t sleep at night.
Dentist: Please open your month. Which tooth is it that hurts you?
Visitor: It’s a big tooth at the back of the left. That hurts very badly.
Dentist: Yes, that tooth has a big cavity, but I think I can stop it for you. Why didn’t you come earlier?
Visitor: Well, you know , it’s not quite a pleasure to go to the dentist’s. and every time I decided to come it got better.
Dentist: I shall put you a filling in this one, but there’s another bad tooth near it besides this. I shall have to extract it. But don’t be afraid. It will not hurt you. I shall give you an injection before I extract it and you won’t feel any pain.
In the casualty department
Doctor: Hello. Mr. Wayne, isn’t it? You’ve fallen off your bicycle. What were you
doing? Going too fast? Please tell me everything about it.
Wayne: Yes, doctor. I fell off going found the corner.
Doctor: You’d better get undressed and have a lie down then, we’ll take a look at
you. That’s a nasty cut. I’ll have to put a couple of stitches in that.
Wayne: Besides, I’ve got a cut here too, doctor.
Doctor: It looks worse than it is. It’s only a graze. Now I think you can’t say that it
hurts everywhere, can you?
Wayne: I’ve got a pain in my arm. it’s very sore, and it feels stiff.
Doctor: Well, there’s nothing broken, but you’ve bruised your shoulder. It’ll be
sore, for a few days. Now, did you bang your head at all?
Wayne: Yes, I did. I fell onto the bike. But it doesn’t hurt now.
Doctor: Did you feel dizzy?
Wayne: No, not at all.
Doctor: Look up here. I’ll just do a couple of stitches, and the nurse will put a
dressing on it. Then you may go home. Wish you speedy and full recovery.
Spot welding is a resistance welding method used to join two to four overlapping metal sheets which are up to 3 mm thick each. In some applications with only two overlapping metal sheets, the sheet thickness can be up to 6 mm. Two copper electrodes are simultaneously used to clamp the metal sheets together and to pass current through the sheets. When the current is passed through the electrodes to the sheets, heat is generated due to the higher electrical resistance where the surfaces contact each other. As the heat dissipates into the work, the rising temperature causes a rising resistance, and the heat is then generated by the current through this resistance. The surface resistance lowers quickly, and the heat is soon generated only by the materials' resistance. The water cooled copper electrodes remove the surface heat quickly, since copper is an excellent conductor. The heat in the center has nowhere to go, as the metal of the workpiece is a poor conductor of heat by comparison. The heat remains in the center, melting the metal from the center outward. As the heat dissipates throughout the workpiece in less than a second the molten, or at least plastic, state grows to meet the welding tips. When the current is stopped the copper tips cool the spot weld, causing the metal to solidify under pressure. Some coatings, such as zinc, cause localized heating due to its high resistance, and may require pulsation welding to dissipate the unwanted surface heat into the copper tips.
If excessive heat is applied, or applied too quickly, the molten area may extend to the outside, and with its high pressure (typically 30,000 psi) will escape the containment force of the tips with a burst of molten metal called expulsion. When this occurs, the metal will be thinner and have less strength than a weld with no expulsion. The common method of checking a weld is a peel test, technically called "coach peel", as expulsion weakens the material by thinning, and makes it pass the peel test easier. A better test is the tensile test, which is much more difficult to perform, and requires calibrated equipment.
The advantages of the method include efficient energy use, limited workpiece deformation, high production rates, easy automation, and no required filler materials. When high strength in shear is needed, spot welding is used in preference to more costly mechanical fastening, such as riveting. While the shear strength of each weld is high, the fact that the weld spots do not form a continuous seam means that the overall strength is often significantly lower than with other welding methods, limiting the usefulness of the process. It is used extensively in the automotive industry— cars can have several thousand spot welds. A specialized process, called shot welding, can be used to spot weld stainless steel.
There are three basic types of resistance welding bonds: solid state, fusion, and reflow braze. In a solid state bond, also called a thermo-compression bond, dissimilar materials with dissimilar grain structure, e.g. molybdenum to tungsten, are joined using a very short heating time, high weld energy, and high force. There is little melting and minimum grain growth, but a definite bond and grain interface. Thus the materials actually bond while still in the “solid state”. The bonded materials typically exhibit excellent shear and tensile strength, but poor peel strength. In a fusion bond, either similar or dissimilar materials with similar grain structures are heated to the melting point (liquid state) of both. The subsequent cooling and combination of the materials forms a “nugget” alloy of the two materials with larger grain growth. Typically, high weld energies at either short or long weld times, depending on physical characteristics, are used to produce fusion bonds. The bonded materials usually exhibit excellent tensile, peel and shear strengths. In a reflow braze bond, a resistance heating of a low temperature brazing material, such as gold or solder, is used to join either dissimilar materials or widely varied thick/thin material combinations. The brazing material must “wet” to each part and possess a lower melting point than the two workpieces. The resultant bond has definite interfaces with minimum grain growth. Typically the process requires a longer (2 to 100 ms) heating time at low weld energy. The resultant bond exhibits excellent tensile strength, but poor peel and shear strength.
Like spot welding, seam welding relies on two electrodes to apply pressure and current to join metal sheets. However, instead of pointed electrodes, wheel-shaped electrodes roll along and often feed the workpiece, making it possible to make long continuous welds. In the past, this process was used in the manufacture of beverage cans, but now its uses are more limited.
Seam welding is the act of welding two similar metals together at a seam, usually on a piece of automated equipment. This process differs from butt welding, as that is generally a process that is done on static (non-moving) metals.
Seam welding consists of two (or more) moving metals through forming production equipment. A common use of seam welding is for copper and steel piping for construction. Varying the amperage as well as speeds of the moving metals ensure a proper seam weld, and many industries use this process for creation of finished
Resistance seam welding is a resistance welding process that produces a weld at the faying surfaces of overlapped parts along a length of a joint. The weld may be made by overlapping weld nuggets, a continuous weld nugget or by forging the joint as it is heated to the welding temperature by resistance to the flow of welding current. Instead of using two cylindrical electrodes as in case of spot welding, here two circular disks are used as electrodes. The workpiece is passed through the space between the two discs, and under pressure applied by the discs and current flowing through them, a continuous weld is formed.
With seam welding the material passes between two rotating wheels or welding rollers. The welding rollers perform three tasks:
Weld current transmission
Feed motion transmission
The high electrical A/C current (low voltage) is supplied from a transformer.
The overlap of the work piece with its comparatively high electrical resistance is intensely heated by the current. With each positive or negative current half-wave the parts are heated to a semi-molten condition, especially at the current peaks. The semi-molten overlap surfaces are pressed together by the welding pressure which causes them to bond together into a uniforming welded structure after cooling. Most seam welded technologies use water cooling through the weld roller assemblies due to the intense heat generated.
Seam welding is mainly used on the seams of tubes and pipes for its ease and accuracy. The resulting weld from the welding wheels is extremely durable due to the length of the contact area.
Ultrasonic seam welders use energy at a frequency around 20 kHz to vibrate the material being worked on. The vibration creates friction, the friction creates heat, causing the material to melt together. Ultrasonic welding is the process used to create the plastic packages that are extremely hard to open without destroying the package.
Список использованной литературы:
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2) Ю. В. Куреленко: «400 тем по английскому языку для школьников, абитуриентов, студентов и преподавателей», М., БАО-ПРЕСС, 2004.
3) Ж. Г. Степанова: «Английский язык. Самые распространенные разговорные темы», М., АСТ: Восток – Запад, 2007.
4) Т. В. Градская, В. В. Сюбаева: «Путешествие за рубеж», М., АСТ: Восток – Запад, 2007.
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6) Левицкая Т.Р., ФитерманА. М. Теория и практика перевода с английского языка на русский. М., 2006.
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8) ПредвечнаяЛ. А. Практический курс английского языка. Ростов-на-Дону, 2006.
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