Do you know what the first engine was like? It was called the “water wheel”. This was an ordinary wheel with blades fixed to it, and the current of a river turned it. These first engines were used for irrigating fields.
Водяное колесо в цветочном саду - Стоковое изображение: 5445420
Then a wind-powered engine was invented. This was a wheel, but a very small one. Long wide wooden blades were attached to it. The new engine was driven by the wind. Some of these ones can still be seen in the country.
Both of these, the water- and wind-operated engines are very economical. They do not need fuel in order to function. But they are dependent on the weather.
Many years passed and people invented a new engine, one operated by steam. In steam engine, there is a furnace and a boiler. The furnace is filled with wood or coal and then lit. The fire heats the water in the boiler and when it boils, it turns into steam which does some useful work.
The more coal is put into furnace, the stronger the fire is burning. The more steam there is, the faster a train or a boat is moving.
The steam engine drove all sorts of machines, for example, steam ships and steam locomotives. Indeed, the very first aeroplane built by A.F.Mozhaisky also had a steam engine. However, the steam engine had its disadvantages. It was too large and heavy, and needed too much fuel.
The imperfections of the steam engine led to the design of a new type. It was called the internal combustion engine, because its fuel ignites and burns inside the engine itself and not in a furnace. It is smaller and lighter than a steam engine because it does not have a boiler. It is also more powerful, as it uses better-quality fuel: petrol or kerosene.
The internal combustion engine is now used in cars, diesel locomotives and motor ships. But to enable aeroplanes to fly faster than the speed of sound another, more powerful engine was needed. Eventually, one was invented and it was given the name “jet engine”. The gases in it reach the temperature of over a thousand degrees. It is made of a very resistant metal so that it will not melt.
Fill in the correct words from the list below. Use the words only once.
Water, irrigating, wind-powered, wooden, depend on, operated by, steam, useful, internal combustion, jet, resistant, the current of a
………steam 7. ………river
………fields 8. ………weather
………wheel 9. ………engine
………metal 10. ………work
………engine 11. ………engine
………engine 12. ………blades
Fill in the missing words.
Imperfections, cars, driven, wheel, disadvantages, blades, boiler, current, resistant, ignites, coal, diesel locomotives, powerful, inside, heats, dependent, steam
The first engine was an ordinary ……… with …….. fixed to it, and the ……. of a river turned it.
The new engine was …….. by the wind.
Water- and wind-operated engines are ……. on the weather.
The fire ……. the water in the boiler and when it boils, it turns into ……… which does some useful work.
The more ……. is put in the furnace, the stronger the fire is burning.
The steam engine had its ……………. .
The …………… of the steam engine led to the design of a new type.
It was called the internal combustion engine, because its fuel …….. and burns …… the engine.
It is smaller and lighter than a steam engine, because it does not have a …………….. .
The internal combustion engine now is used in ….., …… ……. and motor ships.
To enable aeroplanes to fly faster than the speed of sound another, more ………. engine was needed.
It is made of a very ………. metal so that it will not melt.
Give a title to each paragraph.
Match the words from the text to their definitions.
1. A machine with moving parts that uses a fuel to produce movement a) jet engine
2. the hot wet substance like a thin cloud that is produced when water is heated b) speed
3. the rate at which someone or something moves с) powerful
4. physically strong d) steam
5. a type of engine that combines air and burning fuel to create power for a jet plane e) engine
And the last task for your work with the text today is to answer the following questions:
What was the first engine like? How was it used?
How can you describe a wind-powered engine?
Why are both of these, the water- and wind-operated engines very economical? Do they have any disadvantages?
How can you describe a steam engine? How was the steam engine used? What were its disadvantages?
Why is the internal combustion engine called so?
What are the advantages of the internal combustion engine comparing with the steam engine? Where is it used now?
What kind of engines are used for the planes that exceed the speed of sound?
«Учебник английского языка для технических университетов и вузов»
Н.В.Орловская, Л.С.Самсонова, А.И.Скубриева
“English Dictionary for Advanced Learners”
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