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Инфоурок / Иностранные языки / Конспекты / Методическая разработка тема "Окружающая среда" для учащихся разного уровня подготовки
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Методическая разработка тема "Окружающая среда" для учащихся разного уровня подготовки

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Данная методическая разработка включает темы, которые позволяют вести обсуждение проблем охраны окружающей среды. Темы взаимосвязаны, логически вытекают одна из другой и дополняют друг друга.

  1. Погода и климат.

  2. Наша хрупкая планета.

  3. Загрязнение среды обитания.

  4. Загрязнение воды.

  5. Загрязнение почвы.

  6. Ядерное загрязнение.

  7. Что мы можем сделать, чтобы спасти нашу планету.


При изучении данных тем ученики повторяют и активизируют лексику, уже изученную на предыдущих этапах обучения, узнают большое количество новой лексики, что позволяет им высказывать личное мнение о состоянии окружающей среды в нашей стране и за рубежом , обсуждать экологические проблемы места своего проживания.

В рамках данной тематики предлагается:

а) базовый или опорный текст

б) вводится определенное количество новой лексики

в) даются упражнения на :

  1. освоение лексического материала

  2. тренировку лексического материала

  3. закрепление лексического материала

г) предлагаются упражнения на активизацию и использование лексики в

различных видах речевой деятельности:

аудировании, чтении, переводе, письме, говорении.


На заключительном этапе изучения данной темы предлагаются дополнительные тексты на :

  • извлечение полной информации (чтение с использованием словаря)

  • извлечение основной информации (без использования словаря)

  • извлечение частичной информации (без использования словаря)

а) частично адаптированные тексты

б) тексты неадаптированного характера

с) тест контролирующий усвоение лексики, узнавание и понимание ее в различных контекстах, умение использовать ее в различных видах речевой деятельности.












Введение лексики


an influence (n): Television has a strong influence on people. We don’t know everything about the influence of climate on people.

to influence (v); I’d like to know what influenced his decision.

human (adj); human voices, human nature. To make mistakes is human. He didn’t expect to hear human voices in the old house.

a human (n): Humans have been exploring the planet for thousands of years. Could a computer ever beat a human at chess?

to ruin (v): to ruin buildings, to ruin the harvest. The storm ruined our picnic. Why are you ruining your health? A lot of cities, towns and villages were ruined during the war.

a greenhouse (n): a greenhouse of glass. A greenhouse is a building with glass walls and roof where plants grow. My mother usually grows tomatoes in the greenhouse.

the greenhouse effect: The greenhouse effect is the problem of a rise in temperature in the earth’s atmosphere.

heat (n): The unusual heat in June killed all my lilies.

to produce (v): to produce goods. What does the farm produce?

huge (adj.): a huge animal, a man of huge strength. The huge animals that once lived on the earth died many centuries ago.

a coast (n): the coast of the sea. There are many towns on the coast of the Black Sea.

fragile (adj) fragile flowers, fragile health, fragile happiness. Fragile things break easily. Is glass very fragile? A fragile lady appeared on the screen.



to influence smb / sth

  1. His speech influenced the people greatly.

  2. The book influenced his choice of future profession.

  3. Computers have influenced the world of science a lot.



to have an influence on smb / sth

  1. His speech had a great influence on the people.

  2. The book had a strong influence on his choice of future profession.

  3. Computers have had a great influence on the world of science.




Name three .

- people who have influence on you

  • things that can ruin harvest

  • towns situated on the coast

  • huge things

  • parts of human body

  • vegetable that we usually grow in greenhouse

  • things that are fragile

  • things that we burn to warm our houses

  • makes of cars produced in Russia

an environment(n) a healthy environment. A noisy room is not the best environment to work in. Many people understand they should protect the environment. Cars are ruining our environment.

to pollute(v) To pollute the water, air, atmosphere means to make it dirty and dangerous for people and animals to live in or to use. Nowadays many newspapers write about the polluted atmosphere of towns and cities.

pollution(n) Environmental pollution is becoming dangerous. Many scientists speak about serious changes in the climate because of the pollution of the atmosphere. The government didn’t seem to notice the pollution and the noise.

to cause (v) to cause a fire, to cause an illness, to cause danger. A burning cigarette caused the fire. Overeating causes a lot of diseases.

a destruction(n) an awful destruction, the destruction of the environment. As the result of the fire we can speak about the destruction of the whole forest. The destruction of the city took place in 1942. Pouring oil into the water will cause pollution and destruction of our seas and rivers.

a shortage(n) After the hot summer there was a shortage of water. There was no shortage of helpers.

a population (n) a small population, with a population less than .... . What’s the population of London? The population in Western European countries is growing.

a dump(n) Take all the litter to the town rubbish dump. This town is a real dump!

to dump (v) They dumped a lot of rubbish in the river. All the countries protest against dumping acid wastes in the seas and oceans.

waste (n) nuclear waste, radioactive waste, industrial waste. A lot of waste from factories and plants goes into the river. The scientists try to solve the problem of radioactive waste.

poison (n) There’s poison in some mushrooms. In the fairy tale the princess ate an apple with poison but she didn’t die, she only fell asleep.

to poison(v) People can be poisoned by industrial waste. Someone tried to poison our dog’s food. Isn’t it cruel!

nuclear (adj) Nuclear war, nuclear tests, a nuclear free zone. There are no winners in nuclear war. Nuclear waste endangers people’s lives. People all over the world protest against nuclear tests. I should like to see Europe as a nuclear free zone.

a weapon(n) nuclear weapons. Guns and knives are weapons; they are used to kill or hurt people in a fight or a war. That night the great detective was not carrying a weapon. What countries of the world have got nuclear weapons?

to survive (v) We shall survive. We won’t die. Do you know that camels can survive for many days without eating? He was the only one survived in the fire. The first settlers in America survived their first severe winter on the new continent and celebrated it with their Indian friends.

safe (adj) This food is not safe for babies. Bye-bye, have a safe journey. A knife is not a safe toy.


Complete the sentences using the words: a shortage, waste, destruction, pollution, poison, population (2), nuclear weapons.

  1. The government is not supported by the .......

  2. The weathermen are speaking about the ....... of water again this summer.

  3. The country is not able to feed its ... .

  4. Factories pour a lot of ....... into seas.

  5. What caused the ....... of wildlife in this area?

  6. Smoke from factories is making ...... quite bad.

  7. Industrial waste can be ...... for fish.

  8. For the first time ...... were used by the USA in 1945.




CLIMATE

Climate is the weather a certain place has over a long period of time. Climate has a very important influence on plants, animals and humans and is different in different parts of the world.

Russia is the largest country of the world. It lies on the huge territory from the coast of the Pacific Ocean to the centre of Europe and its climate in the north, east and west is different. In the west for example, the climate is usually mild and wet. At the same time the coldest place on the planet is in the north of Siberia, while in the south of Russia there is a lot of sunshine and the heat in summer can be really terrible. Summer and winter temperatures are very different in Moscow, Omsk or Krasnoyarsk, in Volgograd or Rostov. In the Arctic the winter temperatures are low enough. The taiga zone has long hard winters and short summers. Between the Black and the Caspian seas it is very hot in summer.

But recently climate has changed a lot in our country, especially in its European part. Some scientists think the world is becoming hotter. If you compare Moscow winter and summer temperatures at the beginning of our century and at its end you will see that climate has really changed. Winters have become warmer Sometimes there is little snow in January, and there winters when it rained (not snowed) on the New Year’s Eve.

Many people say that it is so because of the greenhouse effect. Have you ever heard about it? It works like this: sunlight gives us heat. Some of the heat worms the atmosphere, and some of the heat goes back into space. Nowadays the air surrounding the earth has become much warmer and because the heat can’t go back into space. That’s why winter and summer temperatures in many places have become higher.

During the last 100 years people have produced a lot of carbon dioxide. This gas in the atmosphere works like glass in a greenhouse. It lets heat get in, but it doesn’t let much heat get out. So the atmosphere becomes warmer. Where does the carbon dioxide come from? People and animals breathe in oxygen, and breathe out carbon dioxide. We produce carbon dioxide when we burn things. Trees take this gas from the air, and produce oxygen. But in the last few years, people have cut down and burnt big areas of rainforest. This means there are fewer trees, and of course, more carbon dioxide!

As we see the climate in different parts of the world changes a little from year to year. These changes can be dangerous for our fragile planet which needs protection. Earth is millions of years old, much older than the humans. We know many of its secrets. Yet there is still much to learn.


  1. What is climate?

  2. Is the climate always the same in this or that part of the world? Does it change?

  3. What can you say about the climate in Russia?

  4. What do you know about the greenhouse effect?

  5. Why doesn’t all the heat go back into space?

Why does the atmosphere become warmer?

  1. How can the greenhouse effect influence the climate on

the planet in future?

  1. Do you think our planet needs protection? Why?






Recycle aluminium cans

Making aluminium from recycled aluminium uses 90% less energy than making aluminium from scratch.

In 1993 alone, aluminium can recycling saved more than 11billion kilowatt hours of electricity, enough to supply the residential electric needs of New York City for six months.

The energy saved from one recycled aluminium can will operate a television set for three hours.

If you throw an aluminium can out of the train window, it will still litter the Earth up to 500years later.

Don’t Buy Drinks in Plastic Bottles

FAKT: Americans use 2.5 million plastic bottles every year. These bottles can’t be recycled and won’t ever degrade.

WHAT TO DO: Only buy soda and other drinks in aluminium

cans or glass bottles. Buy milk or juice in cartons. Then recycle them.

Use paper,not plastic

FAKT: It takes a whole tree to make about 500 paper grocery bags. But plastic bags are worse because they can’t be recycled, and the plastic will never decompose.

Recycle newspapers

Recycled paper could easily be substituted for virgin paper in many cases without any loss of quality.

Making newspaper from ‘’old’’ paper uses 30% to 55% less energy than making paper from trees; and it reduces air pollution by 95%

REUSE OLD NEWSPAPERS!!! It takes an entire forest – over 500,000 trees – to supply Americans with their Sunday newspapers every week.

Americans use 50 million tons of paper annually – which means we consume more than 850 million trees. That means the average American uses about of paper each year!

Use less paper

FAKT: American offices throw away enough paper every year to build a wall 12 feet high across the country. But, right now, we save 200 million of paper a year by recycling.

WHAT TO DO: Most paper thrown away in the office just has printing on one side. Ask your parents to bring home some of this paper so you can use the blank side for writing or drawing, or cut it into smaller sizes and staple it together to make note pads.

FACT; It takes 500,000 trees just to make the newspaper we read every Sunday.

WHAT TO DO: Save your family’s newspapers. Find out how to recycle newspapers in your area.

Don’t throw your old batteries in the trash

FACT: Americans throw out 2.5 billion pounds of batteries a year. Toxic chemicals in batteries can be released into the environment, especially if they are burned.

WHAT TO DO: Save your old batteries and take them to a recycling centre.

Pick up litter

FACT: Litter is not only ugly, but it can be harmful to wildlife. Small animals can get hurt on sharp cans or broken bottles.

WHAT TO DO: Pick up litter you see as you are walking. Throw away trash. Recycle bottles and cans.

Save water

Find the Leaky Toilets in Your House.

FACT: A leaky toilet can waste 20,000 gallons of water a year.

WHAT TO DO: Check al the faucets in your hose.

Check the ones outside, too, where the garden hose is. Make sure that it is turned off, then watch for a minute to make sure that there are no drips. If there are , get someone to fix it.

Water the lawn early in the morning

FACT: If you water the lawn in the middle of the day when the sun is hot, most of the water evaporates before it gets to the roots.

WHAT TO DO: It is best to water the lawn in the coolest part of the day. The best time to water is early in the morning, before the sun gets hot.

Turn out the lights and appliances when you are not using them

FACT: The electric company burns coal to produce the energy that keeps your lights on. That burning coal gives off gases that cause the greenhouse effect and acid rain.

WHAT TO DO: Turn off the lights when you leave the room, and turn off the lights in the room that you really don’t need. In the daytime, sit closer to the window to read instead of turning on a light. Turn off the TV or stereo when you aren’t watching or listening

HOW LONG LITTER LASTS

traffic ticket 1 month

banana peel up to 6 month

wool sock 1 year

wooden stake 4 years

wax paper cup 5 years

painted wooden stake 13 years

tin can 100 years

aluminium can, plastic bottle up to 500 years

glass containers forever


wordlist

aluminium can алюминиевая банка

annualy ежегодно

average средний

blank side чистая сторона

carton зд. пакет

consume зд.уничтожать

decompose разлагаться

degrate разрушить

drip капанье

entire целый

evaporate испаряться

faucet кран

fix чинить

gallon галлон (4.54 литра)

get hurt поранить

gasoline бензин

hose шланг

leaky протекающий

litter мусор

operate приводить в действие

paper grosery bag –бумажный продуктовый

пакет

residential жилые кварталы

scratch стружка

trash отходы

virgin paper зд. бумага,не подвергавшаяся

переработке

toss out выбрасывать



Read and translate the text

Problems of Britain’s environment.


Most of the western nations have the same basic environmental problems, but they take different forms in each country. Here you can read about some of the dangerous effects of human activity facing Britain’s environment.

One of Britain’s environmental successes has been the control of air pollution, especially in London. Thirty years ago hundreds of people died every year from the dreadful London smogs. Since then London and many other cities have become smokeless zones, where no coal fires are allowed.

However, the commonest air pollution comes from the cigarette smoke which pollutes many public places, like cinemas, pubs and restaurants. Though cigarette advertisements are not allowed on TV or radio, you can still see them on posters in cinemas and in newspapers and magazines.

Traffic and aircraft can cause serious noise pollution. Airplanes are very noisy when they take off and the noise spreads over the wide area.

The rivers have been polluted too. The government has tried to stop it. There are now strict laws against water pollution, though it is still happens accidentally.

The need for new roads causes great environmental difficulties. They often spoil the countryside and bring noise and pollution to thousands of homes.

Cars cause other problems too: thousands of people die in car accidents. Car parks use valuable spaces in towns and cities. Cars use a lot of our limited amount of oil. Unfortunately, it is difficult to do anything about all this because cars play an important role part in the lives of many families and the car industry employs large numbers of people.


  1. What are the most serious environmental problems in Britain?

  2. Speak about problems described in the text.



  1. Fill the gaps to form a compound noun or phrase.


  1. the ………layer

  2. …………...rain

  3. ………….waste

  4. ………….warming

  5. ………….fumes

  6. …………..rainforests

  7. natural or human ………….

  8. ………..from factories


  1. Complete the word –building tables.


Noun

Verb

Waste

……………

…………………

protect

…………………

destroy

Pollution

……………

Damage

……………


Noun

Adjective

damage

……………

environment

……………

harm

……………

danger

……………


safe

  1. Complete the definitions.


  1. Conservation is the protection of natural things, e.g. ……………and ……………..

  2. Acid rain is rain that contains dangerous chemicals. It is caused by …………….

  3. The ozone layer is a layer of gases that stop dangerous radiation from the sun from reaching …………………………………

  4. Global warming is an increase in ……………………………

  5. CFC (chlorofluorocarbon) is a chemical which …………………


  1. If we want to look after the environment, there are certain things we should and shouldn’t do. Complete these two lists in suitable ways.

We should:

……………………..paper, bottles and clothes.

……………………..tropical rainforests.

……………………..water and energy.


We shouldn’t:

……………………..paper, bottles and clothes

……………………..the ozone layer

……………………..water and energy

……………………..tropical rainforests.


  1. Are these statements true or false?

  1. CFCs protect the ozone layer.

  2. Greens” believe in conservation.

  3. A hole in ozone layer could increase skin cancer.

  4. Cutting down tropical rainforests increases the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

  5. Plastic can not be recycled.


Краткое описание документа:

Данная методическая разработка включает темы, которые позволяют вести обсуждение проблем охраны окружающей среды. Темы взаимосвязаны, логически вытекают одна из другой и дополняют друг друга.

1.       Погода и климат.

2.       Наша хрупкая планета.

3.       Загрязнение среды обитания.

4.       Загрязнение воды.

5.       Загрязнение почвы.

6.       Ядерное загрязнение.

7.       Что мы можем сделать, чтобы спасти нашу планету.

 

              При изучении данных тем ученики повторяют и активизируют лексику, уже изученную на предыдущих этапах обучения, узнают большое количество новой лексики, что позволяет им высказывать личное мнение о состоянии окружающей среды в нашей стране и за рубежом , обсуждать экологические проблемы места своего проживания.

             

              В рамках данной тематики предлагается:

а) базовый или опорный текст

б) вводится определенное количество новой лексики

в) даются упражнения на :

1.       освоение лексического материала

2.       тренировку лексического материала

3.       закрепление лексического материала

г) предлагаются упражнения на активизацию и использование лексики в

    различных видах речевой деятельности:

              аудировании, чтении, переводе, письме, говорении.

 

              На заключительном этапе изучения данной темы предлагаются дополнительные тексты на :

-          извлечение полной информации (чтение с использованием словаря)

-          извлечение основной информации (без использования словаря)

-          извлечение частичной информации (без использования словаря)

              а) частично адаптированные тексты

              б) тексты неадаптированного характера

              с) тест контролирующий усвоение лексики, узнавание и понимание ее в различных контекстах, умение использовать ее в различных видах речевой деятельности.

 

 

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Дата добавления 01.02.2015
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