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Инфоурок / Иностранные языки / Другие методич. материалы / Методические рекомендации для самоподготовки к устной части зачёта по английскому языку для студентов 2 курса

Методические рекомендации для самоподготовки к устной части зачёта по английскому языку для студентов 2 курса



  • Иностранные языки

Поделитесь материалом с коллегами:

Бюджетное образовательное учреждение

среднего профессионального образования

Вологодской области

«Кадуйский политехнический техникум»










МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ РЕКОМЕНДАЦИИ

ДЛЯ САМОПОДГОТОВКИ К ЗАЧЕТУ


по дисциплине «Английский язык»

для студентов 2 курса СПО по специальности

140102 Теплоснабжение и теплотехническое оборудование






























Кадуй

2014

ОДОБРЕНЫ

методической цикловой комиссией по ООД БОУ СПО ВО

«Кадуйский политехнический техникум»


Протокол №___от ________2014г.





Настоящие методические рекомендации предназначены для студентов специальности 140102 Теплоснабжение и теплотехническое оборудование очной формы обучения как руководство к подготовке и успешной сдаче устной части зачета по учебной дисциплине на втором курсе.














Составитель: С.М.Кобрина, преподаватель английского языка


Рецензент: К.В.Кузнецов, преподаватель английского языка филиала НОУ ВПО «СФГА» в г.Череповце, кандидат филологических наук

















ПОЯСНИТЕЛЬНАЯ ЗАПИСКА


Методические рекомендации разработаны для помощи студентам специальности 140102 Теплоснабжение и теплотехническое оборудование очной формы обучения, изучающим английский язык в среднем профессиональном учебном заведении, при подготовке к устной части зачета по окончанию второго курса обучения.

Зачет по английскому языку по окончании второго курса обучения состоит из двух частей: письменной и устной:

1) Написание грамматического теста (45 минут).

2) Беседа на иностранном языке по одной из следующих тем устной речи:


    1. Electric power

    2. The Role of Electricity in Our Everyday Life

    3. Power Engineering

    4. Electric Current

    5. Electric Circuit

    6. Meters

    7. Electric Motors

    8. The Laws of Thermodynamics

    9. Heat Transfer

    10. Heat Engineering


Методические рекомендации содержат методические указания по самостоятельной подготовке к устной части зачета, перечень тем, выносимых на зачёт, тексты тем и вопросы к ним для самостоятельной подготовки к зачету и список рекомендуемой литературы.




















Общие методические указания

по самостоятельной подготовке к устной части зачета


Подготовка студентов очного отделения к зачету является одним из основных и трудоемких видов учебной деятельности. Эффективность этой деятельности во многом зависит от самостоятельной работы при подготовке к зачету. В часы самоподготовки необходимо самостоятельно изучить материал. При этом самостоятельную работу необходимо понимать не только как «домашнюю» работу по подготовке к практическому занятию, но и как всю совокупность предшествующих ему занятий:

- изучение задания и методических указаний к практическому занятию по данной теме;

- консультации накануне проведения зачета и получение индивидуальной методической помощи;

- изучение рекомендованной литературы, работа со словарями.

Для более эффективной работы с текстом, необходимо:

  • прочитать текст;

  • перевести текст, пользуясь словарем по необходимости;

  • ответить на вопросы, приведенные после текста;

  • по вопросам составить план собственного монологического высказывания по теме;

  • выделить для себя и выучить ключевые слова;

  • пересказать текст не менее двух раз;

  • при первом пересказе постараться пользоваться ключевыми словами и вопросами к тексту;

  • второй раз пересказать текст, не смотря на слова, текст, вопросы. Если это не удается, вернитесь к предыдущему пункту.





















Topic 1. Electric power


Electric power is generated by converting heat, light, chemical energy, or mechanical energy to electrical energy. Most electrical energy is produced in large power stations by the conversion of mechanical energy or heat.

The mechanical energy of falling water is used to drive turbine generators in hydroelectric stations. The heat derived by burning fossil fuels is used to operate steam turbines or internal-combustion engines. Also, the heat from the fissioning of uranium or plutonium is used to generate steam for the turbine generator in a nuclear power plant. Electricity generated by the conversion of light or chemical energy is used mainly for portable power sources.

Electric power produced in large power stations generally is transmitted by using an alternating current that reverses direction 25, 50, or 60 times per second. The basic unit for measuring electric power is the watt.

Rating for power plants is expressed in kilowatts or megawatts. Electricity is a clean, inexpensive and easily transmitted over long distances. Since the 1880s electricity has had an ever-increasing role in improving the standard of living. It now used to operate lights, pumps, elevators, power tools, furnaces, refrigerators, air-conditioners, TV sets, and many other kinds of equipment.




Vocabulary:


conversion – преобразование; превращение

toderive – извлекать, получать

alternating current – переменный ток

furnace – печь

fossil fuels – ископаемое топливо

power tools – электроинструменты

to generate – вырабатывать

nuclear power plant - АЭС

standard of livingуровень жизни

pumpнасос

electric circuit- электрическая цепь

equipment – оборудование

to transmit – передавать

power plant/station – ЭС

distance – расстояние

steam turbine – паровая турбина

internal-combustion engineдвигатель внутреннего сгорания

fission – деление, расщепление, фрагментация

portable – портативный, переносной, транспортабельный


Answer the questions upon the text and use them as a plan to retell the text:


1. Where is electric power used?

2. What is the basic unit for measuring electric power?

3. What is the rating for power plants expressed in?

3. How is electric power produced in large power stations transmitted?

4. Why is electric power considered to be the most widespread?

5. Why has it improved the standard of living?




Topic 2. The Role of Electricity in Our Everyday Life


Energy today is now available in many forms for different uses. The most significant type of Energy is the electrical energy. Just turn around your face and you will see electrical devices everywhere around you. Electricity has transformed our lives in a significant way; it has made our lives quite easy and comfortable. 

Electricity is one of the most important elements in our country. We certainly cannot do without electricity in our everyday life. Our life is constituted by the access to electricity in many ways, especially during winter where it provides our only sources of light and heat. 

We should all unite and help the government to build our country and make the best use of our supplies to meet our ever increasing needs of electricity.

Whether we are in charge of policy or the economy, it is our joint responsibility to place the issue of access to clean and cost-effective electricity for all at the centre of the much-needed debate to determine what type of development our generation will bequeath to the generations yet to come.

Physical resources and technical opportunities are available to meet the challenge of sustainable development, but it requires policy changes, such as:

more effective use of energy (buildings, electric appliances, vehicles, production processes);

increased reliance on renewable energy sources;

accelerate development and deployment of new energy technologies;

taking into account the costs of the various solutions.


Vocabulary:


access – доступ

implication – вовлечение, включение

varied – разнообразный

safeguard – гарантировать

to treat – угрожать

issue – проблема

to be in charge of – быть на попечении

to determine – определить, решить

responsibility – ответственность

significant – значительный

costs – затраты


renewableвосстановимый, возобновляемый

to take into accountпринимать во внимание

to meet the challenge – принять вызов

sustainable –устойчивый

to bequeathзавещать

to require –требовать

availableдоступный

relianceопора, надежда

electric appliancesэлектр.приборы

solution - решение

accelerate development and deployment-

ускорить развитие и размещение



Answer the questions upon the text and use them as a plan to retell the text:


1. What issues will the implications of energy include?

2. What is our joint responsibility?

3. What can alter the global climate system?

4. What policy changes are required?



Topic 3. Power Engineering


Power engineering is the subfield of electrical engineering that deals with power systems, electric power transmission and distribution, power conversion, and electromechanical devices. Power engineers also rely heavily on the theory of control systems. A power engineer supervises, operates, and maintains machinery and boilers that provide heat, power, refrigeration, and other utility services to heavy industry and large building complexes.

Power engineering deals with the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity as well as the design of a range of related devices. These include transformers, electric generators, electric motors and power electronics.

In many regions of the world, governments maintain an electrical network that connects a variety of electric generators together with users of their power. This network is called a power grid. Users purchase electricity from the grid avoiding the costly exercise of having to generate their own.

Today, most grids adopt three-phase electric power with an alternating current. This choice can be partly attributed to the ease with which this type of power can be generated, transformed and used. Often (especially in the USA), the power is split before it reaches residential customers whose low-power appliances rely upon single-phase electric power. However, many larger industries and organizations still prefer to receive the three-phase power directly because it can be used to drive highly efficient electric motors such as three-phase induction motors.


Vocabulary:



subfield –раздел, часть

distribution – распределение

tosupervise – наблюдать, заведовать

utility services – коммунальные службы

toexploit – эксплуатировать, использовать

power engineering – энергетика

to operate – управлять

boilers – котельные установки

network - сеть

rangeлиния, ряд

to purchase покупать

maintenanceобслуживание

to splitразделять

grid power systemсистема электроснабжения

machineryоборудование

customersпотребители

to adopt - принимать


Answer the questions upon the text and use them as a plan to retell the text:


1. What is power engineering?

2. What are the duties of a power engineer?

3. What does power engineering deal with?

4. What does a range of related devices include?

5. What network is called a power grid?

6. Why do users purchase electricity from the grid?

7. What do most grids adopt?



Topic 4.Electric Current


Electric current is the name for the flow of electrons that makes up the movement of electric charge. Current flows when the voltage on one end of a conductor differs from the voltage on the other end of a conductor. A force that most people deal with nearly every day, flowing current includes lighting, electrical power cords, and the surprising shock that comes from shuffling shoes on carpet in dry weather. This force is measured in units called amperes.

Current is а flow of electricity through а circuit. Let us consider two main types of current: direct and alternating.

А direct current flows through а conducting circuit in one direction only. It flows provided а direct voltage source is applied to the circuit.

An alternating current is а current that changes its direction of flow through а circuit. It flows provided an alternating voltage source is applied to the circuit. Alternating current flows in cycles. Thе number of cycles per second is called the frequency of the current.

It is easy to transform а.c. power from one voltage to another by а transformer. Transformers are also used to step down the voltage at the receiving point of the line to the low values that are necessary for use.

When necessary а.С. сan bе changed into d.c. but this is seldom necessary.

Vocabulary:

current - ток

is measured - измеряется

flow - поток

unit - единица

electric charge – электрический заряд

а circuit - цепь

voltage - напряжение

alternating - переменный

сonductor - проводник

direct - постоянный

differ - различаться

direction - направление

lighting - освещение

provided – при условии

power cords – шнуры питания

to transform –передавать

to step down -понизить

frequency – частота

transformer–трансформатор

value -величина



Answer the questions upon the text and use them as a plan to retell the text:


1. What is current?

2. What types оf current do уоu know?

3. When does а direct current flow?

4. What type of current is called an alternating current?

5. What type of current is called а direct current?

6. What is called the frequency of current?

7. What device is used to transform а.с. power from one voltage to another?

8. Is it often necessary to change а.c. into d.c.?



Topic 5. Electric Circuit


An electric circuit is an electrical device that provides a path for electrical current to flow. Electricity flows through the circuit and is delivered to the object it is powering, such as the vacuum motor or light bulb, after which the electricity is sent back to the original source; this return of electricity enables the circuit to keep the electricity current flowing.

The circuit consists of а voltage source, а resistor and а conductor. А voltage source supplies current. А resistor reduces current. А conductor connects the elements of the circuit.

Three types of electrical circuits exist: the series circuit, the parallel circuit, and the series-parallel circuit.

A series circuit is the simplest because it has only one possible path that the electrical current may flow; if the electrical circuit is broken, none of the load devices will work.

The difference with parallel circuits is that they contain more than one path for electricity to flow. So, if one of the paths is broken, the other paths will continue to work.

A series-parallel circuit is a combination of the first two: it attaches some of the loads to a series circuit and others to parallel circuits. If the series circuit breaks, none of the loads will function, but if one of the parallel circuits breaks, that parallel circuit and the series circuit will stop working, while the other parallel circuits will continue to work.


Vocabulary:

conductor - проводник

parallel circuit - параллельная цепь

circuit - цепь

series circuit – последовательное соединение

to reduce - снижать

path - путь

to supply - снабжать

to contain - содержать

to connect - связывать

load device – устройство нагрузки

to сompare (with) - сравнивать (с)

to enable - позволять

to function - функционировать

light bulb - лампочка


Answer the questions upon the text and use them as a plan to retell the text:


  1. What is the electric circuit?

  2. How does the electricity flow through the circuit?

3. What elements does a circuit consist оf?

4. What is the function of а voltage source?

5. What is the function о! а conductor?

6. What is the function of а resistor?

7. What are the types of circuits?

8. What is the difference between the circuits?




Topic 6. Meters


Among the most common meters used there are the ohmmeter, the ammeter and the voltmeter.

The ohmmeter is used to measure the value of resistance. It consists of а milliammеtеr саlibrated to read in ohms, а battery and resistors. The meter is connected in parallel and the circuit is not opened when its resistance is measured. The readings оn the scale show the measured value.

The ammeter is used to measure the value of current. When the ammeter is used the circuit should bе opened at one point and the terminals of the meter should be connected to it. One should take into consideration that the positive terminal of the meter is connected to the positive terminal of the source; the negative terminal to the negative terminal of the source. Тhe ammeter should be connected in series. Тhe readings on the scale show the measured value.

The voltmeter is used to measure the value of voltage.


Vocabulary:

meter - измерительный прибор

in series - последовательно

battery - батарея

resistance - сопротивление

scale - шкала

terminal - клемма

readings - показания на шкале

source - источник

to measure - измерять

value - величина

to take into consideration – принимать во внимание



Answer the questions upon the text and use them as a plan to retell the text:


1. What is the ammeter used for?

2. What is the voltmeter used for?

3. What is the ohmmeter used for?

4. What terminals does а meter have?

5. Should the measured circuit be opened when the voltmeter is used?

6. Should the measured circuit be opened when the ammeter is used?

7. In what way should the voltmeter be connected to the circuit?

8. In what way should the ammeter be connected to the circuit?

9. What is the difference between а voltmeter and an ammeter?

10. What common meters are used to measure the values in а circuit?










Topic 7.Electric Motors


Motors are used for converting different forms of energy into mеchanical energy.

Тhe main part of а motor is аcoil or armature.Тhe armature is placed between the poles of а powerful magnet. When а motor is put into operation current starts flowing through the coil (armature) and the armature starts rotating.

Electric motors are used practically in every branch of industry, transport, and agriculture. Naturally, they are produced in manу different designs. Тhey are used in industrial plants, and operate under different conditions.

Eaсh motor is supplied with а nameplate which bears machine ratings: output power, voltage, the rated current, the starting current, the power factor, the efficiency, and the rated torque.

These motor ratings should be taken into consideration since they are necessary for the users. Оn them depends the length of motors' service life, which is normally equal to about 10 years, provided that the operating conditions are normal. Under abnormal conditions the service life becomes much shorter: motors operate poorly and mау have different faults.


Vocabulary:

condition - условие

torque- вращение, момент вращения

plant- завод

poor- бедный, плохой

pole- полюс

nameplate - заводская табличка

coil - катушка

to put into operation – ввести в действие

armature - якорь

to rotate - вращаться

ratings -характеристики

length - длина

service life – срок службы

Provided that – при условии, что

faults - неисправности

to bear - иметь


Answer the questions upon the text and use them as a plan to retell the text:


1. What are motors used for?

2. What is the motor's main part?

3. Where is the armature placed?

4. Where are electric motors used?

5. What ratings does the nameplate of а motor bear?

6. Why should motor ratings be taken into consideration?

5. Under what conditions does а motor operate normally (poorly)?






Topic 8.The Laws of Thermodynamics


Thermodynamics is the area of science that includes the relationship between heat and other kinds of energy.

Thermodynamics can be broken down into four laws. The zeroth law states that if two systems are the same temperature as a third system, then all three are the same temperatures.

The first law of thermodynamics states that the total energy of a system remains constant, even if it is converted from one form to another. Basically, work and heat are equivalent.

The second law of thermodynamics states that heat cannot flow to a system at a higher temperature from a system at a lower temperature by its own volition. For such an action to occur, work must be done. If an ice cube is placed in a cup of warm water, the ice cube melts as the heat from the water flows into it.

The second law of thermodynamics also says that things can wear out. For example, if a brick house is left uncared for, it will eventually crumble from wind, rain, cold, and other weather conditions. However, if a pile of bricks if left unattended, it will never form a house, unless work is added to the mix.

The third law of thermodynamics states that the change in entropy of a system when it converts from one form to another gets close to zero as its temperature nears zero on the Kelvin scale. Zero on the Kelvin scale is the absolute lower limit to temperature – when atoms and molecules have the least possible energy. Entropy is defined as the availability of a system’s energy to do work.


Vocabulary:

law – закон

to convert - преобразовывать

constant - постоянный

limit – предел, граница

availability - способность

wear out - изнашиваться

equivalent - равнозначный

to crumble from – разрушаться от

by its own volition – по собствен.воле

to state – утверждать, гласить

the change - изменение

to define- определять

to get close to zero – приближаться к нулю

to place - помещать




Answer the questions upon the text and use them as a plan to retell the text:


  1. What relationship does thermodynamics include?

  2. How can thermodynamics be broken down into?

  3. What does the zeroth law state?

  4. What is the first law of thermodynamics?

  5. What does the third law state?

  6. When do atoms and molecules have the least possible energy?

  7. What is the entropy?



Topic 9. Heat Transfer


Heat transfer is the process of moving heat from a location where much heat exists to another location. In physics, it is taught this is mainly accomplished one of three ways: conduction, convection or radiation.

From providing adequate heat in a home to providing options for cooking various foods, heat transfer plays a vital role in everyone's lives. The uses of heat transfer are nearly endless.

Conduction is one of the most common ways to transfer heat. This is done by transferring heat through matter from one atom to the next. It is most commonly experienced when a piece of metal, such as a cooking spoon, is left too long in a hot liquid. The heat will travel up the spoon.

Convection is the actual physical movement of heat from one location to another in the form of liquid or gas. Generally hot air and heat in general, rises, which is why steam from a boiling pot goes up. This concept can be clearly demonstrated on a hot day and is responsible for moderating temperatures near the oceans and see breezes.

The other type of heat transfer is radiation. It is responsible for most of warmth our planet receives. Radiation occurs when heat travels via electromagnetic waves through seemingly empty voids, such as the sun's heat traveling through space. Radiation is responsible for traditional baking as well as cooking in a microwave oven.


Vocabulary:


heat transfer - теплопередача

location - расположение

conduction - проводимость

radiation – радиация, излучение

A vital role – жизненно важная роль

to occur - происходить

the uses - применения

via - через

endless - бесконечный

voids – пустота, вакуум

matter – вещество, материал

a microwave ovenмикроволновая печь

liquid -жидкость

to be responsible for – быть ответств. за

movement – движение

moderating - умеренный

ways – пути, способы

steam - пар



Answer the questions upon the text and use them as a plan to retell the text:


1. What process is called the heat transfer?

2. How is he heat transfer mainly accomplished?

3. How is the conduction done?

4. What is the convection?

5. What is the radiation responsible for?




Topic 10. Heat Engineering


Heat engineering is the branch of technology concerned with the production and use of heat in industry, agriculture, transportation, and the home.

The principal sources of heat are the fossil fuels, which give off heat when burned. These fuels may be solid, liquid, or gaseous. Among the more common solid fuels are coals, combustible shales, and peat. The most important gaseous fuel is natural gas. The most important characteristic of a fuel is the specific heat of combustion.

Various types of apparatus, such as furnaces, stoves, and combustion chambers, are used for fuel combustion.

When a fuel is burned, its chemical energy is converted to the internal energy of the combustion products, as a result of which the products become hot.

Coal is usually burned in furnaces. When relatively small quantities of fuel are required, laminar combustion fireboxes are used. For burning larger quantities of coal chamber furnaces are used.

In addition to organic and nuclear fuels, geothermal and solar energy have been found to have practical value in heat generation.

The heat produced by various methods can either be used directly in certain production processes (heat consumption) or converted into another form of energy (thermal power engineering). The objectives and methods of the branch of heat engineering concerned with the consumption of heat are manifold.


Vocabulary:


fossil fuels – полезные ископаемые

firebox – камера нагревателя

solid - твердый

quantity - количество

liquid - жидкий

value – ценность, значимость

combustible shales – горючие сланцы

manifold - разнообразный

peat - торф

objective - цель

combustion –сгорание, горение

consumption - потребление

furnace - топка

branch – отрасль, ветвь

stove - печь


combustion chamber – камеры сгорания



Answer the questions upon the text and use them as a plan to retell the text:


  1. What is heat engineering?

  2. What are the principal sources of heat?

  3. The most important characteristic of a fuel is the specific heat of combustion, isn’t it?

  4. What are the various types of apparatus used for fuel combustion?

  5. Is coal or natural gas usually burned in furnaces?

  6. When are chamber furnaces used?

  7. Are the objectives of heat engineering manifold?


Рекомендуемая литература для подготовки к зачету

  1. Луговая А.Л. Английский язык для студентов энергетических специальностей: Учебное пособие/ А.Л.Луговая. – М.: Высшая школа, 2009. – 150с.:ил.

  2. Материалы Интернет:

http://wikipedia.org/

http://www.twirpx.com

http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-heat-transfer.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heat_transfer

http://twt.mpei.ac.ru/TTHB/tthbeng.html

http://www.power.mag.com

http://worldenergy.org

http://www.globalenergybusiness.com

http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Engineering_Thermodynamics/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heat_exchange







15


Автор
Дата добавления 27.06.2016
Раздел Иностранные языки
Подраздел Другие методич. материалы
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