Эл. №ФС77-60625 от 20.01.2015
Учителям 1-11 классов и воспитателям дошкольных ОУ вместе с ребятами рекомендуем принять участие в международном конкурсе «Я люблю природу», приуроченном к году экологии. Участники конкурса проверят свои знания правил поведения на природе, узнают интересные факты о животных и растениях, занесённых в Красную книгу России. Все ученики будут награждены красочными наградными материалами, а учителя получат бесплатные свидетельства о подготовке участников и призёров международного конкурса.
ПРИЁМ ЗАЯВОК ТОЛЬКО ДО 15 ДЕКАБРЯ!
Конкурс "Я люблю природу"
Методические рекомендации для студентов 3 курса садово-парковое и ландшафтное хозяйство
Тема: Москва. Российская Федерация
Тема: « Москва»
Цель: развитие навыка чтения с применением различных стратегий.
Задание 1.1 Прочтите и переведите текст.
Moscow is the capital of Russia. It was first mentioned in the records dated back to the year 1147. At that time it was a small frontier post. The history of Moscow is connected with the history of Russia. In 1237 Moscow fell under the yoke of the Tatars. And it was Moscow Prince Dmitry Donscoy who led the Russian troops to decisive victory over the invaders in the battle of Kulikovo field in 1380.
By the 15-th century Moscow turned into a wealthy city. It was under Ivan 3 that Moscow became the capital of the state of Muscovy. At that time the Kremlin was rebuilt and the largest Kremlin Cathedrals were erected.
During the Time of Troubles Moscow was occupied by the Polish invaders but they were routed by the popular levy headed by citizen Minin and prince Pozhrsky.
In 1812 the Napoleonic army entered Moscow. The city was set ablaze. The army had to retreat. That was a poor substitute for the military triumph in Russia, so much desired by Napoleon.
Nowadays Moscow is the largest city of Russia. It is political, administrative, economic, industrial, scientific, educational and cultural centre of the country.
The Russian Academy of sciences, the oldest university, many schools of higher learning, colleges and scientific institutions are located in Moscow.
Задание 1.1 Ответьте на вопросы
When was Moscow first mentioned in the records?
Who headed the liberation movement in the 14-th century?
When did Moscow become the capital of Russia?
What happened to Moscow in 1812?
What is Moscow now?
Задание 1.3. Заполните пропуски, используя слова: centre, the yoke, with, scientific, to decisive, city, battle, Time, to be, the troops
To be connected _________
________ of Troubles
____________ of the Tatars
To lead ____________
to decisive _______________
Цель: развитие навыков чтения с полным пониманием содержания;
Задание 2.1 Прочтите и переведите. Озаглавьте текст.
The Kremlin is the heart of Moscow. It is the oldest historical and architectual centre of Moscow.
First it was a wooden fort. Under Dmitry Donskoy the Kremlin was built of white stone. In 1474 Ivan III sent a mission to Italy to find the best architectural and engineering talent available. They brought back with them Rodolfo Aristotel Fiorovanti of Bologna who was at once an architect, an engineer, an expert in military fortifications.
The Italians introduced a new concept of the fortress wall, quite different in character from that of the old Russian white stone Kremlins. The walls of Moscow Kremlin were built of red stone.
The Kremlin consists of 20 towers. Four of them are gate towers, the most remarkable of them is the Spasskaja Tower.
The Assumption Cathedral in Kremlin was built in 1475-1479. The Russian Tzars and Emperors were crowned here. The Archangel Cathedral was the burial place of the Russian Tzars. The Annuciation Сathedral was erected in 1484. It is famous for the icons painted by Andrey Rublev and his apprentices.
Ivan the Great Bell Tower, one of the most remarkable structures of the sixteenth century, rises in the centre of the Kremlin. It unites all the Kremlin Cathedrals into a majestic ensemble.
On the stone pedestal at the foot of the Bell Tower stands a Tzar-Bell - the largest bell in the world. Not far from it one can see a Tzar-Cannon.
Another fine example of Russian architecture is the Faceted Palace. It was built in 1487-1491.
One of the well-known Kremlin museums is the Armoury Chamber. It was built in 1851. The famous golden cap of Monomach, the first russian imperial crown of Catherin II, made of guilt silver and many other precious historical items are exhibited there.
Wooden fort-деревянная крепость
The Annuciation Сathedral- Успенский собор
the Faceted Palace- Грановитая палата
the Armoury Chamber-оружейная палата
Задание 2.2 Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих словосочетаний:
Сердце Москвы, старейший исторический и архитектурный центр, деревянная крепость, эксперт в военном управлении, белокаменные стены, место погребения царей, возвышаться в центре Кремля, подножие колокольни, царь-пушка, знаменитая шапка Мономаха, имперская корона, серебро, исторические ценности.
Задание 2.3 Переведите предложения. Заполните пропуски необходимыми предлогами:
It consists ________ 20 towers.
. It was built _______ 1851.
It is famous for the icons painted ________ Andrey Rublev.
The Assumption Cathedral ________ Kremlin was built in 1475-1479.
The most remarkable structures rises ________ the centre of the Kremlin.
It unites all the Kremlin Cathedrals ________ a majestic ensemble.
Тема: Числительные. Виды числительных. Время.
Цель: Развитие грамматических навыков по теме: « Числительные». Формирование навыков письменной речи.
Задание3.1 Рассмотрите таблицу и ответьте на вопросы:
Какие виды числительных существуют?
Как образуются эти типы?
Задание 3.2. Раскройте скобки и определите по смыслу числительное (порядковое или количественное).
Пример: Tim is a polyglot. He knows ... (ten) languages. - Tim is a polyglot. He knows ten languages.
Jake hasn't eaten his fill (eat one's fill – наедаться). He would like ... (two) bowlful of soup.
2. (seventeen) ... is my lucky number.
3. Mike and Diana have ... (six) cats and ... (two) dogs.
4. You have ... (three) attempts to answer this question.
5. I think ... (three) issue will be better than ... (two).
Задание 3.3 Выберите правильный вариант ответа.
1. The 23rd of April 1987.
a) The twenty-three of April one thousand nine hundred eighty-seven
b) The twenty-threed of April nineteen eight seven
c) The twenty-third of April nineteen eighty-seven
2. There are ... people in the restaurant.
3. Your second book is worse than ... .
b) the first
4. Olivia found this quotation on ... page.
a) the forty-fifth
5. I need ... peaches for a pie.
b) the third
Задание 3.4 Найдите пары: слова из первого столбика и соответствующие цифры из второго.
seventy-two a) 31
thirteen b) 11
fifty-six c) 660
eighty d) 72
eighteen e) 315
twenty-three f) 100
eleven g) 13
ninety h) 49
twelve i) 925
twenty j) 18
nineteen k) 80
forty-nine l) 504
one hundred m) 217
thirty-one n) 410
four hundred and ten o) 90
six hundred and sixty p) 56
five hundred and four q) 23
nine hundred and twenty-five r) 20
two hundred and seventeen s) 19
three hundred and fifteen t) 12
Задание 3.5 Переведите предложения:
Успенский собор был построен в 1475 году.
Лекции заканчиваются в 13.15.
Я приеду в Москву в 07.45.
Этот невероятный колокол был построен в 13-ом веке.
31 января я буду праздновать день рождение.
Тема: Российская Федерация.
Цель: Развитие навыков чтения с полным пониманием содержания.
Задание 4.1 Прочтите и переведите текст.
The Russian Federation
The Russian Federation is the largest country in the world. It occupies about one seventh of the earth’s surface. It covers the eastern part of Europe and the Northern part of Asia. Its total area is about 17 million square kilometers. The country is washed by 12 seas of 3 oceans: the Pacific, the Arctic and the Atlantic. In the South Russia borders on China, Mongolia, Korea, Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azerbaijan. In the west it borders on Norway, Finland, the Baltic States, Belorussia, the Ukraine. It also has got a sea border with the USA.
There is hardly a country in the world where such variety of scenery and vegetation can be found. We have steppes in the south, plains and forests in the midland, tundra and taiga in the north, highlands and deserts in the east.
There are two great plains in Russian: the Great Russian Plain and West Siberian Lowland. There are several mountains, chains on the territory of the country: the Urals, the Caucasus, the Altai and others. The largest mountain chain, the Urals, separates Europe from Asia.
There are over two million rivers in Russia. Europe’s biggest river the Volga flows into the Caspian Sea.
The main Siberian rivers- the Ob, the North, the Amur in the Far East flows into the Pacific Ocean.
Russia is rich in beautiful lakes. The world’s deepest lake ( 1600 meters) is the Lake Baikal. It’s much smaller than the Baltic Sea, but there is more water in it than in the Baltic Sea. The water in the lake is so clear that if you look down you can count the stones on the bottom.
Russian has one-sixth of the world’s forests. They are concentrated in the European north of the country in Siberia and in the Far East.
On the vast territory of the country there are various types of climate, from arctic in the North to subtropical in the south. In the middle of the country the climate is temperate and continental.
Russia is very rich in oil, cool, iron ore, natural gas, copper, nickel and other mineral resources.
Russia is a parliamentary republic. The Head of the State is the President. The legislative power is exercised by the Duma.
The capital of Russia is Moscow. It’s largest political, scientific, cultural and industrial centre. It’s one of the oldest Russian cities.
At present, the political and economic situation in the country is rather complicated.
Thre are a lot of problems in the national economy of the Russian Federation. The industrial production is decreasing. The prices are constantly rising, the rate of inflation is very high. People are losing their jobs because many factories and plants are going bankrupt.
But in spite of the problems Russia is facing at present, there are a lot of opportunities for this countries in the world. Surely the younger generation can do very much to make Russia as strong and powerful as it used to be.
To occupy- Занимать
To cover- покрывать
To wash- омывать
Mountain chain-горная цепь
Iron ore-железная рудь
Задание 4.2 Ответьте на вопросы к тексту:
Where is the Russian Federation situated?
What is the total area of the country?
What countries does Russia border on?
How many rivers are there in Russia?
Which is the longest river in Europe?
What can you say about the lake Baikal?
What mineral resources is the Russian Federation rich in?
What is the climate like in Russia?
Is Russia a parliamentary republic?
What can you say about the Russian economy?
Задание 4.3 Переведите предложения:
А. самая большая страна в мире, страна омывается 3 океанами, прекрасные озера, морские границы, посчитать камни на дне, терять работу, молодое поколение.
Общая площадь Российской Федерации составляет более 17 млн. километров
В мире нет стран с такой разнообразной флорой и фауной.
Озеро Байкал- самое глубокое озеро на земном шаре.
Россия является конституционной республикой , с президентом во главе.
Тема: Достопримечательности России.
Цель:- развитие навыков письменной речи;
-расширение страноведческих знаний по теме страны и достопримечательности
Задание 5. 1
-Прочитайте и переведите текст.
- заполните таблицу:
the Trans-Siberian Railway
Alexander III and his son Nicholas II
It is the part of the longest railway system in the world, which connects Moscow with Vladivostok.
Russia is the largest country in the world and the ninth most populous country. It covers much of Eastern Europe and Northern Asia, and comprises of 83 federal subjects. The country borders with numerous countries, including Ukraine, Belarus, Poland, China, Kazakhstan, Baltic and Scandinavian countries, and some others. Due to its size, the country spans 9 time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments. That’s why there are countless natural wonders there. The capital and the largest city of the country is Moscow. Every year millions of tourists come to see the riches of Russia. The most visited destinations are Moscow, St Petersburg, Sochi, Yekaterinburg, Rostov, Krasnodar, Kazan, Nizhny Novgorod, and some other prominent cities.
One of the top-rated tourist attractions in the country is the Trans-Siberian Railway. It is the part of the longest railway system in the world, which connects Moscow with Vladivostok – a city near Chinese and North Korean borders. This line is also known as the tsars’ route, as it was built by Alexander III and his son Nicholas II. Many visitors of Russia hope to ride by train on Trans-Siberian line. Lake Baikal in Siberia is the top-visited Russian natural wonder. It’s the deepest, oldest and largest fresh water lake in the world. People also call it the Pearl of Siberia. The lake is surrounded by mountain range and is home to numerous resorts. Moscow’s Kremlin is the place where all visitors of Moscow want to go. It is not only home to nation’s government, but also the complex of notable cathedrals and museums. One of the most interesting structures there is the Armoury, where diamond jewelries and treasures of the past are kept. Another tourist attraction in Moscow is magnificent St Basil’s Cathedral. It was built in the middle of the XVI century in the city center and boasts distinctive architecture. The building has no analogs in world architecture with its bonfire shape in full flame touching the sky.
Visitors of St Petersburg tend to see the Hermitage Museum, founded by Catherine the Great in the XVIII century. It houses over three million items from every corner of the globe. The museum is presented by six historic buildings. Perhaps, the most renowned of them is the Winter Palace, which used to serve as the residence for Russian emperors. Suzdal is one of Russian jewels. This historic city belongs to the “Golden Ring” of ancient Russian cities. It’s like a living, open-air museum, presenting Russia’s cultural past. The city is full of kremlins, monasteries and cathedrals, built in distinctive old-Russian style. Mount Elbrus is an attractive place for experienced and novice mountain climbers. At 5,642 meters height it has one of the highest summits in the world. Although it was formed from a volcano, there were no eruption recordings. Kizhi island in Karelia is also known as an open-air museum. This region borders with Finland and the White Sea. Local people have lived here for many centuries accepting cultures of the East and the West. The main attraction there is the 120-feet high church with 22 domes – the Church of the Transfiguration of our Savior. Other than that, the sight has dozens of wooden houses, chapels and windmills.
To surround- окружать
Mountain range- горный хребет
Windmill- ветряные мельницы
Задание 5.2 Найдите словосочетания в тексте:
Густонаселенная страна, широкий спектр природных зон, маршрут царей, пресноводное озеро, алмазные украшения, резиденция для российских императоров, культурное наследие страны, быть сформированной из вулкана, многочисленные дома отдыха, комплекс выдающихся музеев и соборов, нет аналогов в мировой архитектуре.
Тема: Соединенное королевство Великобритании и Северной Ирландии.
Тема: Лондон. Великобритания.
Цель: развитие навыков монологической речи.
Задание 6. 1Прочитайте и переведите предложения.
London is the capital of Great Britain. London is a very old town. London is two thousand years old. Many years ago London was a small town on the Thames. There were a lot of villages round it. After many years London and three hundred villages grew into a very large city. Some of the names of those villages are the names of the streets in modern London-Kensington, Westminster.
Now London is a beautiful city with large squares and parks. The city of London is the business centre. East End includes the poor districts. West of London is the West End where rich people live.
Trafalgar Square is in the centre of the West End of London. In the centre of Trafalgar Square there is the column made of granite. On the top of the column there is a 17-feet-tall statue of Admiral Nelson who defeated the French at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1809. The total high of the monument is 184 feet (44 meters).On the pedestal is a bronze relief cast from a captured French cannon, representing Nelson’s victory.
On the North side of Trafalgar Square is the National Gallery.
The National Gallery has one of the finest collections of pictures in the world.
Trafalgar Square is one of the busiest place in London, where people go to and from the work, it is hard to cross the street.
2.to grow- расти
4. to include- включать в себя
5. district- район
6. to defeat- побеждать
Задание 6.2 Ответьте на вопросы по тексту.
What is the capital of Great Britain ?
How many years is London?
What includes the poor districts?
Where do rich people live?
Where is the Admiral Nelson column?
Задание 6.3 Продолжите предложение.
On the top of the column …
London is two…
On the north side…
The total high…
Задание 6.4 Какие предложения соответствуют содержанию текста “+”, а какие не соответствуют “-”
London is a new town.
London is on the Thames.
The West End of London is a place where rich people live.
In London there aren’t a lot of squares and parks.
Задание 6.5 Найдите в тексте
Национальная галерея имеет одну из прекраснейших коллекций в мире.
Трефальгарская площадь находится в центре Вест Енда в Лондоне.
Сейчас Лондон –один из красивейших городов с большими площадями и парками .
Спустя много лет Лондон и три сотни деревень превратились в один большой город.
Некоторые из этих деревень стали названиями в современном Лондоне.
Тема: Достопримечательности Лондона.
Цель: развитее навыков аудирования и говорения.
Задание 7.1: Прочитайте текст и ответьте на вопросы:
1.Where is St. Paul’s Cathedral situated?
2.Who built St. Paul’s Cathedral?
3.Who is buried in the Cathedral?
4.Is Welligton known for the defeat of Hitler?
5. Where is The Tower of London situated?
6. Who built The Tower of London?
7. What ceremony is interesting to watch there? Is it an old tradition?
8.Is there any belief connected with ravens?
9.Where is Westminster Abbey situated?
10. Edward the Confessor built Westminster Abbey, didn’t he?
11. Who is buried in Westminster Abbey?
12.The Coronation Chair is one of the greatest treasure of Westminster Abbey, isn’t it?
13. What is called “ the home of Parliament” ?
14.Where are The Houses of Parliament situated?
15.What are they known for?
16. Where is Trafalgar Square situated?
17. What is it famous for?
There are a lot of places of interest in London which are worth visiting.
St. Paul’s Cathedral and the Tower of London are situated in the City. Westminster Abbey and the Houses of Parliament are situated in Westminster. Trafalgar Square is situated in the West end.
St. Paul’s Cathedral is situated in the City. It is one of the greatest English churches. It was built by a famous English architect, Sir Christopher Wren (1632 – 1723). A lot of great men of England are buried in the Cathedral. Among them is Wellington. He was a Prime Minister from 1828 to 1830, he is known for his military achievements, he defeated Napoleon at Waterloo in 1815. Nelson and Sir Winston Churchill are also buried there.Besides, coronations and weddings are held in the Cathedral. Today the Cathedral is known for the marriage of Charles, Prince of Wales and Lady Diana Spencer in 1981.
The Tower of London is situated in the City. It was one of the first and most impressive castles after the Norman invasion in 1066. William the Conqueror built a strong fortress to protect London.
Since then The Tower was used for many purposes: as a royal palace, a state prison. Now it is a museum. You can find the collection of armour and Crown Jewels there.
The Tower of London is defended by about 40 men in Tudor costume. The Yeomen of the guard are also known as Beefeaters. At 9.40 p.m. you can watch a very old tradition - Ceremony of the Keys. The Chief Warder closes The Tower for the night. You can find there ravens, fed by a Master of Ravens because of the belief, if the birds die out The UK will disappear.
Westminster Abbey is situated in Westminster. In Westminster Abbey queens and kings are crowned and famous people are buried. It was founded by Edward the Confessor in 1050. It contains the tombs and memorials of many Britain’s most prominent citizens. One of the greatest treasure of the Abbey is the Coronation Chair made in 1300. The Abbey is also known for its Poet’s Corner. There are lots of tombs and memorials to many English poets and writers.
The Houses of Parliament are situated in Westminster. The Clock Tower with the hour-bell called “ Big Ben” is known all over the world. The Houses of Parliament are officially called The Palace of Westminster and since the 16th century The Houses of Parliament have been called “ the home of the Parliament”.
Trafalgar Square is situated in the West End. The Square was so named in honour of Nelson’s victory at the battle of Trafalgar in 1805.In the centre of it stands Nelson’s column. The column is over 170 feet high and the statue of Nelson itself is 17 feet high. Trafalgar Square is a place for all kinds of demonstrations, marches and political meetings. And every day it is full of visitors feeding the pigeons.
To be situated- быть расположенным
Задание 7.2 Закончите предложения:
1. St. Paul’s Cathedral is situated...
2. It was built...
3. A lot of great men of England, such as Wellington, Nelson, Sir Winston Churchill...
4. The Tower of London is situated...
5. At first it was built as a fortress to protect London, and it was built by...
6. There is the belief that if the ravens die out...
7. The well-known people of England are buried...
8. The Houses of Parliament are situated...
9. The Houses of Parliament are known all over the world for The Clock Tower with the hour bell called...
10. Trafalgar Square is situated...
11. In the middle of Trafalgar Square stands...
Задание 7.3 Какие предложения соответствуют содержанию текста “+”, а какие не соответствуют “-”
1. Wellington is buried in St. Paul’s Cathedral and he is known for his military achievements, he defeated Hitler in 1945.
2. The Tower of London is not closed for the night by the Chief Warder.
3.One of the greatest treasure of Westminster Abbey is The Coronation Chair.
4. The Clock Tower “Big Ben” is situated in St. Paul’s Cathedral.
5. Trafalgar Square is full of visitors feeding the dogs.
6. St. Paul’s Cathedral is known for the marriage of Jennifer Lopez and Ben Affleck.
7. Ravens live in the Tower of London because of the belief that their meat is very tasty and The Queen likes to eat them at her supper.
Цель: расширения страноведческих знаний по стране изучаемого языка. Развитие навыков чтения с полным пониманием содержания.
Задание 8.1 Прочтите и переведите текст.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The full name of the country is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The United Kingdom is situated on the British Isles. The British Isles consist of two large islands, Great
Britain and Ireland, and a great number of small islands. Their total area is over 314 000 sq. km. The British Isles are separated from the European continent by the North Sea and the English Channel. The western coast of Great Britain is washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea. Northern Ireland occupies one third of the island of Ireland. It borders on the Irish Republic in the south. The island of Great Britain consists of three main parts: England (the southern and middle part of the island), Wales (a mountainous peninsula in the West) and Scotland (the northern part of the island).
There are no high mountains in Great Britain. In the north the Cheviots separate England from Scotland, the Pennines stretch down North England along its middle, the Cambrian Mountains occupy the greater part of Wales and the Highlands of Scotland are the tallest of the British mountains. There is very little flat country except in the region known as East Anglia.
Most of the rivers flow into the North Sea. The Thames is the deepest and the longest of the British rivers. Some of the British greatest ports are situated in the estuaries of the Thames, Mersey,
Trent, Tyne and Bristol Avon. Great Britain is not very rich in mineral resources. It has some deposits of coal and iron ore and vast deposits of oil and gas that were discovered in the North Sea. The warm currents of the Atlantic Ocean influence the climate of Great Britain. Winters are not
severely cold and summers are rarely hot. The population of the United Kingdom is over 58 million people. The main nationalities are:
English, Welsh, Scottish and Irish. In Great Britain there are a lot of immigrants from former British Asian and African colonies.
Great Britain is a highly industrialized country. New industries have been developed in the last three decades. The main industrial centers are London, Birmingham, Manchester, Leeds, Liverpool, Glasgow and Bristol. The capital of the country is London. The United Kingdom is a parliamentary monarchy.
To be separated-быть отделенным
Задание 8.2 Найдите ответы на следующие вопросы:
Where is the United Kingdom situated?
2. What islands do the British Isles consist of?
3. What ocean and seas are the British Isles washed by?
4. How many parts does the Island of Great Britain consist of and what are they called?
5. What mineral resources is Great Britain rich in?
6. What is the climate like in Great Britain?
7. What city is the capital of the U. K.?
8. What kind of state is Great Britain?
Тема: предлоги; фразовые глаголы.
Цель: Формирование лексико-грамматических навыков говорения
Выбор предлога в английском языке может зависеть и от того, о каком русском падеже идет речь. В русском языке шесть падежей. Вот какие предлоги им соответствуют:
1.Именительный падеж (кто? что?)
девушка – This girl wants to buy a bouquet of flowers. (без предлога)
2.Родительный падеж (кого? чего?)
девушки – The bouquet of this girl is lying on the table. (предлог of)
3.Дательный падеж (кому? чему?)
девушке – I am giving this bouquet to the girl. (предлог to)
4.Винительный падеж (кого? что?)
девушку – My mother likes this girl. (без предлога)
5.Творительный падеж (кем? чем?)
девушкой – This bouquet of flowers is bought by the girl. (предлоги by / with)
6.Предложный падеж (о ком? о чем?)
о девушке – I am talking about this girl. (предлоги about / of)
Более того, многие глаголы, существительные, прилагательные в английском языке употребляются строго с определенными предлогами. Поэтому эти части речи и следует учить вместе с предлогами. Например: глагол to wait (ждать) обязательно требует после себя предлог for. Или глагол to listen (слушать) используют только с предлогом to. Прилагательное proud (гордый) требует предлога of, а использование прилагательного satisfied (довольный) возможно лишь с предлогомwith. То же касается и существительных. За словами advantage / disadvantage (преимущество, недостаток чего-либо) следует лишь предлог of, а после существительного damage (урон, вред кому-либо или чему-либо) стоит поставить именно предлог to.
Самые распространенные предлоги английского языка
Употребление предлогов в английском языке подразумевает обязательное знание их значений, вариантов перевода и сфер применения. Мы не будем перечислять все предлоги английского языка, а назовем лишь несколько самых известных. Значение остальных и их связи с определенными частями речи следует уточнять дополнительно.
to the left — налево
to the right — направо
up — вверх
down – вниз
off — с
onto — на
towards – по направлению к
away, from — от
through – через, сквозь
out of — из
into — в
along — вдоль
past — мимо
across – через
above — над
over — над
between – между
near, at, by, beside – около, возле, у
behind – за, сзади
under — под
below – под
outside — из
in front of — перед
at – в часах
in – в месяцах, годах
on – в днях
from – c, от
to – до какого-то момента
since – от какого-то момента
till — до
before – перед, до
after — после
about – около, приблизительно
for – в течение периода времени
during – в течение + существительное
by – к какому-то моменту
because of – потому что
in accordance with – согласно, в соответствии с
on account of – вследствие, из-за
thanks to – благодаря
задание 9.1 Заполните пропуски, где это необходимо, подходящими прeдлогами at, on, in.
Пример: He works out ... the morning every day. - He works out in the morning every day.
1.We had holidays ... July.
2. ... the 25th of March I met my future wife.
3. ... last year they had a baby.
4. I should be there ... 6 p.m.
5. Mike had a great party ... his birthday.
Задание 9.2 Заполните пропуски подходящими прeдлогами at, on, in.
Пример: Where is your bag? It is ... my car. - Where is your bag? It is in my car.
1.There were a lot of interesting people ... the party.
2. My mother works .... the university.
3. I left my keys ... the bedstand.
4. These butterflies were grown ... Africa.
5. My friend lives ... the first floor.
Задание 9.3 Вставьте предлоги to или of.
Не bought a book ... English poems and gave it... his sister. 2. I wrote ... him asking to send me a box ... chocolates. 3. The roof ... the house is very old. 4. There is a monument ... Pushkin in the Square ... Arts. 5. One wheel ... my car must be changed. 6. He was standing outside the door ... his house and explaining ... the mechanic what was wrong with his car. 7. He gave her a big bunch ... flowers. 8. I sent a letter ... my friend. 9. The streets ... St. Petersburg are straight. 10. Many pages ... this book are torn. 11. The young scientist was trying to prove ... the professor the necessity ... the experiment. 12. London is the capital ... Great Britain. 13. The embankments ... the Neva are faced with granite. 14. It is clear ... me that you don't know your lesson. 15. He was devoted ... his friend. 16. I explained ... the teacher that by the end ... the lesson I had not finished the translation ... the text and that's why I had not handed it ... him. The surprise ... the teacher was great. My explanation seemed strange ... the teacher.
Задание 9.4 Вставьте необходимый предлог в предложения.
1.You are always getting …… me. 2.He took the exam and barely got ……...3.He gets …… on rock music. 4.The police have finally got …… to the murder. 5.It’s funny how they don’t get …… with their neighbours. 6.Their love story got…… the whole country.7.I cаn’t get…. the coffee stain on your skirt. 8.I am trying to call Moskow but I can’t get ….9.Whatever will the children get ……. to next? 10. We have to get …… right now.
Тема: Соединенные штаты Америки
Тема: города США
Цель: развитие навыков чтения с применением различных стратегий.
Задание 11.1 Прочтите и переведите текст.
New York is the biggest and most important city of the USA. It is the financial and medial capital of the USA.
It is the headquarters of the United Nations. It is the center of American cultural life. It is the national leader in fashion and entertainment. It offers the best, the biggest and the brightest of everything.
The first European explorer who saw Manhattan Island was Giovanni da Verrazano, an Italian merchant. It was April, 1524.Today a bridge which carries his name, the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge, is one of the city's impressive sights. It is the longest suspension bridge in the world.
When people say "New York City" they usually mean Manhattan. The Empire State Building, Rockefeller Center, the United Nations building, Central park, Times Square, Broadway, Harlem, Chinatown, the most famous streets and avenues - all these are to be found in Manhattan.
Manhattan is crossed from north to south by avenues and from east to west by streets. Each avenue has either a name or a number. The streets are numbered from one to over a hundred. Only few of then have names.
The Empire State Building is no longer the World's tallest building, but it is certainly one of the world's best loved skyscrapers.
Twin towers of the World Trade Center were the highest skyscrapers in New York. But they were destroyed by the terrorist attack on September 11, 2001.
Central park divides the city into two parts. It is the most popular rest place in the city.
People who come to New York by sea are greeted by the Statue of Liberty. It has become the symbol of the city. It symbolizes a welcome to a land of freedom. The statue was France's gift to America, presented to the USA in 1886.There is a museum in the base of the statue devoted to the history of immigration to the USA.
headquarters- штаб, центр
Задание 11.2.Соедините начало и конец предложений.
- New York is :
The nickname of the city is :
The Verrazano-Narrows Bridge, is :
The most famous streets and avenues are located in :
The Empire State Building is :
The most popular rest place in the city is:
The Statue of Liberty :
symbolizes a welcome to a land of freedom.
one of the world's best loved skyscrapers.
the financial and medial capital of the USA.
the longest suspension bridge in the world.
"a big apple".
the headquarters of the United Nations
the national leader in fashion and entertainment.
was a gift to the USA from the people of France.
named after the first European explorer who saw Manhattan Island.
Тема: Соединенные Штаты Америки
Цель: формирование навыков чтения с полным пониманием содержания прочитанного
The United States of America is the fourth largest country in the world (after Russia, Canada and China). It is called the United States, the US, the USA, the States, America. The USA occupies the southern part of Northern America, Alaska in the north and some islands, including the Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean. The total area of the country is over nine and a half million square kilometers. The USA borders on Mexico in the south and Canada in the North. It has sea border with Russia, too. The western coast of the country is washed by the Pacific Ocean, and its eastern coast — by the Atlantic Ocean.
The USA comprises 50 states and one federal district, the District of Columbia, and has several territories. The capital of the country is Washington, D. C, situated in the district of Columbia. The population of the country is about 250 million people who live mostly in cities and towns. The population of Washington is about 3 million people. The USA is a very large country and has different climatic regions. The coldest regions are in the north and north-east of the country. The climate of the south of the USA is subtropical, Alaska has arctic climate. The climate along the Pacific coast is much warmer than that of the Atlantic coast because of the warm winds blowing from the Gulf of Mexico. The USA is a state of rivers and lakes. America's largest rivers are the Mississippi, the Missouri, the Rio Grande and the Columbia. The Great Lakes on the border with Canada are the deepest and the largest in the USA. The highest mountains are the Rocky Mountains, the Cordillera and the Sierra Nevada.
The USA is rich in natural and mineral resources. It produces copper, iron ore and coal. It is a highly developed industrial and agricultural country. The most important manufacturing industries of the USA produce planes, cars, textiles, radio and television sets, armaments and paper. The USA became the world leading country in the 19th century.
The USA is a presidential republic. The highest legislative body of the country is the Congress. It consists of two parts: the House of Representatives and the Senate. Each state elects two senators for four years. A senator must be at least 30 years old, a citizen of the USA for 9 years, and live in the state he represents. The job of the Congress is to make laws, declare war, impeach the President, approve the justices that the President appoints to the Supreme Court.
The executive branch of the government is the President and the Cabinet of Ministers. The President is elected every four years. He must be at least 35 years old, born in the USA, a citizen of the country for 14 years, and be a civilian. The President can sign or veto a bill, ask the Congress to declare war, appoint justices to the Supreme Court.
The judicial branch of the government is the Supreme court. Its job is to enforce laws. The Supreme Court can decide if the law is constitutional or not. The three branches work together to protect the Constitution and the rights of people.
Veto a bill- наложить вето на законопроект
Supreme Court-верховный суд
To enforce-воплотить в жизнь
Задание 12.1 Найдите словосочетания в тексте:
Федеральный округ, иметь различные климатические области, развитая индустриальная и сельскохозяйственная страна, ведущая страна, президентская республика, палата представителей, объявить войну, привлечь к ответственности президента, кабинет министров, назначить судей, воплотить в жизнь законы, защищать права людей.
Задание 12.2 Заполните пропуски, используя слова: leading, to enforce, district, Representatives, the Supreme, to protect, resources, declare, regions, presidential
_______ the rights of people.
the House of _______
the world _______ country
Тема: времена английского глагола
Цель: формирование лексико-грамматических навыков говорения.
Времена группы Present
2. 3лицо +s ( she says)
Does( 3 л) + not+ смысловой глагол
I do not want it.
Does + подлежащее + смысловой глагол
( Does she read?)
2.регулярное, повторяющиеся действие
To be ( am, is, are) + Ving
I am reading now
To be+ not+ Ving
I am not reading now
To be+ подлежащее + Ving
Are you reading?
1.действие,которое происходит в данный момент
2.выражение будущего времени ( точно запланированного)
Have + V3
I have lost my key.
Have/ has + not + смысловой глагол
I have not lost my key.
Have/has + подлежащее + смысловой глагол
Has she lost her key?
От действия, совершенного в прошлом, есть результат.
Present Perfect Continuous
Have/has + been+ V3
I have been waiting her for 3 hours
Have/ has + not+ смысловой глагола
I have not been waiting her for 3 hours
Have/has+ подлежащее + been+ смысловой глагол
Have I been playing?
1.Действие, которое началось в прошлом, продолжалось в течение некоторого времени и закончилось непосредственно перед разговором
2.Действие, которое началось в прошлом, продолжалось в течение некоторого времени и все еще продолжается в момент разговора
Задание 13.1. Поставьте глаголы, данные в скобках, в Present Simple.
One fly_____________ (to fly) , two flies _____________ (to fly).
One girl _____________ (to cry), four girls _____________ (to cry).
When a wolf _____________ (to see) the moon, it _____________ (to begin) to howl (выть). Wolves and sheep _____________ (to be) never friends.
Our hens _____________ (to lay [откладывать]) a lot of eggs.
Boys _____________ (to fight) and_____________ (to shout).
That boy _____________ (to try) to catch some balls.
These girls _____________ (to try) to run away from an angry turkey.
If one goose _____________ (to have) one tooth, how many teeth _____________ (to have) thirteen geese?
Задание 13.2. Прочитайте, что говорит мальчик. Вставьте: am, is or are.
A) I'm in the park. I can see some children. They ____ playing volleyball. There's my friend Greg! He ____ reading a book. The girl ____ eating a sandwich. The boy and the dog ____ playing with a ball. They can't see me because I ____ sitting in a tree. What ___ you doing? ____ you listening to me?
B) Look! The children ____ jumping. The cat ____ sleeping now. My friend and I ____ not dancing now. Dave ___ reading now. Look! I ___ swimming.
Задание 13.3. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
Mary is drinking coffee and listening to music.
Mike is telling a story.
She is writing a letter.
Ann is working very hard.
The cat is eating its supper.
Задание 13.4. Вы пишите письмо другу. В нём Вы рассказываете о новостях про себя и других людей, которые произошли за последнее время. С помощью данных слов составьте предложения. Все предложения в Present Perfect.
Lots of things have happened since I wrote to you last.
1. I / buy / a new car –I have bought a new car.
2. My father / start / a new job. _______________.
3. I / give up / smoking. _______________.
4. Charles and Sarah / go / to Brazil. _______________.
5. Suzanne / have / a baby. _______________.
Тема: Времена английского глагола
Цель: Активизация лексико-грамматического материала в устной речи.
Задание 14.1 Поставьте глаголы в следующих предложениях в утвердительную, вопросительную и отрицательную формы Past Simple.
1.I (to do) morning exercises. 2. He (to work) at a factory. 3. She (to sleep) after dinner.
4. We (to work) part-time. 5. They (to drink) tea every day. 6. Mike (to be) a student.
7. Helen (to have) a car. 8. You (to be) a good friend. 9. You (to be) good friends. 10. It (to be) difficult to remember everything.
Задание 14.2 Вставьте подходящие по смыслу глаголы в форме Past Continuous.
play swim feed sleep laugh
Yesterday we went to the zoo and saw there a lot of animals. First we went to see the white bears. They __________. Then we went to the cage with monkeys. There were a lot of children in front of the cage. They ___________ because a monkey in the the cage ____________. After that we went to see the elephant. There was a man there. He ____________the elephant. But we ___________ see much of the lions. They _______________.
Задание 14.3 Вставьте глаголы в Past Perfect
1. Jill was afraid she _____ (forget) her key at home, but she found it in her handbag. 2. Dad wasn’t at home when I came back. He _____ (go) out twenty minutes before. 3. I wasn’t hungry because I_____ (just/have) breakfast. 4. Peter saw an urgent message on his table. Somebody _____ (leave) it the day before. 5. I apologized I _____ (not/phone) her. 6. He told me that he _____ (come back) a fortnight before. 7. I knew him at once though I _____ (meet) him many years before. 8. We spent the night in Klin, a town we _____ (often/hear of) but_____ (never/see). 9. They couldn’t believe he _____ (give up) his job in the bank. He _____ (make) a good living there. 10. Mr. Jackson said that he _____ ( already/buy) everything for lunch. 11. Alice asked her brother where he _____ (arrange) to meet his friends. 12. We had no car at that time because we _____ (sell) our old one. 13. They _____ (finish) painting the ceiling by two o’clock.
Тема: Достопримечательности США
Цель: совершенствование навыков чтения. Формирование навыков диалогической речи.
The Statue of Liberty
People who come to New York by sea are greeted by the Statue of Liberty. It has became the symbol of the city (if not the whole country) and an expression of freedom to people all over the world since 19 century. The statue shows liberty as a proud woman draped in the graceful folds of a loose robe. In her uplifted right hand, she holds a glowing torch. She wears a crown with seven spikes that stands for the light of liberty shining on the seven seas and seven continents. In her left arm she holds a tablet with the date of Declaration of Independence. A chain that represents tyranny lies broken at her feet.
The Statue of Liberty is France’s gift to America. It was designed by the French sculptor Bartholdi and was presented to the USA in 1886. The Lady in the Harbour stands 151 feet tall, weighs nearly 225 tons and has a 35-foot waist. In 1986 she was undergone a face-lift in honour of her 100th birthday.
365 steps lead from the entrance to the observation area in the seven-pointed crown (visitors aren’t allowed to climb to the torch). The views are breathtaking.
6. loose robe-свободное платье
10. to allow-позволять
Задание 15.1 Укажите время, в котором употреблены подчеркнутые глаголы.
Задание 15.2. С помощью текста переведите слова:
выражение свободы людей во всем мире
она держит горящий факел
свет независимости, который освещает семь морей и семь океанов
цепь, которая представляет тиранию, лежит сломанной у ее ног
она была подарена США
посетителям не позволяют взбираться на факел
Задание 15.3Укажите правильные ли это предложения или нет (true – false).
1.The Statue is a symbol of New York and the USA.
2.On the tablet the date of Declaration of Independence can be seen.
3.France made the Statue as a gift in eighteen eighteen.
4.The Statue weighs two hundred and twenty five tons.
5.The Lady in the Harbour is the United States of America.
6.The way from the entrance to the observation area includes three hundred and seventy five steps.
Тема 6.4. Знаменитые люди культуры и науки.
Тема: знаменитые люди науки и культуры
Цель: активизация новых ЛЕ.
Задание 16.1. Прочтите и переведите текст.
Задание 16.2. Заполните пропуски в тексте следующими словами:
Was born, educated, got married, plays, children, popular, dramatist, a daughter, died
William Shakespeare is the greatest poet and _______. He ____ in 1564 in Stratford –on- Avon,small English town. His mother, Mary Arden, ______ of a farmer. His father, John Shakespeare had several houses in Stratford.
He studied at local Grammar school, because his father wanted his son to be a very _________ person.
He ______in 1582 to Anne Hathaway and had three ______, a boy and two girls. William lived in Stratford until he was about twenty-one, then he went to London, because he was fond of actor’s profession.
Shakespeare became an actor. He acted at the London theatre called “The Globe”. There he played and wrote plays.
William Shakespeare wrote 37______. Among them are tragedies such as Hamlet, Othello, Romeo and Juliet; comedies such as All’s Well that Ends Well, Twelfth Night and the historical plays such as Richard III, Henry V. Besides plays Shakespeare wrote a lot of poetry, especially the Sonnets, which are translated into many languages and are well known throughout the world.
William Shakespeare ______ in 1616. But his creations are still ______ now and millions of people still admire them.
2.to get married-жениться, выйти замуж
6.well-known- хорошо изветные
8. To admire-восхищаться
Задание 16.3. Ответьте на вопросы:
What was William Shakespeare?
When and where was he born?
Did he have a family?
What plays did he write? Call me, please.
When did he die?
Are his creations still popular now?
Тема: Знаменитые люди культуры и науки
Цель: Закрепление ЛЕ
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Wolfgang Mozart is a famous Austrian composer, Mozart was born in 1756 in Salchburg, Austria. His father, a violinist and a composer, noticed wonderful talent of his son and taught him how to play musical instruments and to compose.
Being 4 years old Mozart played the clavier. When he was 5 or 6 years old he started composing music» At the age of 8— 9 Mozart created his first symphonies, and at the age of 10-11 his first creations for musical theatre.
When he was 6 years old his father decided to take him and his sister to the big cities of Europe. Two children gave concerts in Germany, Austria, France, England, Switzerland» The audience was delighted to see such a small boy playing the clavier.
When he was 14 he was invited to Italy. He could not imagine his life without music.
By the age of 19 he was the author of ten major musical works.
At the age of 26 he moved from his native town to Vienna. Though he didn't have a great success as a composer in Vienne, Mozart wrote many songs, serenades, symphonies.
Burdens of life, poverty and desease speeded up his death. He died at the age of 35.
The real fame came to Mozart only after his death. Many people now know and like his music.
composer — композитор
violinist — скрипач
clavier — клавесин
audience — аудитория
to be delighted — восхищаться
success — успех
burdens — тяготы
poverty — бедность
desease — болезнь
to speed up — ускорить
Задание 17.2. Ответьте на вопросы.
When was Mozart born?
How old was he when he started to play musical instruments?
When he did start to compose music?
What countries did young Mozart visit?
When did the real fame come to Mozart?
When did he die?
Тема: Леонардо да Винчи
Цель: развитие навыков чтения с применением различных стратегий текста.
Задание 18.1. Прочтите и переведите текст.
Leonardo da Vinci
When they hear the name Leonardo da Vinci, most people think of his famous painting, Mona Lisa. This picture is in an art gallery in Paris, and it is visited by millions of tourists every year.
But Leonardo wasn’t just a painter. He was also a talented inventor, engineer, architect and sculptor. He was full of new and exciting ideas.
Leonardo da Vinci was born in 1452 at his father’s country home near the town of Vinci in Italy. He spent his childhood surrounded by the wonders of nature, perhaps watching animals and insects that were all around him.
Leonardo was hungry for knowledge. He studied the world around him and drew the things he saw. He read everything he could find, listened to other people’s ideas, and made notes of the things he learned. Some of his notebooks were as large as wall posters, and other were small enough to carry in his pocket. Many have been lost, but some of them were published in the 1800s and can be ssen today.
Although he was full of new ideas, Leonardo didn’t build many of his inventions. One of this notebooks includes a drawing of a person with a parachute. Only 300 years later, in 1783, a Frenchman became the first person who made and used a parachute.
Leonardo did lost of drawings of arms and legs and other parts of the body and he designed a mechanical man- a robot! This robot could sit up, wave its arms, move its head and open and close its mouth.
Leonardo da Vinci died in 1519. He was truly a man ahead of his time.
To be born- быть рожденным
To be full of-быть наполненным
To include- включает
Задание 18.2. Выберите верный вариант.
What kind of text have you just read?
A fairy tale
Which of these would be the best as a different title?
Leonardo da Vinci- a famous painter
Leonardo da Vinci- a man who invented a parachute.
Leonardo da Vinci- a man who studied the world around him
Leonardo da Vinci- a man ahead of his time.
Задание 18.3. Выберите предложения, которые не являются верными.
Leonardo da Vinci is a world famous painter.
Leonardo da Vinci wanted to learn as much as he could about the world around him.
Leonardo da Vinci made notes of the things he learnt.
Leonardo da Vinci was the first man who made a parachute jump.
Leonardo da Vinci designed a robot.
Задание 18. 4. The article says the Leonardo da Vinci was hungry for knowledge. Find in the text and underline the sentences which prove it.
Цель: Модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты.
Цель: формирование лексико-грамматических навыков
Задание 19.1. Выберите в скобках правильный вариант модального глагола. Переведите предложения.
He … (can’t/couldn’t) open the window as it was stuck.
Interpreters … (may/must) translate without dictionaries.
… (Can/May) I use me your bike for today?
… (May/Could) you give me the recipe for this cake?
I hardly ever see Jane, she … (may/might) have moved to Africa.
Take an umbrella. It … (may/can) rain.
You … (could/should) stop smoking. You know you … (cannot/must not) buy health.
You … (may/must) finish the article as soon as possible.
Liz doesn’t … (ought to/have to) keep to a diet anymore.
Задание 19.2 Переведите английские пословицы, обращая внимание на модальные глаголы. Постарайтесь вспомнить русские эквиваленты пословиц, где это возможно.
A man can do no more than he can.
Anyone who has to ask the price cannot afford it.
People who live in glass houses should not throw stones at their neighbors.
You must learn to walk before you can run.
He who falls today may rise tomorrow.
A bird may be known by its song.
He who laughs at crooked men should need to walk very straight.
Talk of the devil and he is to appear.
A tree must be bent while young.
The wind can’t be caught in a net.
Задание 19.3. Дайте совет, используя модальный глагол should. (Возможны несколько советов.)
Н-р: My eyes are tired. (Мои глаза устали.) – You should go to bed. (Тебе следует поспать.)
I am cold.
I am thirsty.
I am hungry.
My life is too hectic.
I’ve caught a cold.
Somebody has stolen my purse.
Тема 7. Документы. Письма
Цель: История писем
Тема: развитие навыков чтения с использованием ключевых слов.
We receive a lot of emails every day. It has become such a usual thing. It’s a fact that people have stopped writing letters. It is going out of date. Just imagine only a hundred years ago we looked forward to an envelope in our postbox. And it came to us in many trains, it flew through air, over the mountains and seas, it passed through the hands of many people. It is so simple to send emails today that people never remember that it was once a very difficult and special task.
In ancient times “letters” were brought by runners – men who could run fast and far – and the “letters” they carried were not written, but were told to a receiver. Postmen in those days had to have a good memory, and they had to be honest. This was especially important: the “letter” often had important secrets in it, it had to reach only ears of the receiver and without any change in it. Post runners were met everywhere with respect and honour. Nobody was allowed to stop them or to do anything against them. History has many stories about runners and descriptions of what they did.
Traditions connected with the postal service were different in different countries. In Mexico, for example, after a battle the people knew by the runner’s clothes whether the message he was carrying to the capital was good or bad. If he had on a white belt and his long hair was tied with a red ribbon it meant that the battle had been won; if he came from the battle field with his hair untied, he carried the news that the battle had been lost.
Post runners sometimes had other duties besides carrying letters. Indian post runners in Mexico, where the postal service was very fast, were sometimes used to send – fish! Sea fish for a king’s table. The capital was four hundred kilometers from the sea.
To carry- нести, передавать
To be connected with-быть связанным с
Задание 20.1 Ответьте на вопросы.
1. Why have people stopped writing letters?
2.Do people look forward to receiving emails?
Задание 20.2. Соедините начало и конец предложений:
- It has become
Post runners were met
it passed through
we look forward to
In ancient times “letters” were brought
Indian post runners in Mexico sometimes used to send –
a. everywhere with respect and honor.
b. the hands of many people
c. by runners
e. such a usual thing.
f. an envelope in our postbox
Задание 20.3. Найдите следующие словосочетания в тексте:
Конверт в почтовом ящике; оправить письмо; далеко и быстро; иметь хорошую память; быть честным; после сражения; белый пояс; красная лента; каждый день; через горы и моря; сложное и особое задание; в древние времена; иметь важные секреты; победить сражение.
Тема: Условные предложения.
Цель: Развитие лексико-грамматических навыков говорения.
Реальные действия — те, которые произойдут, при каких-то условиях. Нереальные — это те, которые невозможны или возможны при почти невероятных условиях.
Например: Fact (реальное): I work in a restaurant, but I don’t earn much. — Я работаю в ресторане, но зарабатываю немного. If I find a better job, I will take it. — Если я найду лучшую работу, я на нее пойду.
Non-fact (почти нереальное): I wish I had a lot of money. — Жаль, что у меня немного денег (Хотел бы я иметь больше денег). If I had a lot of money, I would open my own restaurant. — Если бы у меня было много денег, я бы открыл собственный ресторан.
Задание 22.1. Раскройте скобки и поставьте приведенные в них глаголы в правильную грамматическую форму в соответствии с типом данного условного предложения. Назовите соответствующий тип условного предложения.
1. If Ann (to be) busy, Jennifer (to wait) for her in the lobby
2. If Jack (to meet) her parents, I (to inform) you about it
3. Jenny (to have) underweight unless she (to stop) smoking.
4. If Elisabeth`s children (to be) there, they (to enjoy) this unusual party.
5. If Henry (to drink) milk there, he (to eat) your fish now.
6. If Jane (to learn) these German phrases, she (to be able) to explain her wishes.
7. If our students (to read) these articles last week, they (to be) geared-up to answer these questions.
8. If Linda (to be) in the club a day before yesterday, we (to see) her there.
9. If our children (to be) afraid of thunderstorm, we (to ask) Mary`s sister to stay with them.
10. If we (to gather) a lot of mushrooms that summer, I (can + to give) a royal spread to our friends tonight.
11. Peter (not to catch) the bus unless he (to hurry).
12. If Jane had bought enough vegetables yesterday, she should have made more different salads.
Задание 22.2. Подберите к первой части условных предложений (из первого столбика) их окончание (из второго столбика). Обратите внимание на тип условного предложения. Переведите получившиеся предложения.
Н-р: 1 – с (Мы бы испекли торт, если бы мы купили немного яиц вчера.)
1) We would have made a cake a) if he hadn’t shouted at them.
2) If it rains much b) if she loses weight.
3) If I knew English well c) if we had bought some eggs yesterday.
4) My kids wouldn’t have cried d) if I were you.
5) I would call him e) I would be an interpreter.
6) She will put this dress on f) the flowers will grow very fast.
Задание 22.3. Раскройте скобки в условных предложениях II типа и поставьте глаголы в правильную форму.
Н-р: If Susan … (move) to Tokyo, she … (live) near her sister. (Если бы Сюзан переехала в Токио, она бы жила рядом со своей сестрой.) – If Susan moved to Tokyo, she would live near her sister.
If you … (have) a driving license, you … (get) this job.
My dog … (be) 20 years old today if it … (be) alive.
I … (go) to the police if I … (be) you.
If people … (not buy) guns, the world … (become) safer.
5. Tom ... (not eat) much “fast food” if his wife … (cook) at home.
Задание 22.4. Раскройте скобки в условных предложениях I типа и поставьте глаголы в правильную форму.
Н-р: If it … (rain), we … (stay) at home. (Если пойдет дождь, мы останемся дома.) – If I trains, we shall stay at home.
If he … (practice) every day, he … (become) a champion.
She … (help) us if we … (ask).
If they … (have) enough money, they … (open) a restaurant next year.
I … (not talk) to you anymore if you … (insult) me.
If Bob … (not keep) his word, Anna … (be angry) with him.
Тема: Как написать письмо на английском
Цель: Тренировка навыков письменной
Фразы для написания письма:1 абзац.
1. В первом абзаце вам следует поблагодарить своего друга за его письмо: Thanks (a lot) for your (last) letter. Your last letter was a real surprise. I was glad to get your letter. It was great to hear from you! / It was great to hear that… / I was happy to hear… Вы можете также извиниться за то, что не писали раньше: Sorry I haven’t written for so long but …/ Sorry I haven’t been in touch for so long. I’m sorry I haven’t answered earlier but I was really busy with my school. и/или упомянуть какой-либо факт из полученного письма: I’m glad you passed your History test! Sounds like you had a great time in London! Great news about your…!
В последнем параграфе объясните, почему вы заканчиваете письмо: Well, I’d better go now as I have to do my homework.
Anyway, I have to go now because my Mum asked me to help her with the washing up. I’ve got to go now! It’s time for my favourite TV show.
упомяните о дальнейших контактах:
Write (back) soon!
Take care and keep in touch!
Drop me a letter when you can.
Hope to hear from you soon.
I can’t wait to hear from you!
Основная часть письма (2–3 абзаца). В ней вы должны раскрыть все аспекты, указанные в задании. Не забудьте задать необходимые вопросы. Предполагается, что письмо должно быть написано в неформальном стиле, поэтому вы можете использовать неформальные слова-связки, такие как well, by the way, anyway, so, разговорные выражения типа Guess what? Или Wish me luck!, а также восклицательные знаки.
На следующей строке под завершающей фразой указывается имя автора (без фамилии!).
Например: Andy или Kate
Задание 23.1. Вы получили письмо от вашего англоязычного друга. Прочтите и переведите письмо.
…All in all, my birthday party was great! However, one of my friends came to the party in casual clothes. Just jeans and a T-shirt! Of course I didn’t say anything but she felt a bit left out. I was really sorry for her! And what do you usually wear when you go to a birthday party? Is it important in Russia to wear smart clothes at parties? What would you do if you were me? I’ve got to go now as I have loads of homework to do. Drop me a line when you can.
Lots of love, Patricia
Задание 23.2. Напишите ответное письмо, используя следующие пункты:
Расскажите о том, как у вас дела.
Ответьте на вопросы, заданные в письме.
Задайте 3 вопроса о подарках, которые ей подарили.
Тема: Имя существительное.
Цель: Развитие лексико-грамматических навыков говорения
Множественное число имен существительных.
Задание 24.1 Образуйте множественное число следующих существительных:
1. thief - __________
2. fish - __________
3. cat - __________
4. carpet - __________
5. turkey - __________
6. computer - __________
7. farmer - __________
8. half - __________
9. watermelon - __________
10. flower - __________
11. scarf - __________
12. box - __________
13. mountain - __________
14. kiss - __________
15. smile -__________
Задание 24.2. Заполните пропуски существительными в единственном или множественном числе.
1. They ate some (tomato) ______________.
2. You can put (sugar) ______________ in your tea.
3. We have to buy new (furniture) ______________.
4. I need to wash my (hair) ______________.
5. We had lots of (fun) ______________.
6. The Milfords have a lot of (money) ______________.
7. How many (people) ______________ were at the cinema with you?
8. Could you give some (information) ______________ on your project?
9. In this hotel, (family) ______________ are very welcome.
10. Those (man) ______________ seem to be very tired.
Притяжательный падеж имен существительных.
Притяжательный падеж существительных в единственном числе образуется путем прибавления к существительному окончания 's:Притяжательный падеж существительных во множественном числе образуется прибавлением только одного апострофа: Если множественное число существительного образуется не прибавлением окончания /s/, а изменением формы, то притяжательный падеж формируется также как и для единственного числа, т.е. прибавлением окончания /'s/:
Задание24.3. Перепишите предложения, используя притяжательный падеж существительных. Переведите готовые предложения.
This car belongs to Sam. (Эта машина принадлежит Сэму.) – This is Sam’s car. (Это машина Сэма.)
This notebook belongs to Jane.
These suitcases belong to our guests.
This bedroom belongs to my son.
These keys belong to Mark.
This painting belongs to Picasso.
These poems belong to Pushkin.
This helicopter belongs to our boss.
These dictionaries belong to the students.
Задание 24.4. Прочитайте текст и определите родственные связи героев, используя притяжательный падеж.
George and Mary are married. They have 2 children: John and Laura. Mary has a sister, Kelly. George has a brother, Rob.
George is Mary’s husband. (Джордж – муж Мэри.)
Mary is ______ wife. (жена)
George is __________ father. (отец)
Mary is _________ mother. (мать)
John is __________ son. (сын)
Laura is _______ daughter. (дочь)
John is __________ brother. (брат)
Laura is _________ sister. (сестра)
Kelly is _________ aunt. (тетя)
Rob is __________ uncle. (дядя)
John is __________ nephew. (племянник)
Laura is _________ niece. (племянница)
Тема 8. Научно-технический прогресс.
Тема: Компьютер и интернет
Цель: Введение и первичное закрепление ЛЕ по теме
The Internet has already entered our ordinary life. Everybody knows that the Internet is a global computer network, which embraces hundred of millions of users all over the world and helps us to communicate with each other.
The history of Internet began in the United States in 1969. It was a military experiment, designed to help to survive during a nuclear war, when everything around might be polluted by radiation and it would be dangerous to get out for any living being to get some information to anywhere. Information sent over the Internet takes the shortest and safest path available from one computer to another. Because of this, any two computers on the net will be able to stay in touch with each other as long as there is a single route between them. This technology was called packet switching.
Invention of modems, special devices allowing your computer to send the information through the telephone line, has opened doors to the Internet for millions of people.
Most of the Internet host computers are in the United States of America. It is clear that the accurate number of users can be counted fairly approximately, nobody knows exactly how many people use the Internet today, because there are hundred of millions of users and their number is growing.
Nowadays the most popular Internet service is e-mail. Most of the people use the network only for sending and receiving e-mail messages. They can do it either they are at home or in the internet clubs or at work. Other popular services are available on the Internet too. It is reading news, available on some dedicated news servers, telnet, FTP servers, etc.
In many countries, the Internet could provide businessmen with a reliable, alternative to the expensive and unreliable telecommunications systems its own system of communications. Commercial users can communicate cheaply over the Internet with the rest of the world. When they send e-mail messages, they only have to pay for phone calls to their local service providers, not for international calls around the world, when you pay a good deal of money.
But saving money is only the first step and not the last one. There is a commercial use of this network and it is drastically increasing. Now you can work through the internet, gambling and playing through the net.
However, there are some problems. The most important problem is security. When you send an e-mail, your message can travel through many different networks and computers. The data is constantly being directed towards its destination by special computers called routers. Because of this, it is possible to get into any of the computers along the route, intercept and even change the data being sent over the Internet. But there are many encoding programs available. Notwith-standing, these programs are not perfect and can easily be cracked.
Another big and serious problem of the net is control. Yes, there is no effective control in the^Internet, because a huge amount of information circulating through the net. It is like a tremendous library and market together. In the future, the situation might change, but now we have what we have. It could be expressed in two words— an anarchist's dream
network — сеть
to embrace — охватывать, окружать
user — юзер, пользователь
to design — задумывать, придумывать, разрабатывать
to survive — выжить
nuclear war — ядерная война
to pollute — загрязнять
dangerous — опасный
path — путь, маршрут
available — доступный, имеющийся в распоряжении, наличный
the net — интернет, сеть
packet switching — пакетное переключение
invention — изобретение
accurate — точный
to count — считать, сосчитать
approximately— приблизительно, примерно
to receive — получать
message — послание
to provide — снабжать, доставлять, обеспечивать
reliable — надежный
alternative — альтернативный
provider — провайдер, поставщик
security — безопасность
router — маршрутизатор
to intercept — перехватить (сигнал и т. д.)
to encode — кодировать, шифровать
notwithstanding — тем не менее, однако, все же
to crack — взломать
huge — большой, гигантский, громадный, огромный
to circulate — передвигаться/двигаться в пределах чего-то
tremendous —разг. огромный, гигантский, громадный; потрясающий
1. What is the Internet?
2. When and where did the history of Internet begin?
3. Why was the Internet designed?
4. What is modem?
5. Where are most of the Internet host computers?
6. What is the accurate number of internet users?
7. What is the most popular Internet service today?
8. What are other popular services available on the Internet?
9. What is the most important problem of the Internet?
10. Why is there no effective control in the Internet today?
11. Is there a commercial use of the network today?
Тема: Компьютер в нашей жизни.
Цель: Тренировка навыков устной речи
Задание 27.1 Прочтите и переведите текст.
Computers in our life
Computers quickly entered into our life. They have changed our lives for the better. The modern computing machines present one of the most achievements of human thought, that is why it’s difficult to imagine our life without this clever machine. Today we almost use PCs in every office, in every house, in every school, on airplanes, etc. The user of the computer can be a writer and an artist, a doctor and an engineer, a musician and a teacher. It is the universal tool which is capable to help everyone.
Numerous factories use computers to control machines that make products. A computer turns on and off and adjusts their operations when necessary. Without computers, it would be impossible for engineers to perform the enormous number of calculations needed to solve many technological problems.
Architectural and civil engineers use the computers in designing complicated bridges, official institutions, shopping centers and other structures.
The Robot is also controlled by the computer. The Robot is a mechanical device. It can carry out the work, which for people proves to be too heavy or even impossible, for instance, in conditions of strong fierce frost. Quite often one robot can change two workers at the plant.
Computers help in the building of spacecraft, and they assist flight engineers in launching, controlling and tracking the vehicles. Computers also are used to develop equipment for exploring the moon and planets. Computers have been of tremendous help to researchers in the biological, physical and social sciences. Astronomers use computers to guide telescopes and to process photographic images of planets and other objects in space.
Computers can be used to compose music, write poems and produce drawings and paintings. A work generated by a computer may resemble that a certain artist in birth style and form, or it may appear abstract оr random. Computers are also used in the study of the fine arts, particularly, literature. They have also been programmed to help scholars identify paintings and sculptures from ancient civilizations.
There are many computer classes at our technical school. We can get basic computer skills for our future specialty there. We study some applications: Word 7.0, Excel 7.0, NetWare and others. At our computer lessons we print texts, draw graphs and electronic tables, create databases, translate texts, create new files and prepare projects. Our students like computer lessons very much because computers can do many lessons more interesting and convincing.
Today computers can store huge amount of information on magnetic media and any item of this information can be obtained in a few milliseconds and displayed or printed for the user. We all use PCs to make our life easier.
fierce frost-лютый мороз
Задание 27.2. Выберите подходящие заголовки для текстов.
a.Computers in education
b.Computers in research
d.Computers in art
e.Computers in manufacturing
Задание 27.3. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:
1. What has changed our lives for the better?
2. Where do we use PCs?
3. Name a mechanical device?
4. Do computers help in the building of spacecraft?
5. Why do our students like computer lessons ?
6. Where can computers store huge amount of information?
Задание 27.4 Какие из этих предложение являются верными, а какие нет. Исправьте неправильные предложения.
1. Without computers it would be impossible for engineers to perform the enormous number of calculations.
2. Architectural and civil engineers can’t design complicated bridges
and other structures with the help of computers.
3. Computers have not been of tremendous help to researchers in the biological, physical and social sciences.
4. Computer is the universal tool which isn’t capable to help everyone.
5. One robot can change two workers at the plant.
6. Computers can be used to compose music, write poems and produce drawings and paintings.
7. Today, computers are big, slow and can store little information on magnetic media.
Тема: Согласование времен и косвенная речь.
Цель: Развитие лексико-грамматических навыков говорения
Задание 28.1. Прочтите правило на с.99 ( « Английский для менеджеров». Агабекян).
Задание 28.2. Превратите следующие предложения в косвенную речь, сделав все необходимые изменения.
Н-р: Jack said: “ I am working hard.” (Джэк сказал: «Я много работаю.») – Jack said (that) he was working hard. (Джэк сказал, что много работает.)
I told her: “You can join us.” (Я сказал ей: «Ты можешь присоединиться к нам.») – I told her (that) she could join us.” (Я сказал ей, что она может присоединиться к нам.)
Fred said: “I have invented a new computer program”.
Mary said: “I will help my sister.” (
They told me: “We were really happy.”
She said: “I live in a big apartment.”
He told her: “I am going to the fish market.”
Betty said: “I found my passport.”
Mr. Ford said: “I don’t like pork.”
Little Tim told his mother: “I am sleepy.”
Задание 28.3. Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на употребление времен в русском и английском языках.
1. We did not know where our friends went every evening. 2. We did not know where our friends had gone. 3. She said that her best friend was a doctor. 4. She said that her best friend had been a doctor. 5. I didn’t know that you worked at the Hermitage. 6. I didn’t know that you had worked at the Hermitage. 7. I knew that you were ill. 8. I knew that you had been ill. 9. We found out that she left home at eight o’clock every morning. 10. We found out that she had left home at eight o’clock that morning. 11. When he learnt that his son always received excellent marks in all the subjects at school, he was very pleased. 12. When he learnt that his son had received an excellent mark at school, he was very pleased.
Задание 28.4. Передайте следующие повелительные предложения в косвенной речи.
1. “Explain to me how to solve this problem,” my friend said to me. 2. The doctor said to Nick, “Open your mouth and show me your tongue.” 3. “Don’t be afraid of my dog,” said the man to Kate. 4. “Take this book and read it,” said the librarian to the boy. 5. The doctor said to Pete, “Don’t go for a walk today.” 6. “Don’t eat too much ice cream,” Nick’s mother said to him. 7. “Go home,” the teacher said to us. 8. “Buy some meat in the shop,” my mother said to me. 9. “Sit down at the table and do your homework,” my mother said to me. 10. “Don’t forget to clean your teeth,” said granny to Helen. 11. “Don’t sit up late,” said the doctor to Mary.
Задание 28.5. Передайте следующие повествовательные предложения в косвенной речи.
1. The mother said, “The children are in the nursery, doctor.” 2. “I have no time for lunch today,” said the boy to his mother. 3. “You speak English very well,” the woman said to me. 4. My brother said to me, “I am going to become a doctor.” 5. My uncle said to us, “I buy several newspapers every day.” 6. The teacher said to the pupils, “Next year we shall have six hours of English a week.” 7. He said to me, “I want to see you today.” 8. She said, “I am free tonight”. 9. Mother said to me, “I feel bad today.”10. The pupil said to the teacher, “I can do my homework after dinner.” 11. The teacher said to Jack, “You work hard, I know. You are a good boy.” 12. The old man said to the girl, “You can sing perfectly. I think you will be a famous singer.” 13. My sister said to me, “You look very well, much better than you looked yesterday. I think you have recovered after your illness.” 14. “You are an excellent cook. Everything is so tasty,” my guest said to met 15. The student said, “I can’t answer this question. I don’t understand it.”
Тема: косвенная речь. Согласование времен
Цель: Активизация грамматического материала в устной речи
Задание 29.1 Восстановите прямую речь в следующих предложениях.
1. Tom said he would go to see the doctor the next day. 2. He told me he was ill. 3. He told me he had fallen ill. 4. They told me that Tom had not come to school the day before. 5. I told my sister that she might catch a cold. 6. She told me she had caught a cold. 7. He said that while crossing the English Channel they had stayed on deck all the time. 8. The woman said she had felt sick while crossing the Channel. 9. She said she was feeling bad that day.10. The old man told the doctor that he had pain in his right side. 11. He said he had just been examined by a good doctor. 12. He said he would not come to school until Monday. 13. The man said he had spent a month at a seaside resort. 14. He said that his health had greatly improved since then.
Задание 29.2. Передайте следующие общие вопросы в косвенной речи.
1. I said to Boris, “Does your friend live in London?” 2. They said to the mam, “Are you living in a hotel?” 3. He said to his friend, “Will you stay at the Hilton?” 4. He said to me, “Do you often go to see your friends?” 5. He said to me, “Will you see your friends before you leave St Petersburg?” 6. Mike said to Jane, “Will you come to the railway station to see me off?” 7. She said to me, “Have you sent them an e-mail?” 8. She said to me, “Did you send them an e-mail yesterday?” 9. I said to Mike, “Have you packed your suitcase?” 10. I said to Kate, “Did anybody meet you at the station?” 11. I said to her, “Can you give me their address?” 12. I asked Tom, “Have you had breakfast?” 13. I asked my sister, “Will you stay at home or go for a walk after dinner?” 14. I said to my mother, “Did anybody come to see me?” 15. I asked my sister, “Will Nick call for you on the way to school?” 16. She said to the young man, “Can you call a taxi for me?” 17. Mary said to Peter, “Have you shown your photo to Dick?” 18. Oleg said to me, “Will you come here tomorrow?” 19. He said to us, “Did you go to the museum this morning?”
Задание 29.3. Восстановите прямую речь в следующих предложениях.
1. I asked if they had taken the sick man to hospital. 2. I asked my friend if he had a headache. 3. I wanted to know when he had fallen ill. 4. I wondered if he had taken his temperature. 5. I asked him if the doctor had given him some medicine. I asked him if he was feeling better now. 6. I asked the man how long he had been in St Petersburg. 7. I asked him if he was going to a ski resort in Colorado. 8. We asked the girl if her father was still in Moscow. 9. I asked the girl what sort of work her father did.
Задание 29.4. Передайте следующие предложения в косвенной речи.
1. “Do you like my pies, Ann?” asked her grandmother. 2. “Stop shouting and do your homework,” Tom’s mother said to him. 3. “What did you do at school yesterday, John?” said his father. 4. “Will you play the piano today, Helen?” asked her aunt. 5. My uncle said, “We shall visit you next week.” 6. “Don’t cross the street when the lights are red,” said the man to Nick. 7. “I borrowed a very good book from our library yesterday,” said Mike to his father. 8. “Come to my house tomorrow, Jane,” said Lena. 9. “Where are your books, Betsy?” said her mother.
Задание 29.5.Передайте следующие предложения в косвенной речи.
1. “Lock the door when you leave the house,” my elder sister said to me. 2. “Have you received a telegram from your wife?” she asked Robert. 3. Mabel said, “Nothing will change my decision and I shall leave for Cape Town tonight.” 4. “Please don’t smoke in the room,” said the old woman to her nephew. 5. “I am shivering with cold,” said the girl.6.“I want to sit in the armchair,” said the boy. 7. The secretary said to me, “The delegation arrived in St Petersburg yesterday.” 8. “Open the window, please,” she said to me. 9. He said, “I shall light a fire and make myself breakfast.” 10. “Don’t run to the door when you hear the bell,” said the woman to her little daughter. 11. She asked me, “How long are you going to stay here?” 12. Mary asked me, “Will you spend your holidays in Moscow?”
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