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Инфоурок / Иностранные языки / Другие методич. материалы / Методические рекомендации для выполнения практических занятий
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Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации

Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение

высшего профессионального образования

«Новгородский государственный университет имени Ярослава Мудрого»

МНОГОПРОФИЛЬНЫЙ КОЛЛЕДЖ

ПОЛИТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ КОЛЛЕДЖ

Учебно-методическая документация















Методические рекомендации

по практическим занятиям


ОГСЭ.03 Иностранный язык (Английский)


Специальность:

220703 Автоматизация технологических процессов и производств (по отраслям)


Квалификация выпускника: техник






Разработчики:

Кручинина О. А., преподаватель английского языка МПК ПТК НовГУ.

Пименова Т. М., преподаватель английского языка МПК ПТК НовГУ.



Методические рекомендации по практическим занятиям по дисциплине «Иностранный язык (Английский)» для студентов 2-4 курсов специальности 151001 Технология машиностроения приняты на заседании предметной (цикловой) комиссии общеобразовательных, общих гуманитарных и социально – экономических и естественно – научных дисциплин колледжа протокол №____ от__________________


Председатель предметной (цикловой) комиссии __________/Белорусова Л.П.













Содержание


Пояснительная записка………………………………………………………..………………...4

Тематический план и содержание учебной дисциплины «Иностранный язык» (Английский)……………………………………………………………………………………..6

Содержание практических занятий……………………………………………………………11

Раздел 1 Вводно-коррективный курс……………………………………………………..…...11

Тема 1.1Входной мониторинг. Коррекция произношения. ……………………………….....11

Раздел 2 Развитие навыков устной речи по общекультурной и бытовой тематике…………………………………………………...………………………………….....14

Тема 2.1 Семья. Друзья. Учеба. Повторение изученного материала.…………………..…...15

Тема 2.2 Спорт и здоровый образ жизни.….…………………………………………..……...23

Тема 2.3 Проблемы современной молодежи.……………………………………………...….26

Тема 2.4Система образования в России, Великобритании и США.………………..……….29

Тема 2.5 Портреты стран изучаемого языка.………………………………………………….34

Тема 2.6 Праздники и традиции в Великобритании и России…............................................39

Тема 2.7 Досуг.……………………………………………………………………...……..……43

Тема 2.8 Защита окружающей среды………………………………………………………….48

Тема 2.9 Выдающиеся ученые и их открытия.………………………………………...……..53

Тема 2.10 Научно - технический прогресс в современном обществе……………………....62

Тема 2.11 Средства массовой информации и информационные технологии…………….…67

Тема 2.12 Профессия. Карьера…………………...………………………...….……………...70

Тема 2.13 Деловое общение в профессиональной сфере.…………………………….……...73

Раздел 3 Наука и технология…………………………….……….…………………..………..76

Тема 3.1 Металлы……………………………………………………………………...…….....83

Тема 3.2 Обработка металлов…..………….………………………………………………..…94

Тема 3.3 Материалы и технологии…………………..…………………….…………………107

Тема 3.4 Станки….……………………………………………………….……………………115

Тема 3.5 Сварка и виды сварки.….……………………………………..…………………….131

Тема 3.6 Автоматизация, виды автоматизации. Роботы в промышленности.…………..…140

Информационное обеспечение обучения……………………………………………..……..154

Приложение А……………………………………………………………...…………….……155

Приложение Б………………………………………………………………………………….161

Приложение В…………………………………………………………………………………164

Лист регистрации изменений………………………………………………………………...188




Пояснительная записка


Методические рекомендации по практическим занятиям, являющиеся частью учебно-методического комплекса по дисциплине «Иностранный язык (Английский язык)» составлены в соответствии с:

1 Федеральным государственным образовательным стандартом по специальности 151001 Технология машиностроения;

2 Рабочей программой учебной дисциплины;

3 Примерной программой учебной дисциплины «Английский язык» ( ФГУ «ФИРО» Минобрнауки России, 2010 г.);

4Положением о планировании, организации и проведении лабораторных работ и практических занятий студентов, осваивающих основные профессиональные образовательные программы среднего профессионального образования в колледжах НовГУ.

Методические рекомендации включают практические занятия, предусмотренные рабочей программой учебной дисциплины в объёме 151 часов.

В результате выполнения практических занятий обучающийся должен уметь:

  • общаться (устно и письменно) на иностранном языке на профессиональные и повседневные темы;

  • переводить (со словарём) иностранные тексты профессиональной направленности;

  • самостоятельно совершенствовать устную и письменную речь, пополнять словарный запас.

В результате изучения учебной дисциплины обучающийся должен знать:

  • лексический (1200-1400 лексических единиц) и грамматический минимум, необходимый для чтения и перевода (со словарём) иностранных текстов профессиональной направленности.


Критерии оценки за устный ответ:

Оценка 5 «отлично» ставится при условии, что студент способен вести беседу на английском языке, легко взаимодействует с речевым партнёром и адекватно реагирует на его реплики, использует различную фактическую информацию, выражая своё мнение и отношение к услышанному по определённой проблеме, в сообщении имеются лишь отдельные лексико-грамматические или интонационно-синтаксические ошибки.

Оценка 4 «хорошо» ставится, если студент способен вести беседу и без особых проблем участвует в речевом взаимодействии, используя фактическую информацию, выражая своё мнение и отношение к вопросу или проблеме, испытывает, однако, трудности спонтанно реагировать на реплики партнёра, не всегда понимает, о чём идёт речь, допускает небольшое количество ошибок.

Оценка 3 «удовлетворительно» ставится, если студент может отвечать на вопросы преподавателя, но его ответы односложны, не всегда точны и логичны. Студент пытается использовать заученный текст, несоответствующий обсуждаемой теме, часто делает паузы, не зная, что сказать. Для речи характерно достаточно большое количество ошибок.

Оценка «2» «неудовлетворительно» ставится, если студент не понимает вопросы преподавателя и не способен отвечать на них, для устной речи характерно большое количество ошибок,


Критерии оценки выполнения письменных заданий проводятся по следующим параметрам:

- решение коммуникативной задачи (насколько полно и точно она выполнима);

- относительная грамматическая корректность (морфологическая и синтаксическая грамотность, допускающая некоторое количество ошибок);

- корректность употребления лексического материала и связность текста.

Оценка 5 «отлично» ставится при условии, что студент точно выполнил задание, правильно определил степень письменного сообщения, корректно использовал языковые средства, выбрал содержательное языковое оформление, которое направлено на решение данной коммуникативной задачи. Письменный текст может содержать единичные ошибки в правописании.

Оценка 4 «хорошо» ставится при условии, что студент в основном решил поставленную коммуникативную задачу, но при этом допустил небольшое количество ошибок лексико-грамматического плана.

Оценка 3 «удовлетворительно» ставится при условии, что студент частично и не совсем точно решил коммуникативную задачу и допустил достаточное количество лексико-грамматических ошибок. Письменное сообщение отличается небольшим объёмом, примитивностью оформления собственных мыслей и построения высказываний.

Оценка «2» «неудовлетворительно» ставится, если студент не справился с коммуникативной задачей, допустил большое количество лексико-грамматических ошибок, Письменное сообщение отличается небольшим объёмом, отсутствием логики при построении высказываний и небрежным оформлением.


Критерии оценки навыка чтения, умение передать содержание прочитанного на иностранном языке:

При оценке ответа учитывается:

- умение прочитать вслух отрывок из текста с соблюдением фонетических и интонационных норм;

- кратко на иностранном языке передать содержание прочитанного текста и высказать своё мнение по содержанию;

- грамотность ответа.

Оценка «5» «отлично» ставится, если студент:

- читает вслух с соблюдением фонетических и интонационных форм;

- при пересказе полно излагает содержание своими предложениями, используя изредка текст; обосновывает своё мнение;

- излагает материал грамотно, допускает лишь незначительные погрешности (фонетика, грамматика).

Оценка «4» «хорошо» ставится, если студент:

- читает вслух достаточно грамотно и образно;

- обнаруживает при пересказе понимание текста, а имеющиеся ошибки не мешают понимать изложенное.

Оценка «3» «удовлетворительно» ставится, если студент:

- читает вслух достаточно грамотно;

- обнаруживает при пересказе понимание текста, но излагает содержание неполно;

- допускает в ответе значительное количество грамматических, фонетических ошибок.

Оценка «2» «неудовлетворительно» ставится, если студент:

- обнаруживает непонимание текста.

2.2 Тематический план и содержание учебной дисциплины «Иностранный язык» (английский)



Наименование разделов и тем

Содержание учебного материала, практические занятия, самостоятельная работа обучающихся, курсовая работа (проект)

Объем часов

Уровень освоения

1

2

3

4

Раздел 1

Вводно-коррективный курс


7


Тема 1.1

Входной мониторинг. Коррекция произношения.

Содержание учебного материала

3

2

Практические занятия

1. Выполнение лексико-фонетических упражнений

2. Грамматика: повторение правил чтения и письма

Контрольные работы входной мониторинг

3

Самостоятельная работа обучающихся: по теме «Коррекция произношения».

1

Раздел 2.

Развитие навыков устной речи по общекультурно и бытовой тематике


129


Тема 2.1

Семья. Друзья. Учеба. Повторение изученного материала.

Содержание учебного материала

5

2

Практические занятия

1. Лексика по теме «Семья. Друзья. Учеба».

2.Грамматика: система времен действительного залога

Самостоятельная работа обучающихся: по теме «Семья. Друзья. Учеба»: подготовить диалоги, сообщение по теме.

3

Тема 2.2

Спорт и здоровый образ жизни.

Содержание учебного материала

5

2

Практические занятия

1.Лексика по теме «Спорт и здоровый образ жизни»

2.Грамматика: обзор видовременных форм английского глагола. Фразовый глагол look.

Самостоятельная работа обучающихся: написать эссе на тему «Спорт и здоровый образ жизни».

4

Тема 2.3 Проблемы современной молодежи.

Содержание учебного материала

5

2

Практические занятия

1.Лексика по теме «Проблемы современной молодёжи»

2.Грамматика: страдательный залог

Самостоятельная работа обучающихся: мини проект на тему «Проблемы современной молодёжи»

4


Тема 2.4 Система образования в России, Великобритании и США.

Содержание учебного материала

5

2

Практические занятия

1.Лексика по теме «Система образования в России, Великобритании и США»

2.Грамматика: словообразование существительных,

прилагательных. Основные английские префиксы, суффиксы.

Контрольные работы, промежуточный контроль

2

Самостоятельные работы обучающихся по теме: «Система образования в России, Великобритании и США»: подготовить короткое сообщение по теме.

4

Тема 2.5 Портреты стран изучаемого языка.

Содержание учебного материала

5

2

Практические занятия

1.Лексика по теме «Портреты стран изучаемого языка»

2.Грамматика: прямая и косвенная речь. Согласование времен.

Самостоятельная работа обучающихся по теме «Портреты стран изучаемого языка»

4

Тема 2.6 Праздники и традиции в Великобритании и России.

Содержание учебного материала

5

2

Практические занятия

1.Лексика по теме «Праздники и традиции в Великобритании и России»

2.Грамматика: Фразовые глаголы take, come.

Самостоятельная работа обучающихся по теме «Праздники и традиции в Великобритании и России»

4

Тема 2.7

Досуг

Содержание учебного материала

5

2

Практические занятия

1.Лексика по теме «Досуг»

2.Грамматика: Отработка грамматических конструкций.

Контрольные работы. Итоговый контроль знаний.

2

Самостоятельная работа обучающихся по теме «Досуг»: подготовить проект в форме коллажа по теме.

4

Тема 2.8

Защита окружающей среды.

Содержание учебного материала

5

2

Практические занятия

1.Лексика по теме: «Защита окружающей среды»

2.Грамматика: фразовый глагол get.

Самостоятельная работа обучающихся по теме «Защита окружающей среды»: подготовить мини проект по изучаемой теме.

4


Тема 2.9 Выдающиеся ученые и их открытия.

Содержание учебного материала

5

2

Практические занятия

1. Лексика по теме: «Выдающиеся ученые и их открытия»

2. Грамматика: трудные случаи употребления предлогов.

Самостоятельная работа обучающихся по теме «Выдающиеся ученые и их открытия»: подготовить мини проект об одном из выдающихся ученых.

4

Тема 2.10 Научно - технический прогресс в современном обществе.

Содержание учебного материала

5

2

Практические занятия

1. Лексика по теме: «Научно - технический прогресс в современном обществе»

2. Грамматика: фразовый глагол put.

Самостоятельная работа обучающихся по теме «Научно - технический прогресс в современном обществе»: подготовить сообщение.

2

Тема 2.11 Средства массовой информации и информационные технологии.

Содержание учебного материала

5

2

Практические занятия

1. Лексика по теме: «Средства массовой информации и информационные технологии»

2. Грамматика: фразовый глагол turn.

Самостоятельная работа обучающихся по теме «Средства массовой информации и информационные технологии»: написать эссе о роли средств массовой информации в повседневной жизни.

4

Тема 2.12 Профессия. Карьера.

Содержание учебного материала

5

2

Практические занятия

1. Лексика по теме: «Профессия. Карьера»

2. Грамматика: деловое общение в профессиональной сфере.

Самостоятельная работа обучающихся по теме «Профессия. Карьера»: подготовить диалоги по теме.

4

Тема 2.13

Деловое общение в профессиональной сфере.

Содержание учебного материала

14


Практические занятия

1. Лексика по теме: «Деловое общение в профессиональной сфере»

2. Грамматика: повторение грамматического материала.

Контрольные работы: промежуточный контроль знаний.

2

Самостоятельная работа обучающихся по теме «Деловое общение в профессиональной сфере»: подготовить диалоги по теме.

4

Раздел 3.

Наука и технология.


110


Тема 3.1.

Металлы.

Содержание учебного материала

16

2

Практические занятия

1. Лексика по теме: «металлы»

Деловой английский. Устройство на работу.

2. Грамматика: неличные формы глаголы, модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты.

Самостоятельная работа обучающихся по теме «металлы»: чтение и перевод текстов, подготовка сообщений, мини-проектов.

4

Тема 3.2 Обработка металлов.

Содержание учебного материала

12

2

Практические занятия

1. Лексика по теме «обработка металлов»

2. Грамматика: условные предложения I,II,III. Сослагательное наклонение. времена действительного и страдательного залога, местоимения, артикли и предлоги, трудные случаи употребления предлогов.

Контрольные работы. Итоговый контроль.

2

Самостоятельная работа обучающихся по теме «обработка металлов»: чтение и перевод текстов, подготовка сообщений, мини-проектов.

4

Тема 3.3

Материалы и технологии.

Содержание учебного материала

12

2

Практические занятия

1. Лексика по темам: «Материалы и технологии»

2. Грамматика: трудные случаи употребления предлогов

Самостоятельная работа обучающихся по теме «Материалы и технологии»: чтение и перевод текстов, подготовка сообщений, мини-проектов.

6

Тема 3.4

Станки.

Содержание учебного материала

12

2

Практические занятия

1. Лексика по темам: «Станки»

2. Грамматика: неличные формы глагола

Контрольные работы. Промежуточный контроль.

2

Самостоятельная работа обучающихся по теме «Станки»: чтение и перевод текстов, подготовка сообщений, мини-проектов.

6

Тема 3. 5.

Сварка и виды сварки.

Содержание учебного материала

12

2

Практические занятия

1. Лексика по темам: «Сварка и виды сварки»

2. Грамматика: условные предложения I,II,III. Сослагательное наклонение.

Самостоятельная работа обучающихся по теме «Сварка и виды сварки»: чтение и перевод текстов, подготовка сообщений, мини-проектов.

6

Тема3.6. Автоматизация, виды автоматизации. Роботы в промышленности.

Содержание учебного материала

10

2

Практические занятия

1. Лексика по темам: «Автоматизация, виды автоматизации. Роботы в производстве»

2. Грамматика: времена действительного и страдательного залога, местоимения, артикли и предлоги.

Контрольные работы. Итоговый контроль.

2

Самостоятельная работа обучающихся по теме «Автоматизация, виды автоматизации. Роботы в производстве»: чтение и перевод текстов, подготовка сообщений, мини-проектов.

4


Всего:

246




Уровни освоения учебного материала имеют следующие обозначения:

1. – ознакомительный (узнавание ранее изученных объектов, свойств);

2. – репродуктивный (выполнение деятельности по образцу, инструкции или под руководством)

3.– продуктивный (планирование и самостоятельное выполнение деятельности, решение проблемных задач)

Содержание практических занятий


Раздел 1. Вводно-коррективный курс


Цель: совершенствование навыков правильного произношения, устранение типичных ошибок, проверка остаточных знаний, полученных на базовом уровне.

Студент должен:

иметь представление:

-o правильном произношении английских согласных и гласных звуков, о типичных трудностях в их произношении, об отличии их от русских звуков,

знать:

-правила чтения английских гласных в различных типах слога,

-правила чтения сочетаний английских согласных и гласных букв,

уметь:

- правильно произносить английские звуки,

-читать и писать английские слова и словосочетания,

-продемонстрировать свой уровень владения английским языком в результате

контроля навыков чтения, аудирования, говорения и знания грамматических структур.

Грамматика (Фонетика)

-согласные буквы, буквосочетания ,звуки,

-гласные буквы, буквосочетания и звуки .

Виды практических заданий: выполнение фонетических упражнений, контрольная работа по входному мониторингу остаточных знаний.


Тема 1.1 Входной мониторинг. Коррекция произношения.


1.Правила чтения согласных букв и их сочетаний:


с [ s ]-перед e, i, y -cinema, cent, cymbals

[ k ] -перед a, o, u, а также перед всеми согласными буквами в конце слога -cat, cost, cut, music, contact

ch [ ] - в различных позициях -chat, children, beach

[ ] -в словах греческого происхождения -ache,architect

[ ] -в словах французского происхождения -machine,moustache

ck-[ k] -black,pocket

s [s ] -в начале слова, между гласной и согласной, в конце слова после глухой согласной -sack , east , cats

[ z ] -после звонкой согласной , после гласной, между гласными -dogs,pies

rose

sh [ ] -she -, shine , shut

g [ ] -перед e, i, y -gentleman , gin, gym

g [ ] -перед -a, o, u,а также перед всеми согласными буквами в конце слога -game , goat, gull , dog

ng [ ] -sing , bring

gu [ ],[ ] -в словах французского происхождения- language,league

ph [ f] -photo, physics

th [ ] -в местоимениях, в служебных словах,в знаменательных словах между гласными -this , the , bathe

th [ ] -в начале и конце знаменательных слов и в середине слов иностранного происхождения -thin , bath , author

wh [ ] -передо who -,whose

wh [ ] -перед остальными гласными when ,why

qu [ ] -в ударном слоге quite ,quiet

qu -[ ]-в конце слова unique


2.Варианты чтения гласных букв в соответствии с четырьмя типами слога


I тип слога -открытый(оканчивается на ударную гласную букву.Гласная читается, как в алфавите)

II тип слога -закрытый(после ударной гласной идет одна или две согласные)

III тип слога -слог с буквой r ( ударная гласная + r)

IV тип слога — ударная гласная буква +r +e


3.Прочитайте слова, обращая внимание на тип слога.


Made, far, care, order, lord, herd, here, blend, share, severe, glad, career, serve, agree, ache, declare, tired, ill, ice, free, spot, bore, sole, sincere, cod, architect, shore, atmosphere, wire, desire, circle, cure, tyre, dust, rely, tune, pure, purple, hymn, symbol, just, true, purse, rude, core, bare, alert, thirst, bee, ore, here, term.


4.Чтение сочетаний гласных букв под ударением.


Ai /ay -[ ] -wait, say

ei /ey -[ ] -eight , grey

ea /ee -[ ] -tea, bee

ew [ ] - new, few

ue /ui [ ] -true, suit, Tuesday

ooi /oy -[ ] -boil, voice, toy

ou /ow [ ] - out, cow, owl

ow /oa -[ ] -know, low, coal


5. Прослушайте ,прочитайте и запомните, как читаются данные буквосочетания.


i+gh= [ ai] -light, high, night, might, bright, tonight, right

ou + gh = [ ] - brought, bought, ought, thought

But:through , though

au +gh = [ ] - naughty, daughter

ai/ ei + gh = -straight, eight, eighteen, neighbour


6. Прослушайте и прочитайте слова, обращая внимание на сочетание согласных букв.


a) [ w] [ h ]


what while who

where whale whom

why white whose

when wheat whole

which wheel


b) c [ k ] c [ s ]

call became distance

carry picture century

card Scotland piece

computer electronic civilised

communicate fact receive

communication culture bicycle

code curious city

coast necessary

continent

corner

c ) ph [f ], gh [ f ], f [ f ]

telegraph enough formal elephant laugh careful first laughter prefer

tough four telephone photographer physics dolphin phrase


Раздел 2. Развитие навыков устной речи по общекультурной и бытовой тематике.


Цель: активизировать знание времен действительного залога, познакомить с формами страдательного залога, словообразованием существительных, прилагательных, глаголов и наречий, овладеть косвенной речью и согласованием времен, модальными глаголами и их эквивалентами, фразовыми глаголами come, get, take, look, put, turn, освоить наиболее распространенные предлоги, активизировать правила употребления артиклей, совершенствовать деловой и разговорный английский , овладеть новой тематической лексикой.

Студент должен:

иметь представление о:

- проблемах в современной семье ;

-системе образования в России, Англии и США ;

- здоровом образе жизни;

- проблемах современной молодежи;

- странах изучаемого языка;

- праздниках и традициях в Великобритании и России;

- защите окружающей среды;

- выдающихся ученых и их открытиях;

- научно - техническом прогрессе;

- средствах массовой информации и информационных технологиях;

- профессии и будущей карьере;

- деловом общении в профессиональной сфере.

знать:

- лексические единицы по темам;

-правила образования конструкций со страдательным залогом;

- правило согласования времен;

- основные английские суффиксы и префиксы;

- основные разговорные формулы;

- модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты;

- фразовыеглаголы come, get, take, put, turn, look,

- правила употребления артиклей в английском языке;

- основные лексические сокращения по специальности;

- основные фразы делового английского, необходимые при устройстве на работу;

уметь:

- использовать изученные фразы делового и разговорного английского в устной и письменной речи;

- читать тексты с пониманием основного содержания, составить план пересказа текста;

- используя лексику по теме, готовить сообщения, выполнять лексико -грамматические упражнения;

- переводить предложения из прямой речи в косвенную, используя правило согласования времен;

- переводить предложения с фразовыми глаголами come, get, take, turn, look, put;

- выполнять лексико-грамматические упражнения на модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты, на употребление предлогов, артиклей.

Тематика текстов: «Семья и семейные проблемы», «Мой лучший друг», «В колледж», «Система образования в России «, «Система образования в Великобритании»,» Система образования в США» ,« Выбор профессии», «Спорт и здоровый образ жизни »,» Проблемы подростков в Великобритании и России» ,» Прошлое и настоящее США», «Впечатления от Великобритании» ,» Австралия — страна Голубых гор «, Праздники и традиции в Великобритании и России» ,» Досуг подростков в Великобритании и России «, «Экологические проблемы» , «Защита окружающей среды,» , « И. Ньютон «, «М. Фарадей», «А. Нобель», »А. Сахаров», »Роботы будущего» ,» Познание мира через средства массовой информации», «Электронные коммуникации «, « Устройство на работу» .


Грамматика:

-действительный залог;

-страдательный залог;

- словообразование существительных, прилагательных;

- косвенная речь и правило согласования времен;

- модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты;

- фразовыеглаголы come, take, turn, look, put, get;

- артикли;

- наиболее распространенные предлоги места и времени.


Виды практических заданий: выполнение коммуникативных и учебных заданий, в том числе лексических и грамматических упражнений:

- времена действительного залога — упр. 209 с.173, 217 с.179 ,219 с. 181,227 с.188 231 с.191, 232 с.192, 240 с.199 ,242 с.201, 244 с.202, 251 с.208, 254 с.213, 260 с.220( Голицынский Ю.Б. Грамматика. Сборник упражнений.-7-е изд.-СПб.:Каро.-2010.-544с.)

- времена страдательного залога — упр. 275с. 234, 279 с.236, 281 с.237. 292 с.245.294 с.246, 297 с.248, 303 с.252

- косвенная речь и правило согласования времен — упр.308 с.257, 311 с. 259, 316 -332 с.263-340

- модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты — упр.487,488с. 397,492с. 399,497 с. 403,509 с.433,556,557,558 с.444

- предлоги — упр.142 с.113,144 с.115. 149 с. 119, 153 с.122, 154 с. 124,155 с. 125

- артикли — упр. 40-45 с. 34-39,47-73 с. 41-60( Голицынский Ю. Б. Грамматика. Сборник упражнений.-7-е изд.,-СПб:Каро, 2010,-544 с.)


Тема 2.1 Семья. Друзья. Учеба. Повторение изученного материала.


1. Practise the following words from the text:


research- исследование

household- семья, домашнее хозяйство

generation-поколение

to share-делить

dream-мечта

hope-надежда

possession-собственность

to respect- уважать

dignity-чувство собственного достоиства

privacy- личная жизнь

extended family-семья из нескольких поколений

trust- доверие

to bother- беспокоиться

trouble- проблема

valuable-значимый, ценный

to cheat- обманывать

to bridge-наводить мосты, преодолевать препятствия

generation gap- конфликт между поколениями

agreement- соглашение

protection- защита

dweller- обитатель, жилец


2. Read and translate these words combinations:


an essential part of the society, according to researches, four generations, for comfort and protection, to respect dwellers, to enjoy dignity, in an extended family, to be very valuable for somebody, to cheat teenagers, to bridge the generation gap, to come to an agreement, hopes and possessions.


3. Read and translate the text:


Family and Family Problems


A family is an essential part of our society. A family is a little world. According to researches, households of three or even four generations will become typical.

Firstly a family has things shared together like dreams, hopes and possessions. I think it is great. Besides, we need a family for comfort and protection.

Secondly a family is a place where they respect dwellers, a place where all members can enjoy the dignity of their own. Some people say that privacy is impossible in an extended family. But in my opinion trust is more important for a happy family than any other feature.

There are a lot of problems in an extended family, especially between brothers and sisters. They always treat one another badly. Of course, if you have a lot of brothers and sisters, there will be no privacy. But on the other hand, when you have no brothers or sisters, life becomes boring.

There a lot of problems and conflicts that appear between teenagers and their parents. They don't understand each other.

Parents always want their children to be clever and learn harder. They don't bother themselves to understand their children. They are always glad when their children have trouble with things that are very valuable for them.

Parents always cheat teenagers...They say that college is very important for us and to enter university we should have good marks in our diplomas.

But it's not what the children want. I think that it is necessary to bridge the generation gap, and children and parents must come to an agreement.


4 . Answer the following questions:


1. What is a generation gap? 2. How should we overcome it? 3. What family is extended? 4. Do you agree that an extended family is better? 5. Is your family an extended one or not? 6. What problems are there in an extended family? 7. Do you agree that parents often cheat you? 8. Do you think that college diploma with good results is important?


5. Give a short summary of the text.


6.Read the dialogue, act it and be ready to express your opinion:


A.: Do you think that having a family is important for a person?

B.: I think it is very important.

A.: Why is it so important?

B:. I think only in a family a person can develop to be a person.

A.: I also think that one's family is the place where a person can get support and understanding. Even if the whole world is against me, my family supports me. And I think that support and understanding are very important.

B.: I think so too.

A.: I also think that a family is so important because children learn how to behave at home, in the family circle. Mothers are our first teachers. Do you agree with this?

B :Yes, I do. I believe that the family and especially mothers give us the love we need. When we feel bad, tired and exhausted, we come to our mothers.

A.: True. But there is another important moment in the question of a family. It is learning to care after somebody, to care for somebody. When we are young,we accept care of our parents and so learn to care for them and other people. Isn't it so?

B.: I think it is. It is also known that children try to copy or to avoid the relationships they had in the family when they were young. If they felt at ease with their parents, they will try to copy their parents' relationships. If they felt uncomfortable, they can even deny all relationships, don't want to marry and have children.

A.: I also think it is important if you are proud of your parents. In this case you want them to be proud of you and do your best to achieve the results they expect you to achieve.

B.: I think that's right.

A.: Another important thing is that a family makes you feel you are not alone. You are never lonely in a good family.

B.: I want to add that we learnt to be parents looking at our parents. There are no schools where people are taught to be parents. They learn it in their families.

A.: So there are many reasons why our families are so important for us.


7 . Read and practice the following dialogue:


THE ONLY SON IN THE FAMILY

Phil: Hello, Dan. Let's go to my place, I'd like to show you my diskets with my new computer games.

Dan: With pleasure. Where did you get them?

P : My sister bought them for me as a birthday present last month.

D: Is your family large?

P: Yes, rather. I've got my parents, a sister, a brother, two Grannies and a Grandpa. Besides, I have an aunt, two uncles and three cousins.

D: You are lucky. And I'm the only son in the family. What are your parents?

P: They both are teachers. My father is a professor of philosophy and my mother teaches English at the University.

D: Are your sister and brother younger or older than you?

P: You see, I'm the youngest in our family, as my sister and brother are already grown- ups. My sister is a post- graduate student now. She will become a psychologist.

D: Is she married?

P: Not yet. She is fond of her science. But she's got a bride- groom and they are planning to get married next year.

D: And what about your brother? Does he live with your family?

P: Of course, not. He is an officer, a pilot and serves in the Far East. He has the family of his own — a wife and two wonderful twins, my niece and nephew.

Oh, here we are. This is the house I live in. Comein


8. Practise the following words from the text:


friendship - дружба

to buy - покупать

naturally - естественно

to have something in common - иметьчто - общее

to keep up communication - общаться

shared interest - общийинтерес

vicinity - соседство, окрестность

number of friends - количество друзей

easy -going - общительный

overweigh - избыточный вес

boring - скучный

to depress - подвергаться депрессии

experience - опыт

witty - остроумный

to cope with - справляться с

equal - равный

to occur - происходить

foundation - основа

to achieve - достигать

to create - создавать


9. Read and translate these words combinations:


to spend your time with, happens naturally, feel similar to each other, in a certain way, a similar sense of humour , to live in close vicinity, to be able to meet regularly, some kind of shared interest, have long walks with each other, to learn through the experience, the positive side of the things, to be in trouble, to cope with problems, to be equal in friendship.


10. Read and translate the text:

«My Best Friend»


Friends, those that you choose to spend your time with and that you love, are one of the most important aspects of your life. Friendship is something that cannot be bought or sold. It's just something that happens naturally between people that have something in common. Such friends feel similar to each other in a certain way, or just being together.

There are many factors which are important in a friendship. One of them is keeping up communication: how often you can see your friend, whether you are ready to help your friend. I think some kind of shared interest or a similar sense of humour is important. Also, there are some shared points of reference, so you always have something to talk about. Many people feel that in order to keep a friendship strong it's important to live in close vicinity to each other and be able to meet regularly. If you can see your friend very often and you can have a lot in common, a very deep friendship can develop.

There is no limit to the number of friends that you can have. But I think that a close friend can be only one. My close friend is my classmate. He is rather tall and overweight. I don't feel he takes as much exercise as he should. He used to go to the gym, but he found it really boring. His main exercise is walking and swimming. He has very short hair. He is brown-haired. He has blue eyes and wear glasses. He is calm and easy-going. We have long walks with each other during which we discuss different things. We learn through the experience of all things that happen to us. We try not to get too depressed by everything and think about the positive side of the things. My friend is witty and you can laugh with him and joke. If my friend is ill or in trouble, I always try to help him cope with his problems. We are equal in our friendship. There is a saying that communication can occur between equals, and I really believe it is so. I really feel that a fantastic foundation for achieving or creating anything is a strong friendship.




11. Answer the following questions:


1. Do you have a close friend? 2. Will you describe your close friend? 3. What is important in a friendship? 4. What is necessary to do in order to keep a friendship strong? 5 .How many close friends can a teen have? Why? 6 .What is a fantastic foundation for achieving or creating anything in life? 7. What shared interest do you have with your close friend? 8. Why is it necessary to have a close friend?


12 .Work in pairs.Read the short characteristics of a good friend.Tick the characteristics you agree with.Compare list with your partner's.Discuss the points which are different.


A good friend is a someone who...


-sees life through your eyes,

-supports you in all situations, no matter if you are right or wrong,

-is good at listening; he/she is ready to listen to you for hours,

-keeps his/her promise and keeps your secrets,

-never tells you lies,

-always tells you the truth, no matter if you like it or not,

-never goes out with somebody else,

-can quarrel or even fight with you if you've done something wrong,

-forgives you for being rude or unfair towards him/her,

-gets angry if you rude or unfair towards other people.


13 .Work in groups of 2 or 3.Decide the shoulds and shouldn'ts for a good friend.Use the expressions from the box.


Example; A good friend should support you if you are right.


quarrel with you about silly unimportant things

defend you if someone hurts you

betray you in difficult situations

support you if you are right

support you if you are wrong

appreciate your advice

follow your advice in any case

envy your success

avoid conflicts with you

cheer you up

ignore your interests

care about your feelings

feel jealous if you are more successful


14. Discuss in pairs when and why you need friends.


Use:

when you are happy

when you are stressed

when you are tired

when you have problems with your parents

when you are betrayed by somebody

when you need somebody's support

to share your interests

to enjoy life

to feel lonely

to help someone

to take care of someone

to learn new things

to rely on them

to quarrel with them

to speak about life

to have fun

to listen to music

to do sports

to ask advice

to get support from them


15. Read what people said about frienship.Choose one saying you like best and explain what it means for you.


«Without friends no one would choose to live, though he had all other goods.»

Aristotle(384 BC — 322 BC)


«Misfortune shows those who are not really friends.»


Aristotle( 384 BC — 322 BC)

«A friend is one before whom I may think aloud.»

Ralf Waldo Emerson ( 1803 — 1882)


« My best friend is the one who brings out the best in me.»


Henry Ford (1863 — 1947)

« Be slow in choosing a friend, slower in changing.»

Benjamin Franklin (1706 — 1790)


« Friendship is unnecessary, like philosophy, like art...It has no survival value; rather it is one of those things that give value to survival.»

C.S.Lewis (1898 — 1963)


16. Read and practice the following dialogue:


LET ME INTRODUCE MY FRIEND TO YOU


Pete: Hello, Max, let me introduce my friend to you. This is Alex. Is his name familiar to you?

Max: I don't think so. How do you do, Alex. Glad to know you.

Alex: Good evening, Max. Pleased to meet you. How are you getting on?

Max: Very well, thank you. And what about you?

Alex: Very much the same, thanks. It's a fine day, isn't it?

Max: Yes, lovely weather we are having today. I hope it will keep fine.

Alex: By the way, Max, I think, I'm acquainted with your brother.

Max: Really? You don't say so. Do you work together?

Alex: No, we don't, but I see very much of him. He is clever, well-educated and has good manners.

Max: Glad to hear it. And where did you get acquainted with him?

Alex: We played a game of tennis the other day. I'm sorry, I must be off. It was a pleasure to meet you.

Max: Thank you. I was glad to make acquaintance too. Come over and see me one of the days. Good bye for the time being.

Alex: And you too, keep in touch. All the best. So long.


17. Read and practise this dialogue:


A. What qualities do you value in your friend?

B. I think reliability is very important.

A. I think so too. But I find the sense of humour very important as well. I believe that sense of humour helps people overcome problems and manage the difficulties. I like to joke as well, and I suppose it important to be understand by a friend. What do you think about this quality?

B. I consider it as an important one.

A. Is the appearance of your friends important for you?

B. Oh, no. I don't pay much attention to the appearance.

A. Me too. I like beautiful people but I think that many other qualities are important for a friend. Being attentive, for example.

B. That's right. Friends should be attentive to each other.

A. I also believe that a friend shouldn't be dominant. People don't like bossy persons, do they?

B. No, they don't. I think friendship is equality.

A. I share this opinion. Friends should not subdue each other. They should help each other and back up each other. Do you agree with me?

B. Yes, I do. I think that support, understanding and backing up are the things we expect from our friends.

A. I don't call friends people who try to use their friends in order to gain something.

B. But I believe that friends must be sincere to each other and shouldn't get upset at being criticized.

A. That's right. I think that friends must be able to tell each other the truth whatever the truth is. Friends help each other improve and be better people and better friends, don't they?

B. I completely agree.

A. and I also feel that money is not important for friendship. Are you with me here/

B. Yes, I am. I think that money can't make a person a good friend. Poor people are sometimes better friends because they understand how hard the life is and are always ready to help.

A. So a friend is a person who understands you, helps you and value you

because of your personality, not your income.

B. Correct.


18.Read this dialogue and act it.


At My College


Alexei is going to leave school in a year, but he realizes that he must start thinking about further education right now, because it is essential to read for the exams well beforehand. So he asks his brother to tell him about his college and advise.

Alexei :Vlad, I want to ask you about college life. Is it different from school life?

Vlad: Well, it depends on what you are interested in. We, too, in college have lessons, and marks; teachers give us homework, and there are examinations and tests.

Alexei: Well, I see. But, then, is there any difference between a school and a college/

Vlad: Why, of course. First, at college we have special subjects in our curriculum. For example, if one is going to be a technician he or she will take physics, mathematics, programming and a lot of other things. It's really very interesting. Second, if you work regularly, attend all the lectures and seminars, and get good marks, you will be given a scholarship. If you are at the top of the group, and have excellent marks, the scholarship will be higher,

Alexei: It sounds very nice, I must say. Now, please, describe your usual day at college.

Vlad: Well, our day starts at half past eight. We have several lectures and seminars every day, and work in workshops. Students also can stay at college after classes to do research.

Alexei: How are students assessed

Vlad:We have exams and credit tests twice a year. But of course, it is important how you work during the year.

Alexei: What is the difference between an exam and a credit test?

Vlad: Well, you get marks for an exam, and when you take credit test, you'll get a «pass». Exams are usually taken at the end of the course of a subject. For example, if you take chemistry for a year and a half, you will have credit tests in chemistry at the end of two terms, and at the end of the third term you will take an exam.

Alexei: Is an exam more difficult, than a credit test?

Vlad: Not really. In fact, you have more time to read for an exam: you are given from two to five days to get ready, and you are not given a lot of time to get ready for a credit test. In general, it depends on the subject.

Alexei; Well, I see. Now, what about holidays? They are not the same as at school, are they?

Vlad: We have holidays only two times a year: two weeks in January and two months in summer.

Alexei: Vlad , what are you going to do after you graduate?

Vlad: There is a good opportunity for those who get only excellent marks while they study. When we graduate, we can enter a university and continue our education there.

Alexei: The prospect is very nice. I wish you good luck, then. Do you advise me to enter this college, too?

Vlad: You know, it's up to you to decide. But I like my studies there, and I think I have made the right choice. Besides, I've got many friends in the college, and friendship is the best thing in the world!


New words to remember;

to assess-оценивать

to attend-посещать

to be strong at a subject-хорошо успевать по какому-л. предмету

to be weak at a subject-не успевать по какому-л. предмету

course-курс(обучения,лекций)

credit test -зачет

curriculum -расписание

excellent -отличный

graduate -заканчивать учебное заведение

postgraduate -выпускник

scholarship -стипендия

to take an exam in –сдавать экзамен

term -семестр

to work by fits and starts –заниматься урывками, нерегулярно

to work regularly–заниматься регулярно



Тема 2.2 Спорт и здоровый образ жизни.


1.Read the text №1 and check your comprehension.


Text 1. «SPORTS AND GAMES»


It goes without saying that one of the most important tasks today is to bring up a healthy generation. That's why most governments pay special attention to sport and physical education. All schoolchildren have at least two Physical Training lessons a week. Most schools have well - equipped gyms, swimming pools and tennis courts, where pupils can develop physically and get all the necessary skills and habits. It is known that most pupils are interested in sport or take part in a sporting activities.

Many of these activities are organized through school or through youth clubs. Every school, college or university have sport teams and groups.

Large sports and leisure centers have excellent facilities for sport and fitness. Though some of them are not free of charge, and people have to pay, children and grown — ups attend them willingly.

Nowadays almost all people are fond of some sport, because it helps them to keep fit and because they enjoy it. There are summer and winter kinds of sports, indoor and outdoor sports. The most popular outdoor winter sports are: shooting, hunting, skating, skiing, hockey, free style. Some people enjoy figure - skating, ski - jumping nd tobogganing. In summer people have excellent opportunities for swimming, rowing, track-and field athletics, mountain climbing and others. You can go in for gymnastics, boxing, weight-lifting, wrestling, play volleyball, basketball, handball and tennis in a gym all year round. Among indoor games the most popular are billiards, table-tennis, draughts and, of course, chess. The results of chess tournaments are studied and discussed by thousands of people in different countries.

Sports are very much the same in most countries, but some sports are more popular than others in a certain country. Golf, cricket and soccer are popular in England. Basketball and rugby football are popular in America.


1.What is one of the most important tasks in any country? 2. What do most schools have for physical development of pupils? 3. What do leisure centers have for sport fitness? Are they free? 4. What are the most popular winter sports? 5. What sports do people go in for in summer? 6. What kinds of sports are popular in England/ 7. What are specific American sports?


Text 2. «Healthy Way of Life»


1. Practice the following words from the text:

health -conscious –заботящийся о своем здоровье

to avoid - избегать

to affect - влиять

it's common knowledge - общеизвестно

to cause - вызывать, быть причиной

healthy - здоровый

pneumonia - пневмония

lung disease -болезнь легких

heart disease- болезнь сердца

skin - кожа

fortunately - к счастью

to ban - запрещать

to do harm –причинять вред

overeating - переедание

obesity -полнота, ожирение

to lead - вести, приводить

tasty - вкусный

fast food - еда быстрого приготовления

fat - тучный,полный

to believe - считать,полагать

cause - причина

fibre - клетчатка

energy value - энергетическая ценность

to gain weight - набиратьвес

dangerous - опасный

to reduce - уменьшать

to consume - потреблять, съедать

moderate - умеренный

benefit - выгода,польза

to take care of - заботиться

to promote - поддерживать,укреплять

to put down - сокращать(потребление)

to cut down – снижать потребление


2. Read the text№ 2 and check your comprehension.


People nowadays are more health - conscious than they used to be. They understand that good health is above wealth.

To be healthy we should avoid different bad habits that can affect our health. In my opinion, smoking and drinking too much alcohol are the worst ones. It's common knowledge that smoking and drinking can shorten our lives dramatically. Smoking, for example, causes a number of heart and lung diseases as pneumonia, cough and cancer. Besides, it makes your teeth yellow and skin unhealthy.

Smoking and drinking are joined by less dangerous habits such as eating unhealthy food or even overeating. Of course, they are not quite as deadly as smoking or drinking alcohol, but they affect our health.

If we eat much, we'll become obese, and obesity leads to serious diseases. A lot of people like drinking coca cola and coffee and enjoy pizzaz and hamburgers. But what is tasty is not always healthy. Fast food makes you fat,that is why Americans are the fattest people in the world.

In recent years eating habits have undergone a change. People are encouraged to eat less fat and more fibre. Fat is believed to be one of the major causes of obesity and heart disease. Salads, beans and fruit have taken place of steak and ice cream. The fashion for healthy food is growing all the time.

Many people feel they are too fat, even if their doctors disagree. And a lot of people try to improve their fitness. There are a lot of ways to lose weight and avoid gaining it. Perhaps, the most popular of them is following a diet. If you want to lose weight, you should cut out snacks and desserts and cut down on fat. People have also become more aware of calories, the energy value of food. Some people count the number of calories they eat every day, so that they can try to take fewer calories and lose weight. This is called a calorie-controlled diet.

But excessive dieting may be dangerous as well. Some people refuse to eat meat as they consider it harmful. They say a vegetarian diet reduces the risk of cancer and vegetarians live longer than others. I can't with them, because meat is an excellent source of good nutrition.

To my mind, the only way to stay healthy and to keep fit is going in for sports. Among the benefits of regular exercise are a healthier heart, stronger bones, quicker reaction times and less susceptibility to various illnesses. Besides, you can eat and drink as much as you want because you are burning it all off.

To be healthy, it is also very important to spend a lot of time in the open air. It is useful to go for a walk before going to bed or to air the room.

I think it is very important to be fit and healthy, and it is necessary

to take care of your health. Being fat, in fact, can cause real problems. It is harder for fat people to get a good job or even to make friends. If you want to do well, you must be thin. That's why I go in for sports on a regular basis. I have been doing aerobics for three years, and I feel great. I'm not enthusiastic about strict dieting, but I try to eat only low-fat food, fruit and vegetables, which are rich in vitamins.

Personally I believe that regularity in life promotes our health. Sleeping eight or nine hours, getting up early, regular meals, a healthy diet and going in for sports are really a good way to live.


1. What good and bad health habits can people have? 2. In what way do bad habits affect people? 3. Are there any changes in health habits? 4. What is a healthy way of life? 5. What should you do to keep fit? 6. How does sport help you to stay healthy? 7. What are the most popular ways to avoid gaining weight? 8. What is a calorie-controlled diet? 9. What are your healthy habits? 10. What is your personal attitude towards health? 11. Do you have any health problems/ Why do you think you have \don't have them?


Тема 2.3 Проблемы современной молодежи.


1. Read the texts and check your comprehension.


Text 1.«PROBLEMS OF TEENAGERS»


For many people their teenage years are some of the best and worst, the easiest and most difficult years of their lives. They are the years of the change, when young people are between childhood and adulthood. Psychologists say that almost every young person has an experience of conflicts during this period of his life because teenagers are changing quickly.

There are a lot of different temptations around us. It's very easy to become dependent on other people, money, too strong habits, especially bad ones. But it's very difficult to be independent. To be independent means to be responsible for your deeds, to be strong and brave, to have one's own opinion- not an opinion of a crowd.

One of the most important problems of the young people is the problem of «fathers and sons». Teenagers consider themselves independent, they want to have their own private life. Teenagers don't like when parents try to dictate their will, thrust their opinions or foist their own tastes on them. Very often, trying to help their children, parents choose school, university, job and even friends, husbands or wife to them and dont ask their children if they agree with their decision. That is the reason of numerous quarrels between parents and teenagers. Parents can't or don't want to see a person in their child. Mutual understanding between parents and children crushes, it becomes more and more difficult to find common language.

Teenagers in the U.S.A. Move out of their parents' homes, as a rule, after finishing high school. They either go to college and live in dormitories, or find full-time jobs and live in their own apartments. Teenagers have both freedom and responsibility there. In most states they can drive when they are only 16. Many work at part-time jobs after school and on weekends, so they can buy their own cars.

Some teenagers face the problem of their free time. Sometimes young people don't get aware of their interests and devote their time to harmful habits or idling about. Drug-habit is the most dangerous one.There are a lot of reasons, as teenagers think, to use drugs. Many of them make attempts to look like cool guys; other just want to use something new and modern. Elder teenagers may also have problems of unemployment.

Grown- up people should help teenagers in solving their difficult problems unobtrusively and tactfully.


1.What are the teenage years for many people? 2. What do psychologists say about these years? 3. Is it easy to become dependent on anything? 4. What does to be independent mean? 5. What important problems are there in the life of young people? 6. What are the reasons of quarrels between parents and teenagers? 7. Why is sometimes difficult to find common language between them? 8. Why do American young people like to move out of their parents' homes as soon as they graduate from high school? 9. Why do some young people use drugs? 10 How should grown-up people help teenager in solving their problems?


Text 2. «YOUNG PEOPLE — OLD PROBLEMS»


A few years ago alcohol, fights, killing and other kinds of violence were more problems for adults than for young people. Nowadays more and more social problems are associated with youngsters.

Violent crimes are rising in many countries. There are different explanations for this phenomena. The Government surveys show that every fifth teenager who was arrested for criminal actions, was younger than 14. Almost half of teenagers have an experience with drugs and alcohol under age of 16. To buy drugs teenagers need money, so they try to get it by robbing, committing burglary or even murdering people. Another reason of juvenile criminality is the propaganda of violence by mass media and especially by TV and films. Watching TV people are being fed with all kinds of killing, beatings, gunfights and so on. It's not surprising that juvenile crime record is constantly growing. All these things are often combined with family and college problems.

What has gone wrong? Some specialists explain that the changes of our society, the system of our life force young people to choose their own lifestyle. On the one hand, our society agrees that 15-17-year-old people are old enough to be responsible for what they do and give them quite a lot of freedom and rights. On the other hand, most adults think that teenagers are too young to be taken seriously. This misunderstanding produces many problems. Actually, a lot of teenagers say that their parents are quite indifferent to their problems. Many teenagers get upset or depressed when they can't solve their problems. As a result, it makes them believe that there is only one way out — to stop living and commit suicide.

No doubt, young people should feel that they are cared for. Adults should help them to ove rcome difficulties.


1. What social problems are associated with young people nowadays? 2. What are the reasons of juvenile criminality? 3. What do the Government surveys show? 4. What are youngsters ready to do to get drugs? 5. Do you agree that people are shown too much violence on TV? 6. Why is juvenile criminality constantly growing? 7. Do you think that 15-year old people are old enough to be responsible for their actions? 8. Are parents really indifferent to teenagers' problems? 9. Why can young people often get depressed? 10. What is the role of adults in solving teenagers' problems/


2. Translate and remember the following words and phrases.


Teenage years; different temptations; to be independent; responsible for your deeds; opinion of a crowd; private life; to dictate the will; the reason of numerous quarrels; to agree with decisions; mutual understanding; to find common language; responsibility; full-time job; freedom; to face the problem; harmful habits; to get aware; to use drugs; unemployment; grown-up people; idling about.

Violence; violent crimes; to get drugs by robbing; to commit burglary; to murder; on the one hand; on the other hand; misunderstanding; to be cared for; to commit suicide; to get upset; juvenile criminality; to overcome difficulties.


3. Read this dialogue, act it and be ready to express your opinion.


A.: Do you think that the main problem between children and parents is misunderstanding, the so called generation gap?

B.:I think so.

A.: What do you think about its origin? What causes this misunderstanding which makes both sides suffer?

B.:I believe the underlying cause is children's unwillingness to obey.

A.: I'm afraid my opinion differs from yours. I think the root of the problem is the difference in years. Parents are older, they have got accustomed to caring after kids. They do not see children become older every year. On the other hand, quite often there is some sense in their words, but the problem is the modern young people simply do not behave that way. I think that jeans are the right thing to wear to school and to the Philharmonic. But mommy insists on my wearing black trousers. Do you think there are any other reasons?

B.: May it be that parents are too bossy, domineering?

A.: I'm sad to say they often are They want children to do this or that just because they have said so. They don't want to explain and prove -they just issue orders, as if they were officers and we were soldiers. Is it correct?

B. :I don't suppose it is .Still, sometimes adults know better what is good and what is bad.

A. :I'm afraid I don't believe in this. This is just a prejudice. Manny adults did terrible things, like giving children medicines which hadn't been tested properly or infecting children with AIDS. Did they really know what they were doing?

B. :Probably not.

A. :Then how can they say they know better? I think this is one of the causes of the generation gap. Grown -ups don't think that the young are clever enough. But this is not fair ! Why do adults think that a 15- year old genius is sillier than an average 30-year-old person?

B.: Older people have more experience, that's why they can judge.

A. :Is it so? The way of life is different from what it was like twenty years ago. The young are open to it, but the generation of our parents isn't. They even can't learn how to send SMSs! Do they have more experience than we have?

B .:Yet they know people better because they have contacts with more people than teens.

A.: In spite of that they get terrified when we tell them the truth. Many teenagers can't be sincere with their parents because the latter can't stand what children think and believe. Do parents always show readiness to understand and tolerance?

B.: Not always, that's true. But do children do it?

A.: No, not all of them. So this is the problem, isn't it?

B.: To my mind, the problem won't be so serious if both side tried to be tolerant and understanding. I think that parents shouldn't insist on children's doing this or that because they said so. But children as well should listen to what their parents say.

A.:I think it could help a lot.


4. Make a project on this theme.



Тема 2.4 Система образования в России, Великобритании и США.

1. Read the text and check your comprehension:


Every citizen of our country has the right to education. This right is guaranteed by the Constitution. It is ensured by secondary schools, vocational schools and higher educational establishments. It is also ensured by extramural and evening courses and the system of state scholarships and grants.

Secondary education in Russia is compulsory. The stages of compulsory schooling in Russia are: primary education for ages 6-7 to 9-10 and secondary education for ages 10-11 to 16-17.After finishing the 9th form one can go on to a vocational school which offers programs of academic subjects and a program of training in a technical field, or a profession.

If a pupil of a secondary school wishes to continue his education he must stay at school for two more years. Primary and secondary school together comprise 11 years of study. Every school has a «core curriculum» of academic subjects, such as Russian, Literature, Mathematics, History, a foreign language and others. Lyceums and gymnasiums offer programs giving a profound knowledge in some fields of study.

After finishing the 11th form of a secondary school, a lyceum or a gymnasium one can go on a higher education. Higher educational institutions offer a 5-year programme of academic subjects for students in a variety of fields, as well as a post-graduate course. If a person finishes a post-graduate course and writes a thesis, he or she receives the candidate degree, corresponding to the master's degree, or the doctoral degree.

Education in our country is free at all schools. There are some private primary and secondary schools where pupils pay for their studies. Students of universities and colleges get scholarships. At many universities there are also departments where students pay for their education.


1. What does the phrase «the right to education» mean? 2. What is the right to education in Russia ensured by? 3. What are the stages of compulsory schooling in Russia? 4. What programmes of study do different types of school in Russia offer? 5. What is a vocational school? 6. What is necessary for entering a higher educational establishment? 7. What degrees can a person get at a higher educational institution? 8. Do children and people in this country have to pay for education?


2.Read the texts and check your comprehension:

A)British Schools.


Pre-school education in Britain begins at the age of 3 or 4. About half of the children at this age attend nursery schools or playgrounds mostly organized by parents. Little children need care as well as education. That's why kids play a lot, learn to listen attentively and to behave.

Compulsory primary education begins at the age of 5. Children start their school career in an infant school. They are taught «3 Rs»: reading, writing, arithmetics. Pupils have a lot of fun at school, drawing, reading, dancing or singing.

When they are 7 pupils move to a junior school, which lasts four years till they are11.

They study a lot of subjects: English, Maths, Science, History, Geography along with Technology, Music, Art and Physical education. All the children are streamed into A, B, C, D classes. The most gifted attend A stream, the least talented are in D classes.

Most children (over 90 per cent) go to state schools where education is free. Only a small proportion of them attend private (Public) or independent schools where the fees are very high. The most notable private schools are Eton, Harrow, Winchester, Rugby. Such schools are for the representatives of the ruling class.

Secondary education begins at 11. The majority of secondary schools are Comprehensive schools where boys and girls study together. Besides, parents can take their children to Secondary Modern schools or to Grammar schools. Many children of working class families go to Modern schools, which give a very limited education but children get instructions in woodwork, metalwork, sewing, shorthand, typing and cooking there. Grammar schools provide an academic course from 11 to 18. They prepare pupils for colleges and universities. The Comprehensive schools have their own «Grammar schools» classes and «Modern classes».

At about 16 years old teenagers take some exams and course-work to get General Certificate of Education. Those who choose to stay on at school usually study for two more years to pass A level (Advanced level) exams. These exams will give them chance to enter the university.


B) Higher Education in Great Britain.


Young people get higher education at the universities. Not everybody can afford it because it is not free. There are about 50 universities and 350 colleges and institutes of higher education in Great Britain. The oldest and the most famous are Oxford and Cambridge Universities which were founded in the 12th and 13th centuries. They consist of a number of colleges. In Oxford, for example, there are 24 colleges for men, 5 for women and 5 more which have both men and women members. There are more than 30 colleges in Cambridge. Students spend the major part of their university life doing research.

The Tutorial system is one of the ways in which Oxford and Cambridge differ from all other universities. It is the system of individual tuition organized by the college. Each Don in a college is a tutor in his own subject; he has five or six undergraduates and plans the work for them. Besides attending lectures, the student has chosen, once a week he comes to see his Don, who helps him in his study.

After three years of study a university graduate will leave with the Degree of Bachelor of Arts, Science, Engineering, Medicine, etc. After post-graduate courses( two more years) they get the Master's Degree and then a Doctor's Degree.

At present students may receive a grant from their local authority, which covers the cost and some living expenses. Most students live away from home, in flats or halls of residence. For a break of discipline a student can be fined a sum of money, for serious offence he may be expelled. The universities have over a hundred societies and clubs, enough for every interest one could imagine. Sport is a part of students' life at Oxford. The most popular sport is rowing. Many great men studied at Oxford.


1. What are the main types of schooling in Britain? 2. At what ages do British children begin studying? 3. What privileges do Grammar schools give to pupils? 4. What Certificates of Education are children offered after graduation a secondary school? 5. Where can the British get higher education? 6. What are the most famous universities in Britain? 7. What are the Tutorial System? 8. How can students be fined and what for? 9. How do British students spend their free time? 10. What degrees are university graduated offered?


3. Read, translate and remember the following words and phrases.


The right to education; to guarantee; to ensure; primary/secondary/vocational/private schools; high education establishments/ institutions; extramural courses; scholarships; compulsory; inclusive; to offer; academic subjects; to go on in higher education; to comprise; to give a profound knowledge; applicants; to take competitive examinations; as well as; a post-graduate course; a thesis; a candidate/ master's/doctoral degree; to get scholarships.

Pre-school education; to attend nursery schools or play-grounds, to need care; that's why; to learn to listen attentively; to behave; infant schools; junior schools; to be streamed into; private independent schools; representatives of the ruling class; Comprehensive schools; Secondary Modern schools; woodwork; metalwork; sewing; shorthand; take exams and coursework; General Certificate of Education; Advanced level.

To afford; to do research; Tutorial System; tuition; undergraduates; university graduates; Degree of Bachelor of Arts, Science, Engineering; to receive a grant; local authority; living expenses; a break of discipline; to be expelled.


4. Translate the topic into English, using the material studied.


Обязательное обучение в Великобритании начинается в возрасте пяти лет. Дети посещают первую ступень начальной школы(infant school) и обучаются чтению, письму и арифметике. По достижении семи лет дети переходят на вторую ступень начальной школы(junior school) и изучают много учебных предметов, такие как английский язык, математика, история, естественные науки, а также музыку, искусство и др. Большинство школ в Британии государственные, где обучение бесплатное, но есть также и частные(public) школы, например, Итон, Харроу, Винчестер, где плата за обучение очень высокая. Существует несколько типов школ в Англии, такие как общеобразовательные и современные, но только выпускники грамматических школ получают по окончании аттестат» продвинутого уровня», дающий им право поступать в вузы.

В Британии около 50 вузов, но университеты в Оксфорде и Кэмбридже славятся во всем мире. Эти университеты отличаются от других вузов особой системой образования, так называемой «тьюторской» системой. Студенты платят за обучение в вузе, живут в кампусах при вузе, получают стипендию. За серьезные нарушения дисциплины студентов могут оштрафовать и даже исключить из вуза. Ввузахмноговсевозможныхклубовиспортивныхобществ.



5. Translate the texts below in a written form using a dictionary.


A) Schooling in the United States of America


There are two kinds of schools in the United States of America: public schools and private schools. The money for public schools is given by each state, so education in these schools is free. The system of private schools is very popular, though the cost of education in them various and not each family can afford it..

Education in the U.S.A. Is compulsory for children from 6 to 16-18, depending on the state. The general pattern of education is an 8-year elementary school, followed by a 4-year high school. This has been called 8-4 plan organization. There are, however, some variations of this educational pattern. High school is followed by a 4-year college and professional schools.

Pre-schooling is optional. There is a network of nursery schools and day-care centers where children are looked after while their parents are at work.

Elementary schools give the basic knowledge about the world around us and people who live in it. Pupils are taught to count, read and write, to draw, sing and dance.

Secondary schools are usually named high schools and their pupils are called students. Marks given to students for their work are called grades. Pupils get A, B, C, D marks. A- for excellent work, D- for poor work. Students study a wide range of subjects which cover exact, natural sciences and humanities. In some schools students can choose between woodwork, metalwork, sewing, typing, shorthand and others. They join various school bands, chorus, sport clubs and so on.


B.) Higher Education in the U.S.A.


After high school young people either start working or continue in higher education. There are several ways to do it: universities, colleges and technical or vocational schools. The cherished desire of any U.S. School leaver is to enter one of the most prestigious educational establishments in the U.S.A., such as Harvard, Prinston, Yale or Columbia Universities.

A university in the United States usually has several different colleges in it. Each has a special subject area. There may be a college of liberal arts where humanities, social sciences, natural sciences and mathematics are taught. There may be a college of education and a college of business. A programme for undergraduates usually takes four years University students get an undergraduate degree in the arts of science. If they complete a course of study they get Bachelor of Arts or Science degree. Students may leave the university at this time. They may also go on for a graduate or professional degree.

College students usually spend four years in school too. But a college does not have graduate or professional programmes. The technical or vocational school has only job training. It has no academic programme. A course of study may take from six months to two years and more. The technical or vocational school gives training for work in areas such as electronics, carpentry and others.


6. Practise the following words from the text:

to require - требовать

quality - качество

ability - способность

to possess - обладать

creative - творческий

challenge - трудность

responsible - ответственный

skills - навыки

essential - неотъемлемый

logical reasoning - логическое мышление

to cause - вызывать, быть причиной

to deal with - иметьделос

hard-working - трудолюбивый


7. Answer the following questions:


1. Which are the most prestigious professions today? 2 .What professional field can you work in? 3. What are you good at? 4. Which of your personal qualities will help you in your future profession? 5. Would you choose your parents' professions? 6. What do you know about your future profession? 7. What are the pros and cons of your future profession? 8. Why do you think your future profession is important today?


8. Read and translate the text:


Choosing a Profession


Not all young people make the right choice straight off. There are individuals, of course, who from the time they are six years old «know» that they want to be «doctors» or «pilots» or «fire fighters». And there are always some boys and girls who know very well what they are going to do after leaving school.

Because of the wide differences in jobs, you should find out all you can about any job which interests you. You also need to think about how well you can do what you would like to do.

Perhaps the best way to prepare for any job is to get a good education — to do well at school or college, and to learn all you can outside of school. Some people decide to work a few years before entering higher education to have time to think over their decision. As a rule, people who go on to higher education after working have a clear idea of their future profession.

Fortunately, there a lot of people you can turn for advice and help in making your decision. And you can talk over your ideas with family members and friends who are always ready to listen and to help. There are so many different trades and professions today, that it is not easy to decide.


9. Ask as many questions as you can.


10. Translate the following text into Russian in writing using a dictionary:


There are so many types of jobs to choose from. How do you know which careers and jobs are out there for you? You don't want to find yourself doing a job you don't like. You've got plenty of time to explore different opinions and to change your mind. Don't narrow your career scope too early. Instead, pick a general career field, such as office work, computers, or electronics. You can always make specific occupational choice later on.

Self-appraisal is a process of gathering information about yourself. Recognizing your goals, abilities, interests, skills, experience, and education will point you in the right direction. Satisfaction and success on the job will greatly depend on how well your skills and abilities match the job. Some self-appraisal is important to anyone looking for a job, but to a student, a homemaker or someone considering a careers change, self-appraisal is vital.

Everyone possesses hundreds of skills, whether or not use them every day. Almost everything requires some abilities, at home, on the job, or even during leisure time. Although we rarely think about the skills we have, how we use them, or which ones we enjoy the most, all are important to how we plan our careers.

An occupation usually refers to a general area of employment and may include many specific jobs or tasks. You will most likely change jobs many times within an occupation, and you may change occupation during your lifetime. All jobs in the occupation are not alike. You should check further into the occupation — either through reading, talking to a councelor, or better still, talking to someone working at that job.


Тема 2.5 Портреты стран изучаемого языка.


1.Read the text and be ready to check your comrehension.


Text 1».Every country is special. What comes to your mind, when you think of the UK and its people?»


Visitors to Britain are often surprised by the strange behaviour of its inhabitants. The British like forming queues. In fact, queuing is supposed to be their national characteristic. « An Englishman, even if he is alone, forms an orderly queue of one,» joked George Mikes. So one of the mistakes is to get on a bus without waiting your turn in the queue. The British are very sensitive to such behaviour and they may get

really annoyed with queue -jumpers - people who don't wait their turn in the queue.

The British, especially the English, are more reserved than the people of many other countries. They don't like to show their emotions. They usually don't easily get into conversation with strangers. They don't like personal questions. They take more time to make friends. They would like to know you better before they ask you home. Don't be upset if your English friends don't invite you home.

If you are invited to a party, it is considered polite to call and say if you can or cannot come. Most parties are informal these days, so you don't have to worry about what to wear — anything from jeans to suits will do. If you enjoyed the evening, call your hostess the next day, or write her a short «thank you» letter. Perhaps it seems funny, but British people say «thank you» all the time. They say «thank you» even if they give money to a shop assistant.

These days most people in Britain do not wear very formal clothes. But if they are « on duty» they wear a suit. When he is no longer « at work», he can put on an old sweater and jeans, sometimes with holes in them.

In recent years smoking has received a lot of bad publicity, and fewer people now smoke. There is no smoking on the London Underground, in cinemas and theatres and most buses. Non -smokers can be rude to smokers who break the rule and smoke in public places.

Pabs are an important part of British life. People go to the pab to relax, meet friends, and sometimes to do business. Children under the age of 14 are still not allowed into some pabs.

In Britain it is quite common to see people having a snack while walking down the road, especially at lunchtime.

Good and bad manners make up the social rules of a country and are not always easy to learn because they are often not written down in books. The British have an expression for following these «unwritten rules»: When in Rome, do as the Romans do.»


2. Give Russian equivalents for the following words and expressions:


strange behaviour; forming queues; to be sensitive; to get annoyed; queue - jumpers; to wait one's turn in the queue; to show emotions; to get into the conversation with strangers; not to like personal questions; to be upset; to be «on duty»; bad publicity; to be rude to smb; to break the rule; not to be allowed; to make up the social rules; «unwritten rules».


3. Answer the following questions:


1. What is supposed to be the national characteristic of the British?

2. What shows that the British are more reserved than the people from other countries?

3. Why don't you have to worry about what to wear for the party?

4. What can an Englishman put on when he is no longer « at work»?

5. Where do people go to relax?

6. What makes up the social rules of a country?

7. What « unwritten rule» should everybody follow?


4. Read the dialogue, translate it and act.


A.: Have you ever been to Great Britain?

B.: No, I haven't\ Yes, I have.

A. : What cities and places of interest of this country do you know?

B.: London, Cardiff, Edinburgh, Belfast, Bristol, Glasgow, Oxford, Stradford-on-Avon.

A.; Which of them would you like to visit?

B.: I would like to visit London, which is the largest city of Great Britain and its capital. Cardiff, Edinburgh and Belfast are the main cities of the historical regions, and I think they will also be interesting to see. Oxford, a world -famous university centre and a beautiful city, attracts millions of tourists, and I would like to have a chance to walk along its roads.

A.: This sounds like an official visit. Would you like to visit some places for pleasure?

I would like to go to Stradford-on Avon. The city is the birthplace of Shakespear, the greatest British playwright. There are many museums and places connected with the Bard. There is also a museum of teddy-bears in the city. I would like to look at them.

A.: What else would you like to see?

B.: I think I'd visit countryside to see how people live there. I have read about green fields with dozens of sheep all over the place, and I would like to see them with my own eyes.

A.: It will be interesting, of course. But what I am eager to see is Stonehenge, the most famous prehistoric monument. Scientists still argue whether is it an observatory, a temple or something else. It is mysterious! Won't it be worth visiting?

B.: I think it will.

A.: I also would like to taste fish and chips, the traditional English food, curry and other things they eat. Have you ever had the English breakfast?

B.: No, I haven't.\Yes, I have.

A.: Do you think it is worth trying?

B.; I think it is.

A.: Would you like to see the famous English gardens with roses and other flowers?

B.; I think I would..


5. Read the text and translate it in written.


«History of the U.S.A

North America's first setters were people, who came from Asia, using the land bridge between North America and Asia. Later the natural bridge was covered with water, the Bering Strait appeared. So the continents were isolated and the migration stopped. Modern Europeans knew nothing about American continent till XV-th century when Christopher Columbus discovered it.

In 1492 C. Columbus, an Italian sailor, whose life-time dream was to find a new way to India, sailed westwards with three little ships. It was a very difficult voyage but in three months the ships reached and landed on one of the Bahamas islands. Until the end of his life Columbus thought that the islands and the mainland were the part of India. That's why they were called West Indies and the red-skinned natives-»Indians».

In 1497 another Italian seaman Amerigo Vespucchi explored the coast of South America and proved that the land discovered by Columbus was not India but the new continent. The «New World» was decided to name after him -America, the land of Amerigo.

But only at the beginning of the XVII-th century Englishmen established several colonies and called them new England. It happened in 1620 when some English families( about 100 people) left England on board the ship «Mayflower» and sailed to America. From the Atlantic coast colonists gradually penetrated into the depth of the continent. They drove back the native population, took away their lands by force and deception and destroyed them.

The colonists became richer and stronger, but they were ruled by England and paid duty on different things. At the end of the XVII-th century(in 1775) the colonists started the War of Independence. It lasted eight years. In 1776 the Declaration of Independence was written by Thomas Jefferson. Thirteen colonies declared themselves free and independent of England. This day (July, 4) is considered to be the birthday of the American nation.

After the end of the War of Independence in 1783, 16 states were formed and chose George Washington as their first president. At present there are 50 stars on the American flag, symbolizing 50 U.S. States, the stripes represent 13 original states.


6. Read the texts and check your comprehension.


Text 1.» A TRIP FROM SAN FRANCISCO TO NEW YORK»


The U.S.A. Is a country of great differences. There are high mountains and flat prairies in it, tropical heat and arctic cold. To make a trip from San Francisco to New York, you must pass through four time zones, go over three continental mountain ranges, cross hundreds of rivers and lakes, farms and ranches, large cities and small towns. The distance from the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean is more than three thousand miles, (as Paris is from Bagdad).The trip by train takes three days and nights.

In California, where you begin your trip, the climate is usually mild all year. California oranges, grapefruit and lemons, as well as many other fruits and vegetables, are sent all over the United States and to other parts of the world.

Soon the train leaves those green plains and goes up into the Sierra Nevada mountains covered with snow. Here and there you can see clear mountain lakes.

As the train goes east you cross the Salt Lake Desert. For miles and miles you will see nothing but salt and salt. Flat plains covered with short dry grass go for miles and miles. This is sheep and cattle country, the land of the cowboys. From time to time you may see a few cattle on the plain or the wagon of a cowboy, but most of the country is empty.

As train crosses Nebraska, you leave the empty country and enter the rich region of America. Nebraska has many golden wheat fields. In Iowa wheat and corn are important products. After two days the train arrives in Chicago, the second largest city in the United States.

Then you cross Pensylvania and New Jersey — the richest industrial states of the country and at last arrive in New York, the largest city in the U.S.A.


1. In what state does your trip begin? 2. What is the distance between San Francisco and New York? 3. How much does it take you to get from San Francisco and New York by train? 4. What areas must one cross during the trip? 5. What state represents the land of cowboys? 6. Where are wheat and corn the most important plants? 7. What are the richest industrial states? 8. Does one cross any mountains on one's way from the west to the east of America?


Text 2.» ENGLISHMEN AND AMERCANS»


You can often hear of the Englishman's «reserve», how he likes to «keep himself to himself», and how on a long railway journey, with four Englishmen in the carriage, often there won't be a word spoken during the whole journey. That isn't the case in America. The Englishman thinks it is a bad manner to ask personal questions. The American doesn't feel that at all. During a short drive in New York the taxi driver will tell you all about himself, his wife and his family. He will inquire where you have come from, what your job is, how you like America and how long you are staying in New York.

The Englishman prizes privacy, the American prefers sociability. The Englishman's suburban house has its little garden with a hedge or a fence all round it to shut him from his neighbours. The American houses have no hedges or fences separating them from the pavement or from each other. The American in his home doesn't object to being seen by everyone — he actually likes it. And in case someone asks him if he doesn't sometimes like privacy, the American will answer, that if he wants privacy, he goes to bed.

The well — mannered Englishman at table holds and keeps his knife in his right hand, his fork in his left, cuts his meat and presses his vegetables on to his fork. The well- mannered American first cuts up all his meat, then places his knife down on the right of his plate, takes his fork in his right hand and with his fork lifts the food to his mouth. He will have his coffee (generally with cream) half-way through his dinner before the pudding. The Englishman drinks his coffee (usually black) after the dinner. And, of course, Americans are coffee-drinkers rather than tea-drinkers. In Europe there are people who have lived in the same house and have been in the same job twenty, thirty, forty years and who would hate to pull up their roots and change to something new. That's not the American way of life. They love change, theycall it « the spirit of adventure». They like to move away, to change homes and jobs. They throw away old things, having none of the Englishman's sentimental love for things because they are old.

Many Americans are greatly impressed with mere size; to them «bigger» and «better» seem mean the same thing. The Cathedral in New York is the largest Gothic Cathedral in the world; the finger of the Statue of Liberty in New York Harbour is eight feet long and forty people can stand inside its head; the Rockfeller Centre has hanging gardens which are four times the size of the famous hanging gardens of Babylon, one of the Seven Wonders of the ancient world.


1. What is the Englishman's «reserve»? 2. What proof of this trait is given in the text? 3. How is the American's love to talkativeness described in the text? 4. What impress you better: the Englishman's reserve or the American's talkativeness? 5. How can you prove that the Englishman prizes privacy and the American values sociability? 6. What does the American do if he wants privacy? 7. What is the difference in the table manners of the Englishman and the American? 8. What does the American understand by the spirit of adventure? 9. What impresses the American most of all?


7.Read the dialogue, try to enlarge it and act :


A.: Have you ever been to the United States?

B.: No, I haven't/ Yes, I have.

A.: What cities and places of interest of this country do you know?

B.: Washington D.C., New York, Philadelfia, Chicago, Los Angeles, Atlanta, Sacramento, San Francisco and so on.

A.: Which of them would you like to visit?

B.: I would like to visit New York, which is the largest city of the US and its capital. I would like to see Philadelfia and Washington D.C. New York is the biggest and most important city of the country, Washington is its capital. And Philadelfia is a historical city.

A.; This sounds like an official visit. Would you like to visit some places for pleasure/

B.: I would like to go to Washington D.C., because I want to visit the Smithsonian. It is a mall of museums there, I think they are very interesting to visit. I would also like to go to Atlanta, the city described in Gone with the Wind. I believe Chicago is a very interesting place, too.

A.: What else would you like to see?

B.: I think I'd visit the countryside and some small towns to see how people live there. I'd like to see the country with my own eyes.

A.: It will be interesting, of course. But what I am eager to see is the Death Valley. It is a National Park and a very interesting place. Won't it be worth visiting?

B.: I think it will.

A.: I also would like to go to Florida. They say that there are real groves of orange and lemon trees there. And Disneyworld. I think it is the greatest attraction for people of all ages. Have you ever been there?

B.: No, I haven't./Yes, I have.

A.: do you think it is worth going?

B.: I think it is.

A.: Would you like to see the famous sky scrapers?

B.: I think I would.


8.Read the text and check your comprehension:


Australia is the only country in the world that is also a continent. It is the six the large country and the smallest continent. Australia lies between the South Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean. The name of the country comes from Latin word «australis» which means southern. The country's official name is Commonwealth of Australia.

The Australian Flag consists of a blue background with the Union Jack in its top left corner. The Union Jack represents the historical link with Britain. The large seven pointed star represents the six States and the two Territories. The smaller stars form the Southern Cross.

The northern part of Australia is not far from Equator, the middle part is crossed by the Southern tropics. Australia's seasons are the opposite of the northern hemisphere — summer starts in December, autumn in March, winter in June and spring in September.

Australia's climate is generally pleasant. Average summer temperature in January is +30C in the northern part, and +20C in the southern part. In winter(July) the average temperature is +20C in the northern part and +10C in the southern part.

Australia has six states: New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria land Western Australia. Each state has its government. Australia has two territories — the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory. The capital of the country is Canberra.

Tasmania, the island south of Australia, is small. It is the size as England. There are no deserts in Tasmania. A large part of the island is covered with beautiful wild forests.

The Northern Territory is the red heart of Australia. It is really red, with red rocks, red sand, and red skies in the evening.

New South Wales has Blue Mountains. They are covered with forests of blue coloured eucalyptus trees. The air above the forest contains millions of microscopic drops of eucalyptus oil. When the sun shines, the air of the Blue Mountains is a real, beautiful blue.

Australia is a constitutional monarchy like Great Britain. The British monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, is also queen of Australia and country's head of state. But the queen has little power in the Australian government. She serves mainly as a symbol of long historical ties between Great Britain and Australia. Australia is a member of Commonwealth of Nations.

Australia is sometimes called «the lucky country». One reason is the wonderful riches under earth: gold, silver, iron, coal and many precious metals. It is one of the world's developed countries. It has modern factories, highly productive mines and farms, and busy cities.


1. What represents the historical link with Britain on the Australian flag? 2. What oceans does Australia lie between? 3. What does the word «australis» mean? 4. What peculiarities are in Australian's climate? 5. Why is the Northern Territory the red heart of Australia? 6. Why do they call Australia «the land of Blue Mountains»? 7. Why does the queen have little power in the Australian government? 8. IsAustralia «theluckycountry»? Why?


Тема 2.6 Праздники и традиции в Великобритании и России.


1. Practise the following words from the text:

to define-определять

unique-уникальный

to link-связывать

Changing of the Guard-сменакараула

Ceremony of the Keys-церемонияпередачиключей

Trooping the Color-выносзнамени

common-общий

belief-вера, убеждение

to burn straw scarecrow-сжигатьсоломенноечучело

bonfire-большой костер

long-standing tradition-длительная традиция

to welcome-приветствовать

essential part of our life-существеннаячастьнашейжизни

to join different generations together-объединятьразныепоколения


2. Read the text and check your comprehension:


«Traditions in Our Life»


What is a tradition? I think traditions are a way of defining who people are, that's why it is very important that traditions do survive in the country. Take Great Britain, for instance. It is a unique country because it has a link with quite ancient traditions. Traditional uniforms are still preserved in Great Britain. There are also a lot of traditional ceremonies such as the Changing of the Guard at Buckingham Palace, Trooping the Color, which is performed on the Queen's official birthday, or the Ceremony of the Keys, that takes place every night at the Tower of London. The British people are proud of their traditions and carefully keep them up.

People all over the world traditionally celebrate such common holidays as Easter, Christmas or New Year. But of course, each country has its own traditional holidays connected with its history. So we may say that tradition is the passing down of the beliefs, practices and customs from the past to the present.

Russia is also a country of great traditions. For example, Russian people traditionally mark the end of winter and the beginning of spring by burning straw scarecrows of winter on bonfires and eating pancakes with honey or sour cream. This long-standing tradition is still alive in many places in Russia.

There are a lot of traditions in our everyday lives, for example celebrating birthdays, holidays and traditional wedding ceremonies. The family meal is another tradition that we should try to keep up in our everyday life. In my opinion family meals reflect a country's culture and traditions. Besides, it's a good way to bring the family together and a good chance for parents and children to talk.

The oldest universities, like Oxford and Cambridge, are world-famous for their traditional practices, which have stood for hundreds of years. Student life is quite modern there, but traditions are kept and the students are proud of them.

To sum up, I think traditions are something that people keep doing for a long time. They are an essential part of our life because they join different generations together.


1. What is a tradition? 2. What traditions in Britain do you know? 3. Why do British people keep their traditions? 4. What traditions are common for all countries? 5. What traditions in Russia do you know? 6. What traditions are kept in your family? 7. What traditions in everyday life do you know? 8. Why are traditions an essential part of our life?


New words:

holly-остролист

Cenotaph- Сенотаф( обелиск в память погибших во время Первой мировой войны)

wreath-венок

poppy -мак

mourning-скорбь, траур


3.a)Read the text:


Most public holidays in the United Kingdom are also known as «Bank Holidays». These holidays are: New Year's Day(January 1st), Good Friday, Easter Monday, May Day(first Monday in May), Spring Bank Holiday(last Monday in May), August Bank Holiday(last Monday in August), Christmas Day(December 25th), Boxing Day (December 26th).

The Scots do not usually celebrate Good Friday or Boxing Day. In winter they concentrate instead on Hogmanay, their version of New Year's the Eve and New Year's Day. Scotland has also a number of its own festivals, celebrating the birthday of their national poet Burns (January 25th) and their national saint on Andrew's Day, November 30th.

Northern Ireland has several additional holidays of its own, namely, St Patrick's Day (March 17th) and Orange Day ( July 12th).

At Easter the British celebrate the idea of the new birth by giving each other chocolate Easter eggs, which are opened and eaten on Easter Sunday. On Good Friday bakers sell hot cross buns, which are toasted and eaten with butter. Egg-rolling is a traditional Easter pastime. It consists of rolling colored, hard-boiled eggs down a slope until they are cracked and broken after which they are eaten by their owners.

If you try to catch a train on the 24th of December you may have difficulty in finding a seat. This is the day when many people are travelling home to be with their families on Christmas Day, December 25th. On the Sunday before Christmas many churches hold a carol service where special hymns are sung. Most families decorate their houses with brightly-colored paper or holly, and they usually have a Christmas tree in the corner of the front room. Family members wrap up their gifts and leave them at the bottom of the Christmas tree to be found on Christmas morning. Children leave a long sock or stocking at the end of their bed on Christmas Eve, December 24th, hoping that Father Christmas will come down the chimney during the night and bring them presents. They are usually not disappointed.

At midnight on December 31st(Hogmanay) throughout Great Britain people celebrate the coming of the New Year, by holding hands in a large circle and singing» For Auld Lang Syne». This line means « in memory of past times» and the words were written by Scotland's most famous poet Robert Burns. It is not clear where the word «hogmanay» comes from, but it is connected with the provision of food and drink for all visitors to your home on December 31st. It is luck if the person brings a piece of coal and some bread. There is much dancing and singing until the early hours of the morning on New Year's Day.

February 14th is the traditional day for lovers. There was a strong belief that on this day birds choose their mates. There used to be a custom in England: the names of young unmarried men and girls were mixed up and drawn out by chance. The person of opposite sex whose name came put after yours was your chosen «Valentine» for the year. On this day you can send cards to anyone you like or even people you don't like.

Rememberance Day is observed throughout Britain in commemoration of the million or more British soldiers, sailors and airmen who lost their lives during the two World Wars. On that day special services are held in the churches. Great number of people gather at London's Cenotaph to observe the two- minute silence and to perform the annual Rememberance Day ceremony. When the two- minute silence is over, members of the Royal Family, political leaders come forward to lay wreaths at the foot of the Cenotaph. On that day artificial poppies, a symbol of mourning, are sold in the streets and people wear them in their buttonholes.


b) Give Russian equivalents for the following words and expressions:


to concentrate on smth; hot cross buns; to be toasted; traditional pastime; to be cracked and broken; to hold a carol service; to wrap up gifts; to be not disappointed; to be connected with smth; to be lucky; to be mixed up; commemoration; to lay wreaths; artificial poppies; a symbol of mourning.


c) Answer these questions:


1.What do the Scots celebrate instead Good Friday or Boxing Day? 2. What idea do the British celebrate at Easter? 3. What is a traditional Easter pastime? 4. Why is it difficult to find a seat in a train on the 24th of December? 5. Why do people leave their gifts at the bottom of the Christmas tree? 6. What song do people sing holding hands in a large circle at midnight on December 31st? 7. What is the origin of the word «hogmanay»? 8. Why do great number of people gather at London's Cenotaph? 9. What do people wear in their buttonholes on that day?


4.a) Practise the following words from the text:

Easter-Пасха

Country Defendant's Day-ДеньзащитникаОтечества

to devote-посвящать

to defend -защищать

Orthodox-православный

movable holiday-переходящий праздник

Day of Spring and Labour-Деньвесныитруда

participation-участие

anniversary-годовщина

Independence Day-Деньнезависимости

the Day of Reconciliation and Harmony-Деньсогласияипримирения

the Day of the National Unity-Деньнародногоединства


b) Read the text:


Every country has its own national holidays, but there are holidays that are common for many countries. People all over the world know New Year's Day, Christmas and Easter. In Russia New Year's Day is the most popular holiday.

New Year's Day is a family event in Russia. People begin to prepare for this holiday beforehand. There is a great air of expectation. People decorate their New Year trees with tinsel, various baubles and colored lights. They usually put their presents under the tree. When the Kremlin clock strikes 12, they see the New Year in.

There are dates and events in our country that are memorable to Russian people. They are the Victory Day, the Women's Day, the Day of Spring and Labour, the Independence Day, the Country Defendant's Day, the Constitution Day, Maslenitsa . Besides, there are many professional days in our country: Teacher's Day, Doctor's Day, etc.

Christmas in Russia is celebrated on January 7th. It is celebrated with all-night services in churches. The Country Defendant's Day is celebrated on February 23rd. This holiday is devoted to soldiers and officers and everyone else who defended the country or is in the Army. The Mother's Day is celebrated on March 8th.It is a day off. Men and boys try to please their mothers, sisters and wives by giving presents and flowers.

Maslenitsa marks the end of winter and the beginning of spring. During this festival people make pancakes, sing and dance traditional songs and visit each other. Maslenitsa and Easter are movable holidays. Easter is the main Orthodox festival. People color eggs and enjoy traditional Russian dishes. Churches hold special services on this day.

The Day of Spring and Labour is celebrated on May 1st. On this day people prefer to go outdoors and take part in all kinds of outdoors activities. The Victory day is celebrated on May 9th. It celebrates the end of the Soviet Union's participation in World War II in Europe. People put flowers at the tombs of the soldiers who were killed during the war. The main ceremony is held in Moscow. People lay flowers in Moscow's Victory Park and at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier.

The Independence Day is celebrated on June 12th. On this day Russia became independent country after the break up of the Soviet Union in 1991. This is an official holiday. Some years ago people in Russia celebrated the Day of Reconciliation and Harmony on November 7th. Nowadays they celebrate the Day of National Unity on November 7th. It is an official holiday and a day off.


c) Answer these questions:


1.What holidays are common for many countries? 2.What is the most popular holiday in Russia? 3.What professional holidays in Russia do you know? 4. How is New Year celebrated in your family/ 5. How and when is Christmas celebrated in Russia? 6. What is your favourite holiday? 7. How do you celebrate it?


5. Read this dialogue and act it:


A. :Do you think that Great Britain is the country of traditions?

B.: Sure. There are a lot of traditions and customs in Britain. I've just read a book about British traditions, and I'd like to tell you about some of them. Have you heard about the Trooping of the Color?

A.: No, and what is it?

B.: The Queen of Britain was born on the 21st of April. But officially she celebrates her birthday on the second Saturday in June. This ceremony is called the Trooping of the Color. It's a big parade with brass bands and hundreds of soldiers at Horse Guards' Parade in London. At the front of the parade there is the flag or «color».

A.: Oh, it's very interesting. And I know about the other tradition — Swan-Upping. There are a lot of beautiful swans on the Thames belonging to the King or Queen. In July the young swans are about two months old. Then the Queen's swan keeper goes in a boat from London Bridge to Henley. He looks at all the young swans and marks the royal ones. The name of this custom is Swan-Upping.

B.; Yes, I can name some other traditions and customs in Britain, such as Highland Games, the State Opening of Parliament, Up-Helly-Aa and others. All of them are very interesting and picturesque.


Тема 2.7. Досуг.


1. Practise the following words from the text:

leisure- досуг, свободное время

variety- разнообразие

to keep fit- быть в хорошей форме

to increase - увеличивать

to jog- бегать трусцой

recreation centre- оздоровительный центр

indoor pool-крытый бассейн

high-risk activity -деятельность, связанная с опасностью

spectator- болельщик

couch potato-телеман

to swich on- включать

to race- состязаться

in the heart of hearts- вглубинедуши

to deliver-разносить

hitchhiking-путешествие автостопом

addict-имеющий пристрастие к чему-либо

self-discipline-самодисциплина

to bring up-воспитывать

personality-личность

nobility-благородство

will-сила воли


2. Read the text and check your comprehension:


«Leisure Activities of British and Russian Teenagers»


Britain has in recent years been described as a «leisure society». This is because there is a great variety of leisure pursuits. Young people generally go out on Friday or Saturday nights to a disco, to a concert or to a pub. In recent years going out for a meal or bringing a takeaway meal have become popular too.

During the last years there is a great increase in keeping fit and staying healthy. A lot of teens started running, jogging and going to different fitness clubs in their spare time. Aerobics classes and fitness clubs opened in every town, and the number of recreation centers greatly increased. Indoor pools have become very popular. And the same is in Russia. A lot of teens go in for different kinds of sports. Sport helps them to feel as fit as a fiddle. In both countries there are special programmes for problem teenagers such as a high- risk activity, for example they are taught to jump out of aeroplanes . But despite the increase in the number of teens participating in sports, the majority of young people still prefer to be spectators. They prefer to be couch potatoes. Watching sports on TV is a popular leisure activity, as is going to football matches on Saturday.

A young generation is found of communication. There are many available methods of communication nowadays, and the most popular one is a computer. A lot of teenagers spend plenty of time working on the computers. The Internet seems really a good fun. You may send e-mail to friends from different countries and get their answers at once. You even may talk to them. It is easy and quick. A lot of teenagers have mobile telephones so they can always be contacted if they keep their telephones switched on at any time of the day or night.

A lot of teenagers in both countries are crazy about animals .They race them, train them and breed them. Many teens have a pet animal. It could be a dog, a cat, a goldfish, a bird or a small animal like a hamster. Looking after and being kind to their pets is very important for teens. Why are the teens so interested in animals? Perhaps it's because they are rather shy in their heart of hearts. One of my friends says:» I like my dog, because she never thinks I'm silly».

There are plenty of other activities such as travelling, visiting historic places, putting together jigsaw puzzles, hitchhiking. Going to different museums and others. We can say, «So many teens, so many kinds of activities».

Well, some words about me. I am seventeen and I am a computer addict. I am fond of communication with other teens. That's why I have a lot of friends in my country and other ones. We send messages from one computer to another one using e-mail, we have online conversations. And I think that my hobby will be useful in my future profession. Besides I spend my free time in a sports club. I go in for kung fu. This fighting itself is a great art, the result of many years of hard work and self-discipline. I'm rather good at kung fu now, but I never use my skills to hurt anybody, unless it is absolutely necessary. Now people know what kung fu is, and I think it may become a sport of future because it brings up your personality, will and nobility.


1. Why is there a great increase in fitness clubs? 2. Why do teens go in for sports? 3. Are you a couch potato? 4. Why is a young generation fond of communication? 5. what methods of communication do you know? 6. Why can people say, «So many teens, so many kinds of activities»? 7. What kind of activity do you prefer? Why? 8. What do you know about kung fu?


3. Work in groups. Read one of the extracts from the book Watching the English.

The hidden rules of English behaviour by Kate Fox and say what the most popular pastimes of the English are. Choose a title for the extract you’ve read.

  1. Reading rules

  2. Rules of the game

  3. Pet rules and “petiquette”

  4. Television rules

  5. Cyberspace rules

A We do watch quite a lot of television — the national average is about three to three and a half hours a day — but television cannot be said to be killing the art of conversation. In the same survey, 97 per cent of respondents had also entertained or visited friends or relations in the past months. I am also always somewhat skeptical about television viewing figures, ever since I was involved in a research project in which a team of psychologists installed video cameras in ordinary people’s sitting rooms to monitor how much television they watched and how they behaved while watching. The subjects all filled in forms every day, saying what programmers they had seen and estimating how much of each programmers they had actually watched.

The differences between their estimates and the reality showed that when people tell a survey researcher that they spent an evening, or an hour, “watching television”, it is more than likely that they were doing no such thing. What they often mean is that they had the television on while they chatted with family or friends, played with the dog, read the newspaper, squabbled over the remote, gossiped on the telephone, cut their toenails, nagged their spouse, cooked and ate supper, did the ironing and hoovering, shouted at their children, fell asleep and so on, perhaps occasionally only glancing at the television screen during that period.

B I would add that reading books ranks as even more popular than DIY and gardening in national surveys ofleisure activity, and over 80 per cent of us regularly read a daily newspaper. Our passion for word games and verbal puzzles is well known, but it is also worth noting that every one of the non-verbal hobbies and pastimes that occupy our leisure time — such as fishing, stamp collecting, trainspotting, birdwatching, walking, doing sports, keeping pets, flower arranging, knitting and pigeon fancying — has at least one, if not many more specialist magazines devoted to it. The more popular hobbies each have at least half a dozen dedicated weekly or monthly publications, as well as umpteen internet sites, and we often spend much more time reading about our favourite pastime than we do practising it.

C In recent times, the English have found a new and perfect excuse to stay at home, pull up the imaginary drawbridge and avoid the traumas of face-to-face social interaction: the internet, e-mail, chatrooms, surfing, messaging — the whole thing could have been invented for the insular, socially handicapped, word-loving English. In cyberspace, we are in our element: a world of disembodied words. No need to worry about what to wear, whether to make eye contact, whether to shake hands or kiss cheeks or just smile. No awkward pauses or embarrassing starts; no need to fill uncomfortable silences with weather-speak; no polite procrastinating or tea-making or other displacement activity; no need for the usual prolonged goodbyes. Nothing physical, no actual corporeal human beings to deal with at all. Just written words. Our favourite thing.

D Keeping pets, for the English, is not so much a leisure activity as an entire way of life. In fact, “keeping pets” is an inaccurate and inadequate expression — it does not begin to convey the exalted status of our animals. An Englishman’s home may be his castle, but his dog is the real king. People in other countries may buy luxurios five-star kennels and silk-lined baskets for their pets, but we, the English, let them take over the whole house. The unwritten rules allow our dogs and cats to sprawl all over our sofas and chairs, always hogging the best places in front of the fire or television.

E It’s no accident that almost all of the most popular sports and games played around the world today originated in England. Football, baseball, rugby and tennis were all invented here, and even when we did not actually invent a sport or game, the English were usually the first to lay down a proper, English were usually the first to lay down a proper, official set of rules for it (hockey, horseracing, polo, swimming, rowing, boxing — and even skilling, for heaven’s sake). And that’s not counting all the rather less athletic games and pastimes such as darts, pool, billiards, cards, cribbage and skittles. And let’s not forget hunting, shooting and fishing.

4. Read the extracts again the answers. According to the text:

1 Watching television

  1. is a good entertainment.

  2. does not prevent people from talking to each other.

  3. is better in the company of friends.

2. The survey showed that

a) people watch less television than they think they do.

b) people watch less television than they think they do.

c) people practically don’t watch television at all.

3 The English

  1. like reading as much as DIY and gardening.

  2. buy lots of different magazines.

  3. prefer reading about their favourite pastimes to doing them.

4 The word ‘it’ in the part about pets refers to

  1. a leisure activity.

  2. a way of life.

  3. an expression.

5 The verb ‘sprawl’ in the text about pets describes a way of

  1. sleeping.

  2. lying.

  3. eating.

6 Pets in Britain

  1. are allowed to do whatever they like in their homes.

  2. are less important than people.

  3. are very lazy.

7 The English

  1. invented most of the games played in the world today.

  2. made up rules for most of the games played in the world today.

  3. are very sporty.

8 The author of the texts

  1. is irritated by the habits of the English.

  2. cannot understand English habits.

  3. is humorous when writing about the habits of the English.


5.Read the text and be ready to speak about your own hobby.


«MY HOBBY»


Hobby is an occupation which is not a business done for money. In English hobby is something done during one's leisure time for rest and pleasure. That's why hobbies are so different — all people are different. The English say, «so many men, so many minds» and «tastes differ». These proverbs mean that every man has his or her own likes or dislikes, so, he or she gets pleasure from doing different things.

I think, all hobbies can be entertaining and useful if you do it with wish and pleasure, otherwise it is just a waste of time. There are many kinds of hobbies.

One of the most popular hobbies is collecting. People can collect everything. The most popular items are postcards, stamps, coins and stickers. I myself collect coins. They can tell you a lot about other countries. There are some British coins in my collection. One of the items is a threepence. 20 pence coin has 7 sides and a picture of the crowned rose, which is the symbol of Great Britain. On a five pence coin one can see a blooming thistle, which is the symbol of Scotland.

I also enjoy playing computer games and chess. This can be a good hobby. Such hobby isn't good for your health, but they develop thinking.

I'm not as fond of gardening as my granny is but since I spend much time with her,especially in summer, I may say that gardening is something I do in my free time.

One more popular hobby which I enjoy as well is reading. When you read you learn a lot about the world around you, about other people, history and life of other peoples.People are different and they like different types of literature. I personally like science fiction and historical novels.

I think that a person's hobby characterizes the hobbyst . Paraphrasing the famous saying, we can say» Tell me what your hobby is, and I'll tell you who you are».


6. Read the dialogue and make up your own one.


A.: What do you do in your free time?

B.:I usually read or watch a film. When the weather is good, I also walk And you?

A.: Me too. I also like to listen to music. But I have little free time. Do you have much free time?

B. :Not very much.

A.: Do you have a hobby? What is your hobby?

B.: Yes, I have. It is gardening./No, haven't.

A.:I have a hobby. It takes much time, but I find it very interesting and exciting. I collect stamps. Have you ever collected stamps?

B.: Yes, I have/No, I haven't.

A.:I collect stamps connected with nature. I think it is very interesting. Do you know that stamps are issued for every important event?

B.: No, I don't.

A.: So in my free time I exchange stamps with other collectors or read about stamps. But I also enjoy walking with my friends. Do you like to be with your friends?

B.: Yes, I do , but we don't meet often.

A.:I meet most of my friends every day because they study in my group. But some of my friends live far away. I meet then only when I am on holidays and come to my grandparents. So when I have some free time, I write letters to them. Do you often write letters?

B.: Not quite .

A.; Do you like to play computer games?

B.: Yes, I do./No, I don't. And you?

A.: Oh, I do. When I have enough time, I usually play some shooting game. It's a pityI don't have time to play computer games every day, but to pass a level can takr an hour or more, so I play only at week-ends. I also visit the theatre at week-ends sometimes. So my leisure activities are different.

B.: Mine are different, too.


7. Make a mini-project about your hobby.


Тема 2.8 Защита окружающей среды.


1. Practise the following words from the text:

protection - защита

environmental - экологический

vital necessity - жизненнаянеобходимость

danger - опасность

shortage - недостаток, нехватка

pollution - загрязнение

source - источник

poisonous - ядовитый

to dump - выбрасывать

waste - отходы

to contain - содержать

variety - разнообразие

to include - включать

to exist - существовать

species - вид(ы)

supply - запас

scare - дефицитный, скудный

to remain - оставаться

for the sake -ради

harmful substances - вредныевещества

huge -огромный

to emit - выбрасывать

increase - увеличение

to cause - вызывать

acid rain - кислотныйдождь

to affect - влиять

emissions - выбросы

disastrous consequences - катастрофическиепоследствия

exhaust fumes -выхлопныегазы

alarming - тревожный

admissible level -допустимыйуровень

ozone layer - озоновыйслой

toprotect - защищать

urgent - неотложный, срочный

safety - безопасность

to endanger - угрожать

disaster - катастрофа

destruction - разрушение

to lead - привести


2. Read and translate these word combinations:


to become a vital necessity for all people, to be in danger, the shortage of clean water, industrial pollution, the illegal dumping of waste in rivers, rare species, massive industrial waste, he supply of clean water, the concentration of harmful substances, the most urgent ecological problem today, destruction of tropical forests.




3. Read the text№ 1


«ENVIRONMENTAL - PROBLEMS»


Environmental problems have become exceptionally acute in the modern world and environmental protection has become a vital necessity for all people.

Our planet is in serious danger. One of the most important environmental problems in the world today is the shortage of clean water. Industrial pollution has made sources of water undrinkable. Rivers, lakes and even seas have become poisonous. Thousands of fish die every year as a result of the illegal dumping of waste in rivers by factories all over the world.

Lake Baikal is one of the world's largest and most beautiful lakes. It contains a rich variety of fish and plants, including 1,300 rare species that do not exist anywhere in the world. However, they are being killed by the massive industrial waste, which some factories still pour into lake every day. A few years ago people thought that the supply of clean water was limitless. Now clean water is scarce, and we are beginning to respect this precious resource. We must protect the clean water that remains for the sake of our children and grandchildren.

Air pollution is another important problem. In hundreds of cities and towns the concentration of harmful substances in the air is over ten times the admissible level. Every day a huge number of plants and factories emit lots of harmful substances into the atmosphere of big cities. The great increase in the use of motor cars in the last quarter of the 20-th century has caused an increase in a new kind of air pollution. Pollution from factories and cars poisons the air we breath and is the main reason for the greenhouse effect and acid rains.

The acid rain can damage life in lakes and rivers and destroy forests. Greenhouse effect may also have disastrous consequences for our planet. It is already affecting areas of the world with unusual weather causing droughts or heavy storms. The world's temperature is going up and the climate is changing. Cutting down on emissions from large plants and exhaust fumes from vehicles could help solve the problem. I think we should try and use alternative energy such as solar energy and wind energy, and design plants and cars that run on electricity, a much cleaner fuel than petrol.

One of the most alarming environmental problems is depletion of the ozone layer, which protects the Earth from the dangerous ultraviolet rays of the sun. Because of the ozone holes the dangerous rays get through the atmosphere, causing skin cancer and other serious diseases. Many scientists think that these ozone holes are the result of air pollution.

In my opinion, the most urgent ecological problem today is the environmental safety of nuclear power stations. Nuclear pollution can't be seen but its effects can be terrible. We all know how tragic the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster are. Nuclear waste also endangers people's life. People all over the world protest against nuclear tests and nuclear weapons. If we do not take any action, the possibility of a global nuclear disaster is very real.

Of course, we can't help mentioning such burning issues as destruction of tropical forests and wildlife, overpopulation and shortage of natural resources. The list of serious problems could be continued

In short, people have destroyed our environment by building huge cities and power stations, developing industries, cutting down trees and excavating mountains. In pursuit of new inventions and discoveries, as well as higher and higher profits, man has forgotten about nature, and it has led him to the edge of ecological catastrophe. Ignorance about ecology may lead to further destruction of nature and worsen living conditions for all living beings.


4 Answer the following questions:


1. Why is our planet in serious danger? 2. What ecological problems are urgent now? 3. What is the influence of pollution on people's health? 4. What is happening to our forests? 5. What are the consequences of nuclear disasters? 6. Was life better a hundred years ago? Why do you think so? 7. What ecological problems exist in your home place? 8. How can we save our planet? 9. What can you personally do to help our ecology?


5. Read the text № 2 and check your comprehension:


«PROTECTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT»

The Earth is our home. We must take care of it, for ourselves and for the next generations. What should be done to keep our environment clean?

There is much that we can do. Factories can clean their smoke. Cars and planes can be done so that they do not pollute the air. The dirty water from the factories and sewage can be made clean again.

Our beautiful planet must be covered with forests because trees supply us with oxygen, necessary for our life. So we must take control of cutting down forests and trees. We must plant again where we have cut.

It is not necessary to throw away things we do not want or cannot use any more. We can recycle most of them. Old newspapers can become new papers. Making newspapers from «old» paper uses from 30 to 55 per cent less energy than making paper from trees; and it reduces air pollution by 95 per cent.

Old glass and plastic jars and bottles can become new glass and plastic. Old iron can help us to make new cars and refrigerators. Making aluminium from recycled aluminium uses 90 per cent less energy than making aluminium from scratch. The energy saved from one recycled aluminium can will operate a television set for three hours. Don't throw your old batteries in the trash. Toxic chemicals in batteries can be released into the environment, especially when they are burned.

We must also learn not to litter. Litter is not only ugly, but it can be harmful to wildlife. Small animals can get hurt on sharp cans or broken bottles. Pick up litter you see as you are walking.

Save water. Check all the faucets in your house. Remember, that a leaky faucet can waste about twelve thousand litres of water a year. And a leaky toilet can waste eighty thousand litres of water year. That's enough to fill up a swimming pool.

Turn out lights and appliances when you are not using them. The electric company burns coal to produce the energy that keeps your lights on. That burning coal gives off gases that cause the greenhouse effect and acid rains. Turn off the lights when you leave the room, and the lights that you don't need.

For a long time people didn't think of the future of the Earth. But nowadays both children and grow-ups must take care of it.


1. What can we do to keep our environment clean? 2. What supplies us with oxygen, necessary for life? 3.Why must people plant new trees at the places of cutting down the forests? 4. What can be done with unnecessary things? 5. Why should you save save newspapers for recycling? 6. Why should you not throw your old batteries in the trash? 7. Is it necessary to pick up litter and why? 8. How much water can a leaky faucet waste a year? 9. What causes greenhouse effect and acid rains? 10. What is the result of the fact that people didn't think of the future of the Earth?


6.Listen to the story and choose the best options.


1. The campaigners wanted the restaurant

a) to stop selling ice cream.

b) to collect the litter.

c) to redesign the plastic containers.


2. Hedgehogs got into containers because

a) they wanted to find a place to live.

b) the were looking for food.

c) the wanted to hide in containers.


3. Hedgehogs died because

a) it was very hot in the containers/

b) the ice cream was bad for them.

c) they got stuck and couldn’t get out.


4. The new redesigned containers have

a) a smaller hole.

b) a bigger hole.

c) the same hole as in the old ones.


5. The restaurant is going to

a) warn people not to throw out litter carelessly.

b) make people collect their litter themselves.

c) treat the hedgehogs who got themselves into danger.


7. Read the interview and put the events in the correct order.

1. Kelly found a job in a factory.

2. Kelly found a job in a laundry of a hotel.

3. Kelly s neighbours moved out.

4. Kelly moved to a flat on a main road.

5. Kelly decided to leave the country.

6. Kelly moved to a block of flats.

INTERVIEW

Journalist: Today we’re focusing on the problem of noise – noise at home and noise at work. Medical experts agree that there are definite links between noise and stress level… the noisier the environment, the more stress you are likely to experience. And it’s even worse when a person has to live and work in noisy environment. This is Kelly Emerson’s problem…

Kelly:… the first place I lived in when I moved here was really terrible. It was on a main road… and I was used to living in the country. There were lots of cars and lorries passing by the front door every day and night. Because of this I decided to move, but things got much worse…

Journalist: Kelly moved from her house on the main road to a block of flats. It was next to a park, so it should have been quieter, but it wasn’t.

Kelly: …the problem in the next place was the neighbours… the people directly upstairs from me. They played music all night long and got very annoyed when I asked them to stop. The police used to come round two or three times a week, but they only stopped for a few minutes and then set off again even louder. I mean… the problem for me was that there was no break. It was noisy where I lived and noisy where I worked.

Journalist:Kelly was working in a laundry of a hotel, the only job that she could find when she left school, and decided at the same time to move away from her home town. She was advised to look for a job in a quieter environment.

Kelly: … it was very well telling me to get a quieter job. If you’ve got qualifications, you can do what you like. If you’re not qualified, you’ve got to take what you can get. Anyway, I did what the doctor told me…I left the laundry and went to work in a factory. It was bringing in less money, but it was quieter.

Journalist: Kelly was lucky enough to move to a really modern factory where the work involved assembling car stereos. The change she experienced was remarkable.

Kelly: I used to feel a pain in my back and my shoulders while I was working in the laundry. I didn’t realize it was stress. After a week at the factory, I really felt much better. I suddenly noticed that the pain had gone. Then I started feeling more energetic and I didn’t feel so tired at the end of the day.I mean… the difference was quite incredible.

Journalist: But there was still the problem of the noisy neighbours. Fortunately for Kelly, a change was about to take place.

Kelly: My neighbours moved out. It’s much quieter now. The new people in the flat upstairs make less noise than I do. They’re so quiet. I think the must tiptoe everywhere. When I think about the way things were, the contrast is incredible. There’s really no comparison.


8. Read the dialogue and act it :


-What do you think is the most important environmental issue nowadays?

-Well, in my opinion the most serious ecological problem today is the shortage of clean water.

-Why? Don't we have enough water on our planet?

-My answer is «yes» and «no» .On the one hand, there is a lot of water on our planet. It is in oceans, rivers, seas and lakes. But on the other hand, very little water on Earth is good for drinking.

-Really? Why?

-Because rivers and lakes are polluted by factories and farms.

-Is there any solution to this problem?

-Of course, there is, but it requires cooperation of all people.

-So, what exactly can we do to improve the quality of water?

-First of all, we can ban pouring industrial waste into rivers and lakes. Besides, we can install different purifying systems.

-I am with you there. Fresh water is very important for human beings. But we shouldn't forget about the ocean.

-I completely agree with you. Because the ocean gives us food, energy and minerals.

-You are right, but today the ocean also needs help because ships dump toxic waste, tankers leak and spill oil and boaters throw trash overboard.

-The situation may sound hopeless, but I'm sure we can do something about it.

-Yes, of course. For example, we can protect birds and marine life.

-But how can we do it?

-First, we mustn't throw plastic bags or bottles in or near the water, because sea birds whales and other sea animals often mistakes plastic things for food and die. Besides, we can take part in beach clean up projects.

-I can't but agree with you. And I want to add that people should understand that their activities can affect oceans and seas.

-Exactly! People should understand that all water usually flows into seas and oceans, so what they do inland can affect marine life.

-I agree with you, but first of all we must learn more about the state of the ocean and what can be done to improve it.

-You are absolutely right!


9 . Prepare a mini – project( poster, leaflet) on this topic.


Тема 2.9 Выдающиеся ученые и их открытия.


1 Practise the following words from the text:

scientist - ученый

scientific - научный

to retain - хранить

remarkable - замечательный

degree - степень

danger - опасность

plague - чума

discovery - открытие

differentialcalculuses - дифференциальные исчисления

gravitation - гравитация

to influence - влиять

rainbow - радуга

to govern - управлять

by degrees — постепенно

motion - движение


2. Read and translate these word combinations:


the greatest scientist, took his degree, made great discoveries, the law of gravitation, course of thought, course of science, problem of light, the forces of gravitation, scientific discovery, motion of the earth.


3. Read and translate the text:


«Newton»

(1642-1727)

Newton one of the greatest scientists of all time, was born on the 25th of December, 1642, at the little village of Woolsthorpe in Lincolnshire. His father was a farmer and had died before Newton was born. His mother was a clever woman for whom Newton retained a great love all his life.

Newton's school-days were not remarkable. He studied mathematics at Cambridge and took his degree there in 1665. Then the University was closed because of the danger of plague and Newton went home for a period of eighteen months, which was the most important period, for during that time Newton, between the ages of 22 and 24, made his three great discoveries-the discovery of the differential calculuses, of the nature of white light, and of the law of gravitation.

These three great discoveries, which have changed the course of thought, have also influenced the course of science from that day until our days.

Newton had always been interested in the problem of light. Most people have seen the colours of the rainbow reflected in a drop of dew but it was Newton who, by his experiments, showed that white light is made up of these different colours.

It is interesting how the idea which led to the discovery of the laws governing the forces of gravitation first came to him. Once, as he sat in his garden the fall of the

apple made him think: why must that apple always descend perpendicularly to the ground? Why must it not go sidewards or upwards, but usually, to the earth's centre? Certainly, the reason is that the earth draws it. An apple falling was not an unusual event, but only Newton drew from his sight the inspiration and particular demonstration which led to a great scientific discovery. By degrees he began to apply this property of gravitation to the motion of the earth and the heavenly bodies round the sun.

Newton died when he was 84, and was buried in Westminster Abbey, where his monument is today.


4. Answer the following questions:


1.When and where was Newton born?

2. Newton's school-days were not remarkable, were they?

3. Where did he study mathematics?

4. What period was the most important in his life? Why?

5. Have these three great discoveries influenced the course of science from that day until our days?

6. What problem had Newton always been interested in?

7. Where was Newton buried?


5. Agree or disagree with these statements and correct when it is necessary:


1. Newton’s father was a worker and had died before Newton was born.

2. He took his degree at Cambridge in 1675.

3. Between the ages of 22 and 24 Newton made his three great discoveries: the discovery of the differential calculuses, of the nature of electricity and of the law of gravitation.

4. Newton had always been interested in the problem of light.

5. Newton by his experiments showed that white light is made up of 5 different colors.

6. Newton discovered the law of gravitation sitting in his apple garden.


6 Make up a dialogue about Newton’s life and discoveries.


7. Practise the following words from the text:

wire – провод

current – ток

coil of the wire - катушкаизпроволоки

blacksmith – кузнец

miners' safety - lamp- шахтерскаябезопаснаялампочка

chemist – химик

bytwistingwireroundabarofiron- путем наматывания провода вокруг металлического стержня

through - через

to generate - вырабатывать

dynamo - динамо

to provide - обеспечивать

steam train - паровоз

oil - lamps -керосиновыелампы


8. Read and translate the text:


«Michael Faraday»

(1791-1867)

One day in 1821 a young scientist was experimenting in his laboratory with some wire and a magnet. Placing the magnet in a small coil of the wire, he passed an electric current through the coil. Suddenly the coil began to turn round.

That was the first electric motor, the model of all the powerful motors that drive the machinery in our factories today. The young scientist was Michael Faraday, the son of a blacksmith, born in 1791. For several years he was laboratory assistant to Sir Humphry Davy, the great English chemist, inventor of the miners' safety-lamp. Faraday's earliest discoveries and experiments were in the field of chemistry, but electricity was always his main interest.

About 1821 he began experimenting in electricity. At that time many scientists were trying to discover how magnetism and electricity were related. It was known that a magnet could be made by twisting wire round a bar of iron and passing an electric current through the wire. Ampere, the famous French scientist, showed by his experiments that an electric current could produce the same effects as a magnet.

Faraday wanted to answer the following question: if an electric current can produce magnetism, cannot a magnet produce an electric current?

After many years of hard work he was able to show that when a magnet is placed near a coil of wire it makes an electric current flow for a moment through the wire. He also discovered that when an electric current is passed through one of two parallel wires it makes another electric current flow for a moment in the other wire. On the ground of those discoveries, he built a machine which generated a continuous electric current and called it a 'dynamo'. That was the model of the great dynamos that provide light and heat for our cities today and produce electric current to drive our electric trains 'and machinery of every kind. Yet, while Faraday was making his discoveries the first steam trains were running in England and most people were using oil-lamps to light their homes.

Year after year Faraday experimented in electricity discovering many of the laws of electricity and magnetism. He died on the 25th of August, 1867.


9. Answer the following questions:


1. What was the young scientist's name experimenting in his laboratory with some wire and a magnet?

2. What did he do with them?

3. Electricity was always Faraday's main interest, wasn't it?

4. Did Ampere or Humphry Davy show by the experiment that an electric current could produce the same effect as a magnet?

5. What question did Faraday want to answer?

6. What did he also discover?

7. Did Faraday experiment in electricity or chemistry discovering many of the laws?


10. Find and write down the international words from this text.


11. Retell the text.


12. Practise the following words from the text:

throughout - повсюду

to take out- братьпатент

patent - патент

contribution [,kontri'bju:∫(ə)n] вкладвнауку

improvement [im'pru:vməntJ улучшение, усовершенствование

to appreciate [a'pri:∫ieit] ценить

efficient [i'fi∫(ə)nt] действенный, эффективный, продуктивный

durable['djuərəbl]длительный, прочный

large-scale[skeil] широкомасштабный

distribution [,distri'bju:∫(ə)n] распространение

to carry out [‘kæri] выполнять

wide-spread [waid'spred] широкораспространенный

self-taught [to:t] самоучка

todisplay[dis'plei] показывать, проявлять, обнаруживать

intense[in'tens] напяженный, сильный, интенсивный

curiosity[,kjuəri'ositi] любопытство

capacity[kə'pæsiti] способность

cellar ['selə] погреб, подвал

toovercome[ouvəkΛm] преодолеть

lackнедостаток, отсутствие

todispose[dis'pəuz] располагать, распоряжаться

workshop['wə:kſop] мастерская, цех

genius - гениальность, одаренность

profound[prə'faund] глубокий

to head - возглавлять

to enrich [in'rit∫] обогащать

humanity [hju:'mæniti] человечество


13. Read and translate the text:


«Thomas Alva Edison»

(1847-1931)

The name of Thomas Alva Edison is widely known throughout the world. In his fifty years and more of invention he took over a thousand patents but perhaps the most famous ofall his contributions was the improvement of the electric lamp. Thus, highly appreciating Lodygin's invention, Edison went further and worked out a more efficient incandescent filament lamp that was durable, cheap and suitable for the large-scale production. It is also owing to Edison that an efficient system of electric light distribution was carried out, due to which the wide-spread use of this lamp became possible.

Edison was a self-taught man, his schooling being limited to three months in a public school. In spite of this, from early childhood he displayed an intense curiosity as well as a great capacity for work and study. He began to experiment at the age of ten or eleven. Instead of a laboratory he used the cellar of his parents' house.

Later on, Edison had to overcome many more difficulties because of the lack of money and assistance. Many years had passed before he could dispose of laboratories and workshops of his own. Thanks to his native genius, his capacity for work (for months he slept no more than one or two hours a day) and the profound study he made of every problem he worked at, he headed technical research in his country and enriched humanity with his numerous inventions.


14. Read and translate these word combinations from English into Russian:


to appreciate, durable, distribution, to display, capacity, to overcome, genius, to enrich, in spite of, instead of, because of, for the sake of, thanks to, owing to, by means of, in connection with, in addition to.


15 .Answer the following questions:


1. Who was Thomas Alva Edison?

2. What may be considered as the most famous of Edison's conclusions?

3. Who invented the incandescent filament lamp?

4. Who improved the incandescent filament lamp?

5. At what age did he begin to experiment?

6. What did he use as a laboratory?

7. Did he have to overcome many difficulties because of the lack of money and assistance?

8. How many patents did he take out for his inventions?



16 .Translate paying attention to the compound prepositions:


  1. In spite of his lack of schooling Edison was one of the greatest inventors of his time.

  2. Owing to his remarkable capacity for work he perfected his knowledge in various fields of engineering.

  1. Edison lost his hearing because of a railroad accident.

  1. He communicated with other people by means of a special device of his own invention.

  2. The widespread use of the incandescent filament lamp could become possible only in connection with and thanks to the development of an effective system of electric light distribution.

  3. Studying a problem, Edison made numerous experiments and in addition to that read much on the subject.

  4. When a child, Edison had to use bottles instead of special glassware for his experiments in chemistry.


17. Fill in the gaps with set expressions:


to take interest (in); to make use (of); to play a part (in); to take part (in); to find application (in).


Translate:

    1. Edison………..in most technical problems of his time.

    2. Some of his inventions ...... in the production of the modern sound film.

    3. He ...... of his father’s cellar for his experiments.

    4. Hundreds of people………..in the research work carried out in his laboratories.

    5. Most of his inventions………….in industry and everyday life.


18. Practise the following words from the text:

inventor – изобретатель

invention - изобретение

to remain – оставаться

fortune – судьба, фортуна

although - хотя

mankind – человечество

to improve - улучшать

mining - угледобыча

weapon [wepən]- оружие

to injure – ранить, калечить

to avoid - избегать

to deserve [di‘zə:v] - заслуживать

fame - слава

explosives [iks’plouzivs] - взрывчатка

skilful - умелый

to search for - искать

generous - щедрый

outstanding – выдающийся

however - однако


19. Read and translate these word combinations:


To make a fortune, to remain an idealist, a lover of mankind, a weapon, of war, to invent dynamite, to avoid publicity, to make a strong position, to search for a meaning to life, to care deeply.


20. Read and translate the text:


«Alfred Nobel»

(1833-1896)

Alfred Nobel, the great Swedish inventor and industrialist, was a man of many contrasts. He was a scientist with a love of literature, and industrialist who managed to remain an idealist. He made a fortune but lived a simple life, and although cheerful in company he was often sad in private. A lover of mankind, he never had a wife or family to love him; a patriotic son of his native land, he died alone on foreign soil. He invented a new explosive, dynamite, to improve the peacetime industries of mining and road building, but saw it used as a weapon of war to kill and injure his fellow men. During his useful life he often felt he was useless. “Alfred Nobel, he once wrote of himself, “ought to have been put to death by a kind doctor as soon as, with a cry, he entered life. “World-famous for his works he was never personally well known, for throughout his life he avoided publicity. “I do not see”, he once said, “that I have deserved any fame and I have no taste for it”. But since his death, his name has brought fame and glory to others. He was born in Stockholm on October 21, 1833 but moved to Russia with his parents in 1842, where his father made a strong position for himself in the engineering industry. Most of the family returned to Sweden in 1859, where Alfred rejoined them in 1863, beginning his own study of explosives in his father’s laboratory. He had never been to school or university but had studied privately and by the time he was twenty was a skillful chemist and excellent linguist, speaking Swedish, Russian, German, French and English. Alfred Nobel was imaginative and inventive. He was quick to see industrial openings for his scientific inventions and built up over 80 companies. in 20 different countries. Indeed his greatness lay in his outstanding ability to combine the qualities of in original scientist with those of a forward-looking industrialist.

But Nobel’s main concern was never with making money or even with making scientific discoveries. Seldom happy, he was always searching for a meaning to life, and from his youth he had taken a serious interest in literature and philosophy. Perhaps because he could not find ordinary human love he never married - he came to care deeply about the whole of mankind. He was always generous to the poor, “I’ d rather take care of the stomachs of the living than the glory of the dead in the form of stone memorials”, he once said. His greatest wish, however, was to see an end to wars, and thus peace between nations, and he spent much time and money working for this cause until his death in Italy in 1896. His famous will, in which he left money to provide prizes for outstanding work in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology, Medicine, Literature and Peace, is a memorial to his interests and ideals.


21. Answer the following questions:


1 When and where was Alfred Nobel born?

2 What was his father?

3 Alfred Nobel made a fortune but lived a simple life, didn’t he?

4 What did he invent a new explosive, dynamite for?

5 Was he quick to see industrial openings for his scientific inventions?

6 Where did his greatness lie?

7 Was Nobel’s main concern with making money or seaching for a meaning to life?

8 What was his greatest wish?

9 What are Nobel prizes given for?

22. Read this statement and comment on it:


Scientific discovery and scientific knowledge have been achieved only by those who have gone in pursuit of it without any practical purpose”. Max Planck.


23. Be ready to discuss Alfred Nobel’ biography in pairs.


24. Read the text below to learn about


«INVENTORS AND THEIR INVENTIONS»

New inventions appear every day to make our lives easier, longer, warmer, faster, and so on. But only a few inventors design a new machine or product that becomes so well known that the invention, named after its creator becomes a househould world. Here are ten famous inventors and the inventions that are named after them:

1. Ladislao Biro, Hungarian artist who immigrated to Argentina. In about 1943 he invented the ball-point pen or biro.

2. John Bowler, a London hatter who designed the hard round hat known as the bowler in about 1850.It has become the symbol of British male respectability. And you can still see businessmen wearing bowlers in the City, the center of London's commerce.

3. Louis Braille (1809-1852), born in Couvray, France. He became blind as a child. In 1824 he developed his own alphabet patterns known as Braille by which the blind could read by touch, based on a French army officer's invention for reading messagers in the dark.

4. Samuel Colt(1814-1862), an American gunsmith. He designed a pistol, patented in 1836 , with a revolving barrel that could fire six bullets, one after another. The Colt was the first of its kind. Many «six-shooters» came later.

5. Rudolf Diesel(1882-1945), a German engineer who invented the diesel engine in 1897 and so began a trasnport revolution in cars, lorries and trains.

6. Hans Wilhelm Geiger(1882-1945), a German nuclear physicist. From 1906-1909 he designed a counter for detecting radioactivity. This was the beginning of modern geiger counters.

7. Charles Macintosh(1766-1843), a Manchester textile chemist who,in 1823, developed a rubber solution for coating fabrics which led to the production of waterproof raincoats or mackintoshes.

8. Samuel Finley Breeze Morse (1791-1872), an American portrait painter who invented the telegraphic dot-dash alphabet known as Morse code

9. Louis Pasteur(1822-1895),a Frenchman who was both a chemist and a biologist. Pasteurization is a method of sterilizing milk by heating it.

10. Charles Rolls, a car salesman who with the engineer Henry Royce created the world-famous Rolls-Royce car.


25. Give a short summary of the text.


26. Practise the following words from the text:


public figure- общественный деятель

to develop - разрабатывать

hydrogen bomb - водородная бомба

to come to a conclusion -прийти к заключению, сделать вывод

atomic and nuclear weapon - атомноеиядерноеоружие

to ban - запрещать

human rights - правачеловека

to defend - защищать

to award - награждать,to deprive - лишать чего- либо

jail - тюрьма

to exile - ссылать

to allow - позволять, разрешать

representative - представитель

ti inspire - вдочновлять

to foresee - предвидеть

humankind - человечество


27. Read the text and check your comprehension:


« ANDREI SAKHAROV»


Andrei Dmitrievich Sakhаrov, an outstanding scientist and public figure, was born on the 21-st of May, 1921, into the family of teachers. He graduated from Moscow University in 1942.In 1947 he defended his thesis for the degree of Candidate of Science. In 1953 he defended his Doctorate thesis and was elected member of the Academy of Sciences.

Sakhаrov played a decisive role in developing the Soviet hydrogen bomb. While working on the bomb he came to the conclusion that any atomic and nuclear weapons should be banned.

In 1966 he took part in his first human rights demonstration. He fought courageously for human rights in the former USSR and in 1975 he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.

His international repute as a scientist kept him out of jail, but in 1980 he was deprived of all his titles and orders and exiled to the city of Gorky. In Gorky he continued to work for peace, justice and human rights.

It was Mikhail Gorbachev who helped A.Sakharov to return to Moscow. He was given back all his titles and three years later he was elected deputy of the Supreme Soviet.

Sakharov died in 1989.He is remembered by everybody as an outstanding scientist and humanist, one of the best representatives of humankind who could teach and inspire and who foresaw the changes that are taking place now.


28. Answer the following questions:


1.When was Andrei Sakharov born? 2. What were his parents? 3. What university did he graduate from? When? 4. What is Sakharov famous for as a scientist? 5. When did he defend his Doctorate thesis? 6. What conclusions did he come to while working on the bomb? 7. When did he take part in his first human rights demonstration? 8. What kind of prize did he receive? 9. Why was he exiled to Gorky? 10. Who helped him to come back to Moscow?11. Why is Sakharov known all over the world?


29. What do you know about the Nobel Prize? Can you think of any winners? What work did these people win the prize for?


30. Read the information about Russian Nobel prizewinners. Are thesestatements true(T) or false (F)?


1. The Nobel Prize is awarded annually.

2. Ilya Mechnikov is the only Russian who has won the Nobel Prize for medicine.

3. Pavlov's work promoted the development of psychology.

4. Pyotr Kapitza was the only physicist to be awarded the Nobel Prize in 1978.

5. The Nobel Peace Prize has been awarded annually since 1901.

6. Two Russians have been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.


31. Read and translate the text to get more information about:


«RUSSIAN NOBEL PRIZEWINNERS»


Every year, six Nobel prizes are awarded for outstanding work in science, literature, economics and the promotion of peace. This international prize was founded by the Swedish scientist Alfred Nobel, who invented dynamite and built up companies and laboratories in countries all over the world.

Many Russians have been nominated for the Nobel Prize since it started in 1901 and 19 of them have received the Nobel Prize for their outstanding contribution, particularly in the field of physics, but also in other areas.

The first Russian Nobel winner for medicine (1904) was Ivan Pavlov. He made many remarkable discoveries about blood circulation and the central nervous system and he discovered the conditioned reflex through his research on the digestive system. His experiments on dogs had a great impact on behavioural psychology.

Mikhail Sholokhov, the outstanding 20-th century Russian writer, wrote and published a number of short stories while completing his most famous work AND QUIET FLOWS the DON, which took him fourteen years to finish. He was

awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1965.

In 1978 , Russian physicist Pyotr Kapitza shared the Nobel Prize in physics for his work on magnetism and low-temperature physics. He founded the Institute for Physical Problems in Moscow, and he was the oldest scientist ever to win the award.

The Nobel Peace Prize has been awarded over the years to individuals and organizations that work actively for peace and greater understanding. It has been awarded to Russian physicist and civil rights campaigner Andrei Sakharov( 1975) and to Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev (1990).


32. Complete the sentences with one of the words below. Use each word once only.


Shared, awarded, followed, became, won


1.Russian writer Ivan Bunin wrote The Gentleman from San Francisco, which ---him a Nobel Prize in 1933.

2. In 1964, Russian physicists Nikolay Basov and Alexander Prokhorov ---the Nobel Prize in Physics with Charles Townes of the USA.

3. Many of the Alexander Solzhenitsyn's works are autobiographical; he was ---the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1970.

4. Nikolay Semyonov made a great conribution to the study of chemical chain reactions, and in 1956 he ---the first Russian to gain the Nobel Prize for Chemistry.

5. Russian poet and novelist, Boris Pasternak, is also known for his translations of Shakespeare's tragedies; in 1957 he wrote the novel Dr Zhivago, which was ---by a Nobel Prize.


Тема 2.10 Научно - технический прогресс в современном обществе.


1. Practise the following words from the text:

scientific and technological developmentsдостижениянаукиитехники

to drastically change the life –резкоизменитьжизнь

a view of –взглядна

the Universe - Вселенная

to be closely related –бытьтесносвязанным

nuclear power –атомнаяэнергия

a space flight –космическийполет

an application of scientific knowledge and principles - применениенаучныхзнанийипринципов

an advance in pure science –прогрессвчистойнауке

to create new opportunities for –создатьновыевозможностидля

tosatisfyneedsanddesires - для удовлетворения нужд и потребностей

to alter the environment –изменитьокружающуюсреду

to improve one's life throughout human history –навсемпротяженииисториичеловечества

to look at smith in a narrower sense –посмотретьначто-либовболееузкомсмысле

industrial technology development of power-driven machines –промышленнаятехнологияразвитияпаровыхмашин

according to one estimate – пооднойоценки

increasedscientificactivity – возросшаянаучнаяактивность, деятельность

to build on the work of scientists – основыватьсянанаучныхработах

earlyexperiments – ранние эксперименты

electricallighting – электрическое освещение

to carry on an investigation – проводитьисследование

electricbulb – электрическая лампочка

aresearchlaboratory – исследовательская лаборатория

moderntechnologicalresearch – современноенаучно-техническоеисследование


2. Read and translate the text:


«Science and Technology»


In recent years, scientific and technological developments have drastically changed life on our planet as well as our views both of ourselves as individuals in society and of the Universe as a whole.

Today, science and technology are closely related. Many modern technologies such as nuclear power and space flights depend on science and the application of scientific knowledge and principles.

Each advance in pure science creates new opportunities for the development of new ways of making things to be used in daily life. In turn, technology provides science with new and more accurate instruments for its investigation and research.

Technology refers to the ways in which people use discoveries to satisfy needs and desire, to alter the environment, to improve their lives. Throughout human history, men and women have invented tools, machines, materials and techniques, to make their lives easier.

Of course, when we speak of technology today, we are looking at it in a much narrower sense. Generally, we mean industrial technology, or the technology that began about 200 years ago with the development of power-driven machines, growth of the factory system, and mass production of goods that has created the basis for our modern society. Today we often say that we live in an age of science and technology. According to one estimate, 90 % of all the scientists who ever lived, were alive and active in the 1970-s. This increased scientific activity has brought new ideas, processes, and inventions in ever-growing amount.

The scientific revolution that began, in the 16th century was the firsttime that science and technology began to work together. Thus, Galileo, who made revolutionary discoveries in astronomy and physics, also built an improved telescope and patented a system of lifting water. However, it was not until the 19th century that technology truly was based on science and inventors began to build on the work of scientists. For example, Thomas Edison built on the early experiments of Faraday and Henry in his invention of the first practical system of electrical lighting. So too, Edison carried on his investigations until he found the carbon filament for the electric bulb in a research laboratory. This was the first true modern technological research

In a sense, the history of science and technology is the history of all humankind.


3 .Answer the questions:


1. What role has scientific and technological development played in man's life?

2. What proves that science and technology are closely related today?

3. What does the term “technology” refer to?

4. What does the term “industrial technology” mean?

5. How is scientific activity in the 1970-ies estimated?

6. What facts prove that the scientific revolution of the 16th century was the first time that science and technology began to work together?


4. Give a short summary of the text.


5. Make up a dialogue using the questions and answers to them from the task 3.


6. Read and remember these words:


integrated circuit –интегральнаясхема

missile - ракета

annihilation - уничтожение

to thrust - толкать, подталкивать


7. Read the text and check your comprehension:


«What Do You Think of Science? Do Science and Technology Do More Good Than Harm, More Harm than Good, or DO SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY About Equal?»


Modern technology is rapidly spreading all over the earth. Scientists, researchers, engineers and designers are eager to emulate the material achievements and living standards of the industrially advanced countries. One can hardly imagine our present day life without such trivial gadgets as can-openers, food processors, air conditioners or vacuum cleaners. Every office is equipped with PC, an answer -phone, a fax machine and a photocopier. Every teenager is able to use a remote control unit, a video recorder, a camera or a Walkman.

I'm absolutely sure that all these things make our life more exciting, save a lot of time and help to avoid health problems. For example, most of my friends have a microwave in the kitchen. We use it almost every day without realizing how considerably it revolutionized the way food is cooked both at home and within food industry. Although it met with the disapproval of many top chefs, when invented, it is becoming an increasingly common sight in many restaurant kitchens. Its greatest advantage is a huge reduction of time needed to prepare a dish. Secondly, it's easy to clean and high temperatures minimize the risk of infection. It's also a great time -saver for those who don't wish to waste their time sweating over a hot cooker or use cancer causing fats when frying

When Charles Babbage (1792-1871), a professor of mathematics at Cambridge University invented the first calculating machine in 1812 he could hardly have imagined the situation we find ourselves today. In fact, the Pcs are being used in almost every field today for the simple reason that they are more efficient than human beings, doing 500,000 sums in a fraction of a second. They can pay wages, reserve seats on planes, control sputniks in space, work out tomorrow's weather, play chess and compose music. They even help police fight crime, saving the detective from checking the information, identifying the fingerprints or making a photorobot. It's needless to say that speed there is very essential.

Moreover, scientists predict that virtual reality will soon be a part and parcel of life. This amazing thing allows us to experience another dimensions. It is not quite as immediate as the real world, but it is startling and experts say that in a few years every home will be

using a VRset. I must say that it is already used in Japan to sell kitchens. Instead of renting huge displays, companies can do with one small office. In fact there are countless applications for VR. Say, children will be taken to visit castles of the past and medical students will be able to practice without using real people.

However, as the technologies advance people inevitably face various problems. This certainly causes a good deal of disenchantment among the specialist and consumers. For example, when nuclear power was discovered everybody thought it to be a clean and cheap alternative to burning coal, fuel and natural gas. This seemed to be solving the problem of air pollution, wasted lands and health hazards. The future looked rosy. But when the first nuclear reactor in Sellafield caught fire it released a radioactive waste in the air. Animals died, people developed skin complaints, and abnormal babies were born.

George Bernard Shaw used to say that maximum of opportunities is always combined with maximum of temptation. This saying can be fully applied to technical progress. It was really very tempting to grow enough food and save crops with the help of pesticides and fertilizers. But years later humanity had to recognize such horrifying consequences as damaged ground and water supplies, dead soil and even genetic changes. Nowadays people tend to grow ecologically clean food and use natural fertilizers.

Chemical industry undoubtedly brought new medicine, sprays, pills and medications, but alongside with these caused acid rain, that is gradually killing forests and lakes. Over 50 per cent of Germany trees have died and a quarter of Sweden's lakes is acidified.

But it is my sincere belief that people will be able to cope with all the ecological problems. Nowadays people are getting more and more concerned about the future of our beautiful planet. Chemical plants install filters on the industrial stacks. Research is going into renewable sources of energy: wind, water and sun. Many countries have adopted the laws for the new cars to run on unleaded petrol. Scientists are intelligent enough to recognize the risks of computer or VR -addiction, genetic manipulation and ozone layer damage, waste and the necessity of recycling.


8. Choose the right answer.


1.One can hardly imagine our present day life without

a) crime

b) travelling round the world

c) modern amenities

d) family


2. Modern facilities make our life

a) boring

b) difficult

c) unhealthy

d) exciting


3. The Pcs are used

a) only by researchers

b) in special labs

c) privately

d) in almost every field today


4.Nowadays people tend

a) to grow cheap food

b) to use pesticides in agriculture

c) to grow ecologically clean food

d) to use synthetic minerals


5.Today people are getting more and more concerned about

a) the relations between people

b) travelling to other planets

c) buing computers

d)the future of our planet


9. Do you agree or not? Comment on the following statements:

1. Modern technology is rapidly spreading all over the world.

2. One can easily imagine the life today without any home gadgets.

3. Pcs are less efficient than human beings.

4. Scientists predict that virtual reality will be soon a part of life.

5. The development of science brings only progress.

6. The discovery of the nuclear power was a great progress of science. It does not have any negative sides.

7. Science and technology should be used only in peaceful purposes.


10. A High – Tech Life.


1. Some pieces of technology are more important for us than others.

What piece of technology couldn’t people below live without? Why are they important for these people?


I couldn’t live without my computer at home.I use it all the time. It is like a typewriter and address book for me and it is also used for checking my spelling. Besides I can go on the Internet and discover everything about anything, it’s a brilliant source of information. I’ve designed my own website and I’m getting loads of information for school. You can play and learn on it. It is absolutely essential. I don’t know how I ever managed without it. But my elder sister thinks people are getting a bit too dependent on computers. She thinks that we rely on them too much. My sister says, “You can’t rely on all the information, you don’t know who it has been written by or where it’s coming from. To be dependent on anything, especially a lifeless machine, that can quite easily break down, is not good. Besides computers shouldn’t replace seeing your friends.”Kate

I couldn’t possibly live without my car.Convenience seems to be the most common and most logical answer: cars take you where you want to go and when you want to go there. I can travel freely and comfortably wherever I want. Besides it allows me to live where I want as I can easily get to the place I need with the help of the car. Besides a car is a way of self – expression.I really hate to be without it. I think a car is a necessity rather than a luxury. But my wife thinks there are too many cars in our cities. It’s necessary to give thought to problems caused by cars. Pollution, accidents and so on. My wife prefers to go to work using intercity transportation system. But I prefer to use my car. It suits me. John

I couldn’t imagine my life without my phone or I should say phones because I’ve got a mobile, too. I need a telephone to get in touch with my friends or to call the police or an ambulance. It is almost impossible for me to live without me phones. At home I have a cordless telephone, I think it saves time when you have a receiver just at hand. But my mum says that mobiles are dangerous for health. The rays mat cause headaches and even more dangerous diseases. I don’t believe her. For me my telephones are really invaluable. Ann


11. Are the statements below true or false?

1. Kate uses her PC for typing and keeping information.

2. Kate uses her computer to get information from the Internet.

3. Kate’s sister thinks it’s not clever to believe all facts stored on the Internet.

4. Kate’s sister considers electronic devices not reliable.

5. John doesn’t like his car but he needs it.

6. John’s wife most probably goes to work by bus than by car.

7. John doesn’t like the situation when he can’t use his car for going shopping.

8. John’s wife spends less time to get to her work when she walks than when she goes by car.

9. Ann doesn’t agree to have one phone.

10. Ann’s and her mum’s opinions about the phone are different.

11. Ann’s mum thinks that telephones are more trouble than profit.

12. There are some problems with computers, cars and telephones.


12. Read the text and answer the following questions:


«FUTURE ROBOTS»


What role will robots have in our future? Will they only be functional, or will they be our personal companions? Computer scientists in Japan and the USA now believe that robots will be friends and helpers like C-3PO and R2-D2 in the film Star Wars. Helen Greiner, of the company Robot, says they are good for jobs that are «dull, dirty, and dangerous».

Others believe robots will some day be a part of everyday life. Katsumi Muto of Sony thinks that elderly Japanese people might need mechanical careers. His company has developed Aibo, a robot dog, and Qrio a humanoid, which can walk and play music. Robots like this will help make people's lives easier, by cleaning the house or delivering the mail, but they will not require care like the family pet.

Scientists see the next step is making robots that can feel and show emotions. The Massachusets Institute of Technology has built a robot called Kismet, which can move its eyes and show expressions. One day, people are likely to accept robots into daily life, as helpers and companions like the family dog, which they can love.



1. How are robots supposed to be used in the future?

2. Why are robots better companions than dogs, according to the text?

3. Why can people look forward to the time when robots will be accepted into daily life?

4. Would you like to have a robot companion? Why?/ Why not?

5. How could robots be most useful in daily life? Why do you think so?



Тема 2.11 Средства массовой информации и информационные технологии.


1.Practicethefollowingwordsfromthetext:

massmedia - средствамассовойинформации

source - источник

toinclude - включать

way of life –образжизни

to improve - улучшать

knowledge - знания

opportunity - возможность

to include - включать

the only way –единственныйспособ

variety - разнообразие

event - событие

to educate - обучать

current affairs –текущиесобытия

quality paper -серьезнаягазета

article - статья

according to –всоответствии

to contain - содержать

to depend on –зависетьот

to consider - считать

to receive - получать

to exchange -обмениваться

in search of –впоисках

majority - большинство

to consider -считать

taste - вкус

available - доступный

opinion - мнение

news -sheet -листовка

profound - глубокий, основательный

preceding - предшествующий

portability - портативность


2. Read the text and check your comprehension:


«LEARNING ABOUT the WORLD THROUGH the MASS MEDIA»


Mass media or mass communications are the press, radio, television and the Internet. Mass media are one of the most characteristic features of modern civilization.

Nowadays there so many newspapers and magazines, radio stations and TV channels that we have to be very selective and give preference to some of them. The earliest kind of mass media was newspaper. The first newspaper was Roman handwritten news -sheet called «Acta Diurna» started in 59 B.C. Newspapers are usually issued daily, weekly, or at other regular time. They provide news, views, features, and other information of public interest and often carry advertising. Magazines appeared in 1700s. They do not focus on daily, rapidly changing events. They provide more profound analysis of events of preceding week. There are specialized magazines for special business, industrial and professional groups and others. Children's magazines contain stories, jokes, articles on subjects especially interesting for children. Radio and TV appeared later.

The most exciting and entertaining kind of mass media is television. It brings moving pictures and sounds directly to people's homes. So one can see events just sitting in his or her chair at home. The name «television» comes from Greek word meaning «far» and a Latin word meaning « to see», so the word «television» mans «to see far».

There are public and commercial stations on TV. Commercial stations sell advertising time to pay for their operating costs and to make profit. Commercial stations broadcast mostly entertainment programs to attract larger numbers of viewers. These programs include light dramas, shows dancers and singers, movies quiz shows, soap operas, cartoons. They also include documentaries and talk shows. Public television focuses mainly on education and culture. Public television also broadcasts plays, ballets, symphonies as well as programs about art and history. Public TV attracts less viewers than commercial TV.

Radio appeared earlier than TV. Radio first became a possibility when the English physicist Michael Faraday demonstrated that an electrical current could produce a magnetic field. Radio has not lost its importance with the appearance of TV and the Internet. Radio broadcasts much news and music. Radio is widespread for its portability. People like listening to the radio on the beach or picnic, while driving a car or just walking down the street.

The Internet was created in 1983. The Internet connects many computer networks. It is based on a common addressing system and communications protocols called TCP\IP(Transmission control Protocol/Internet Protocol). The World Wide Web expanded during the 1990s to become the most important component of the Internet.


3. Give Russian equivalents for the following words and expressions:


features of modern civilization; to be selective; to give preference to...; handwritten news-sheets; to be issued daily; to provide news; to carry advertising; rapidly changing events; to provide profound analysis of events; preceding events; exciting and entertaining; to make profit; to broadcast programs; to attract viewers; to be widespread; computer networks; communications protocols.


4.Answer these questions:


1. What is the earliest kind of mass media?

2. What was the first newspaper?

3. What do magazines provide?

4. What is the most exciting kind of mass media? Why?

5. What does the word «television» mean?

6. Why do commercial stations broadcast mainly entertainment programs?

7. What are entertainment programs?

8. What does public TV broadcast?

9. When does radio first become a possibility?

10. Why is radio widespread/

11. What is the Internet based on?


5. Read the text and check your comprehension:


«ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATION»


It's a matter of common knowledge that the interconnection of media and information technologies changed the world greatly. Computers and cable systems, telephones and satellite transmission and publishers are now being linked and intermixed. There appeared the system of Internet (international networks) which is several thousand interconnected networks used to exchange information, data, scientific ideas, opinions, gossips and so on.

The Internet has changed communication as we know it. This new technological advance has effected practically every aspect of our lives. Magazines, newspapers and even books are «on -line» and can be read on the computer. At present more and more people use the Internet for searching the necessary information, for e -mail with friends around the world or just for entertaining. You can find the information on any topic – the possibilities of Internet are endless. The Internet can instantly connect you to other computers, allowing you to « chat» with people all over the world.

Informed citizens of our information — dependent society should be computer — literate. This means that they should be able to use computers as everyday problem — solving tools. They should know the potential of computers to influence the quality of life. It's actually not very difficult to learn how to use the system, and once you are on — line, you'll never want to turn the computer off.

Today a great deal of the work force of most countries is engaged in creating, processing, storing, communicating and otherwise working with information. Computers have become commonplace in homes, offices, stores, schools, research institutes, plants.

They can perform arithmetic operations, solve a series of problems and make hundreds, even thousands, of logical decisions without becoming tired. The list of applications of Pcs( personal computers) is almost endless, including: checking account management, budgeting, planning, telephone answering and dialing, home environment and climate control, appliance control, maintenance of address and mailing lists and what not.

Computers and their many applications are among the most significant technical achievements of the century. They bring with them both economic and social changes.

These amazing electronic devices have changed many people's lives forever.


1. What changed the world greatly nowadays? 2. What is the Internet? 3. What did it do with communication? 4. How do people use the Internet? 5. What kind of information can you find through the Internet? 6. What do the words «to be computer _ literate» mean? 7. Is it difficult to learn to use the Internet? 8. What is most of work force engaged in at present?9. What can Pcs do?10. What changes do computers bring into our life?


6. Translate and memorize the following words and phrases:


Mass media; daily necessities; a human being; that's why; to do without; periodicals; to comment on matters and events; independent; to reflect home and foreign events; to use computer and satellite technologies; a major source of information; to follow the events; to transmit broadcasts; Foreign Radio Services; to entertain; it is impossible to overestimate.

It's a matter of common knowledge; satellite transmission; to exchange data; scientific ideas, opinions, gossips; to effect; for searching the necessary information; endless possibilities; to chat; information -dependent society; everyday problem — solving tool; computer literate; to influence the quality of life; to be engaged in creating; processing and storing the information; to make decisions; what not; significant achievements.


7. Make a mini –project about the most popular modern means of communication.



Тема 2.12 Профессия. Карьера.


1.Read the text and check your comprehension:


«How do you visualize the starting point of your future career, its prospects and possible changes?»


To begin with I'd like to say that at present I have a very vague idea about my future career and I am unable to give a detailed account of the activities it will involve. But as far as I can figure it out I'm going to send an application letter to a personnel officer and will be invited for an interview.

Of course, I will be very nervous and anxious, but still I'll be able to think my strategy thoroughly, because doing well in an interview may be an important part of getting a good job. Everybody knows that, however, many young people fail to create that vital first impression because their appearance lets them down.

I will keep in mind that every applicant is very closely inspected, so a good business suit will be the right thing to wear. All my clothes won't be scruffy or casual, but very well pressed and in good taste. I'll carry my Curriculum Vitae and references in a special file. I'll smile pleasantly and shake a hand firmly looking straight into the eyes of my interviewer.

As I said I'll present my C.V. I know that in some offices it is expected to be handwritten and in some it must be word — processed. Most companies expect all the personal information to be entered on a standard application form, as they give a better impression of a candidate.

I'm sure that my knowledge of English will make me more advantaged than the others.

I'll also tell my future employers that I know word processing, typing and have some computer skills.

Finally they'll give me a job as a trainee and for some time I'll be the junior person in a company. I'm fully conscious of the fact that I won't earn very much but they'll give me an organized help and advice. I may be as well send on training courses. Very soon I'll get enough experience and starts moving up. Generally I'm not a very ambitious person, but at the age of 22 one should be able to provide a decent living and the family. As the Russian proverb says:» A soldier, who doesn't dream to be a general is no good.»

That's why I'll work very hard. After my first year I hope to be given a substantial pay rise, and after two years I'll be promoted and in some six or seven years I expect to be in charge of the whole department with several other employees under me. But most of all I'll be motivated by work satisfaction, rather than by profit or good salary.

Actually at present it's very difficult to predict anything but I understand that I can be dismissed if I won't be honest, industrious and efficient. I hate the idea of being unemployed and accepting a part -time job so I'll do my best not to be sacked or made redundant. Well, these are my visions of what my job and career will be like after I graduate from the college.


2. Answer the following questions:


1. What is the first step when you've chosen your future occupation?

2. What should one think about?

3. What should every applicant keep in mind?

4. What skills is it preferable for an applicant to have?

5. What kind of job can a beginner have?

6. How can a beginner be promoted if he \she works hard?

7. When can a person be dismissed?




3. Do you agree or not? Comment on the following statements.


1. It does not matter if you do well in an interview.

2. Every applicant is usually closely inspected.

3. You should learn how to behave during the interview.

4. Only handwritten C.V.s are taken.

5. The knowledge of foreign languages is a great advantage.

6. Training courses are a must for young specialists.

7. Everybody is planning to be promoted.


4. What do you think? Give the reason for your opinion.


1. An interview is an important part of getting a good job.

2. Many young people fail to achieve the first impression.

3. The young applicants at first usually have a job of a trainee or a junior person.

4. The wages of the beginners are usually low.

5. Most people are motivated by work satisfaction.

6. It is reasonable to save for a rainy day today.


5. Read this dialogue in pairs and make up your own one:

«IN THE SEARCH OF A JOB»


Manager: Good morning, Miss Evans. I'm Michael Daymond, the manager of this shop.

Evans: How do you do, Mr. Daymond.

M.: Please, sit down. Now, you're interested in the job of a shop assistant. Have you ever worked as a shop assistant?

E.: Well, no. I've never actually worked as a shop assistant but I helpedin a shop during my school holiday.

M.: Good, fine. So, you're Alice Evans. How old are you?

E.: I'm 19.

M: Well, what school did you go to?

E.: London High School.

M.: I see. What exams have you passed?

E.: English and maths.

M.: Can you speak any foreign languages?

E.: Yes, French and German.

M.: What is your present job?

E.: I work as a receptionist in a small hotel.

M.: How long have you been working there?

E.: For six months. You see, I left school last year.

M.; Why do you want this job?

E.: Well, I like working with people and I think I can be useful to them.

M.: I see. What is your hobby?

E.: I like swimming and cycling.

M.: And what about your health? Do you smoke?

E.: No, I don't smoke. I've got no major illnesses and I had no operations.

M.: Good. Well, thank you very much, Miss Evans. If we want to see you again, we'll let you know. We'll be in touch with you, one way or other. Thank you for coming to see us.

E.: Thank you .

M.: Good bye.


6. Read the text and translate it in written form:

«MY FURTHER EDUCATION»


I'm lucky to be a student of the Polytechnical college, because it offers a lot of opportunities to continue our education. First of all, our college is affiliated to Novgorodian State University. It has many faculties and provides good education in the fields of mathematics, physics, electronics and information technologies. It's not difficult to enter this university for the students of our college, because we get profound knowledge in these subjects.

As for me, I want to become a computer programmer. I'm interested in computers. It is whole new world. My hobby is computer games and computer programming. I have a computer at home and spend hours working at it. The profession of programmer can give many opportunities. Computers are the most rapidly changing sphere of modern technology. We are living in the age information. I think that the future is filled with computers. In England or the USA people can work, go shopping or even go on dates sitting at their computers. But in our country, computers have been used just for a short time.

So after finishing college I want to enter the university and continue to study computer science. I believe this specialty is really needed in our country. I hope my dream will come true sooner or later.


7. Give Russian equivalents for the following words and expressions:


vocational schools; to bring smb satisfaction; to follow the advice; to get good education; to be interested in smth; to give opportunities; to be the most rapidly changing sphere; to go on dates.


8. Read the dialogue, finish it and act, please:


A: Choosing a future career isn't easy, is it?

B: No, it isn't, yet it is one of the most important decisions you will make in your life. Find the right career and you'll be happy and successful.

A: There are a lot of different professions to choose. What can help us to make the right choice?

B: I think it's important to consider all factors. For many people money is the most important factor when they choose a job. In this case you should choose your future occupation among the best -paid jobs.

A: And what are they?

B: In my opinion, the best -paid jobs in Russia are a bank manager, an accountant, a programmer and a dentist.

A: I'm sure that everybody wants to earn as much as possible, but for me choosing a career is not only a matter of future prestige and wealth. To my mind a job should be interesting and socially important.

B: You are quite right! It's very important to choose a profession that suits your interests. Then start with yourself! Explore your interests, talents and abilities. Besides, you should take into account your traits of character.

A: I am really interested in........................I enjoy working with..............I have always wanted to...................


B: Then I can advise you to choose the profession of a …..............


A: But it also has disadvantages, doesn't it?


B: Of course, each job has its pros and cons......................


A: I'll think it over and discuss my choice with my parents......................


Тема 2.13 Деловое общение в профессиональной сфере.


1 Practisethefollowingwords:

to fill in – заполнять

an application form – анкета

toexpand – расширять

equipment – оборудование

competitive – конкурентоспособность

toberesponsiblefor – быть ответственным за что-то

obligations – обязанности

mainstrengths – главные достоинства

reliability – надежность

loyality – решимость


2. Read the dialogue and act it


S1 – Good morning, sirs.

S2 – Good morning. Come in. Glad to meet you.

S1 – Glad to meet you, too.

S3 – Please, take a seat.

S1 – Thank you.

S3 – Have you filled in the application form?

S1 – Yes, here it is.

S2 – What do you know about our company?

S1 – I know that this is a very promising company, so I’d like you to inform me what will be the major focus of efforts in the next few years?

S3 – We plan to expand our activities with English – speaking countries to buy technologies and equipment from there. We need a team of creative people to make our company competitive in the world market.

S1 – What will my responsibilities and obligations be during the first year?

S2 – Well, first of all to be responsible for our contacts with English partners.

S1 – Yes, I see.

S3 – So, tell us what are your there main strengths?

S1 – I think they are: reliability, loyality and energy.

S2 – Ok. Are you a leader by nature?

S1 – Yes, I think so.

S2 – All right. Now, … we are ready to offer you a job with us.

S3 – You’ll start on $ 800 and if you do well we’ll review it after 3 months. The hours are from nine to five thirty with an hour for lunch and a fort night’s holiday. Does that suit you? Any questions?

S1 – All right. When do you want me to start?

S2 – In a week, if possible.

S1 – Yes, certainly. Thank you very much. Good-bye.

S2, S3 – Good-bye.









3. Fill in the application form:

Preliminary Application Form


Name (as shown in the passport)

 

 

 

 

Address

 

 

 

 

Date of Birth

 

 

 

 

Place of Brith

 

 

 

 

Religion

 

 

 

 

Telephone(with

 

 

 

 

code)

 

 

 

 

E-mail

 

 

 

 

School number,

 

 

 

 

years of study

 

 

 

 

Work experience

 

 

 

 

Native Language

 

 

 

 

Ability in English

skill

fluently

well

with

 

 

 

 

difficulty

 

speak

 

 

 

 

read

 

 

 

 

write

 

 

 

Signature

 

 

 

 


4. Read the dialogues and act them:


A)

S1 – Continental Equipment. Can I help you?

S2 – I’d like to speak to Mr. Donnovan.

S1 – Mr. Donnovan? Who’s calling, please?

S2 – This is Alexander Belov, from TST Systems.

S1 – Hold on, please, I’ll find out if he is in.

S3 – What is it, Miss Ellid?

S1 – Mr. Belov wants to talk to you, sir.

S3 – Who is Mr. Belov?

S1 – He said he was from TST Systems.

S3 – From TST Systems? Oh, ask him what his telephone number is. I’ll ring him back.

S1 – Hello? This is Mr. Donnovan’s secretary speaking.

S2 – Yes, … Belov here.

S1 – I’m sorry, Mr. Donnovan is very busy at the moment. Can you tell me your telephone number, Mr. Donnovan will call you later.

S2 – Of course. Double six – one – seven – four – five.

S1 – …and where are you calling from?

S2 – From Novgorod the Great, Russia.

S1 – Could you tell me the code for Novgorod?

S2 – Eight – one – six – two.

S1 – Thank you, Mr. Belov.

S2 – You are welcome.

B)

S1 – Good morning. This is John Miller from Continental Equipment. May I speak to Mr. Belov?

S2 – Yes … speaking …

S1 – I am planning to come to Novgorod and discuss with you the main points of our agreement in detail.

S2 – When are you planning to come?

S1 – On Tuesday, next week.

S2 – That’s fine. Are you going to travel by air?

S1 – Of course. The British International Airlines Flight from London arrives in St. Petersburg Airport at about 9 o’clock, as for as I know.

S2 – Ok. I’ll meet you at the airport in St. Petersburg.

S1 – Thank you, Mr. Belov. Which hotel in Novgorod would you recommend me?

S2 – I’d recommend the Volkhov Hotel. It’s very comfortable and isn’t very expensive. Shall I reserve a room for you?

S1 – Yes. If it isn’t very trouble.

S2 – Ok. Good-bye, Mr. Miller. Have a good trip.

S1 – Good-bye, Mr. Belov. Seeyounextweek.



Раздел 3. Наука и технологии.


Цель: овладеть новой лексикой по теме, временами группы Perfect Continuous.


Студент должен

иметь представление:

  • о наиболее значимых достижениях науки, о великих ученых, чьи открытия существенно повлияли на развитие науки в данных отраслях;

знать:

  • времена группы Perfect Continuous;

уметь:

  • прочитать, перевести и пересказать текст, использовать его в коммуникативно-обращенном устном монологическом высказывании, составить диалог по теме, активизируя лексику текстов, написать сочинение.


Тематика текстов для чтения: Наука и учёные, Наука и технологии, Джеймс Ватт, Д.И.Менделеев, М.В.Ломоносов, И.И. Сикорский, Ж.Стивенсон, Д.Джоуль (Приложение Б).


Грамматика: времена группы Perfect Continuous.


Виды практических заданий: лексические и грамматические упражнения: упр.272, 273, 274 стр.230-234 (2); упр.1 стр.62, упр.5 стр.63, упр.11 стр.65, упр.20 стр.68, упр.28 стр.72 (3); перевод и пересказ текстов, составление диалогов, выполнение лексических диктантов и письменных работ, включая, подготовку сочинения.


Вид контроля: устный и письменный опрос.


Тексты

Science and scientists

Science and technology


Задание 1 Выучить слова и подготовиться к лексическому диктанту:


science - наука

scientist - ученый

scientific - научный

search – искать

researcher - исследователь

investigate - исследовать

unify - объединить

attempt - попытка

explain - объяснить

prove - доказать

complicated - сложный

complicated problem - сложная проблема

appear - появиться

boundary - граница

closely interconnected - близко связанный

tool - инструмент

discovery - открытие

invention - изобретение

satisfy - удовлетворить

shelter - убежище

steam engine - паровой двигатель

contribute - внести вклад

nuclear - ядерный

nuclear power - ядерная держава

digital - цифровой

digital computer - компьютер

refer - обратитесь

quantity - количество

physical quantity - физическое количество

measure - мера

liquid - жидкость

process - процесс

process the data - обработка данных

typewriter - пишущая машинка

headquarters - штаб


Задание 2 Переведите предложения на русский язык в письменной форме:


        1. Science deals with facts and the relationship among these facts. Some scientists try to solve difficult mathematical problems. They use different scientific methods.

        2. Some scientists search for clues to the origin of the universe. Researchers have examined this problem.

        3. Some researchers investigate why we act the way we go.

        4. Scientists develop theories that help them order and unify facts.

        5. Scientists attempt to solve mathematical problems.

        6. Scientists try to explain different problems.

        7. Some scientists attempt to solve complicated mathematical problems.

        8. Many new fields of science have appeared.

        9. The boundaries between scientific fields have become less and less clear.

        10. Different kinds of tools and machines make our life easier.

        11. The discoveries and inventions of scientists also help shape our views about ourselves and our place in the universe.

        12. Technology means the use of people’s inventions and discoveries to satisfy their needs.

        13. Since people have appeared on the earth, they have had to get food, clothes, and shelter.

        14. Industrial technology began with the development of the steam engine, the growth of factories, and the mass production of goods.

        15. Science has contributed much to modern technology.

        16. Some modern technologies, such as nuclear power production and space travel, depend heavily on science.

        17. Digital computers deal with numbers.

        18. The word “computer” almost always refers to a digital computer.

        19. Analog computes work with a physical quantity, such as weight, speed, temperature.

        20. The thermometers measure the temperature.

        21. They measure temperature in terms of the length of a thin line of liquid in a thermometer.

        22. The computers are able to process the data.

        23. IBM makes data processing systems, electronic computers, electric typewriters, dictation machines, etc.

        24. IBM’s headquarters are in Armonk, New York.


Задание 3 Прочитайте тексты и выполните задания, следующие за текстами:

SCIENCE AND SCIENTISTS


The word “science” comes from the Latin word “scientia”, which means “knowledge”. Science covers the board field of knowledge that deals with facts and the relationship among these facts.

Scientists study a wide variety of subjects. Some scientists search for clues to the origin of the universe and examine the structure of the cells of living plants and animals. Other researchers investigate why we act the way we do, or try to solve complicated mathematical problems.

Scientists use systematic methods of study to make observations and collect facts. They develop theories consist of general principles or laws that attempt to explain how and why something happens or has happened. A theory is considered to become a part of scientific knowledge if it has been tested experimentally and proved to be true.

Scientists study can be divided into three major groups: the natural, social, and technical sciences. As scientific knowledge has grown and become more complicated, many new fields of science have appeared. At the same time, the boundaries between scientific fields have become less and less clear. Numerous areas of science overlap each other and it is often hard to tell where one science ends and another begins. All sciences are closely interconnected.

Science has great influence on our lives. It provides the basis of modern technology – the tools and machines that make our life easier. The discoveries and inventions of scientists also help shape our view about ourselves and our place in the universe.


SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY


Technology means the use of people’s inventions and discoveries to satisfy their needs. Since people have appeared on the earth, they have had to get food, clothes, and shelter. Through the ages, people have invented tools, machines, and materials to make work easier.

Nowadays, when people speak of technology, they generally mean industrial technology. Industrial technology began about 200 years ago with the development of the steam engine, the growth of factories, and the mass production of goods. It influenced different aspects of people’s lives. The development of the car influenced where people lived and worked. Radio and television changed their leisure time. The telephone revolutionized communication.

Science has contributed much to modern technology. Science attempts to explain haw and why things happen. Technology makes things happen. But not all technology is based on science. For example, people had made different objects from iron for centuries before they learnt the structure of the metal. But some modern technologies, such as nuclear power production and space travel, depended heavily on science.


Задание 4 Найдите в текстах эквиваленты английских слов и словосочетаний:


означает, охватывает, взаимосвязь, широкое разнообразие, ищут разгадки, происхождение Вселенной, структура клеток, сложный, собирать факты, упорядочить и обобщить, общие принципы, пытаются объяснить, как и почему, что-то произошло, соответствующий действительности, основные группы, общественные науки, в то же самое время, все менее и менее четкие, многочисленный, тесно взаимосвязаны, она обеспечивает, открытия, изобретения, формировать наши взгляды, о себе, удовлетворять собственные нужды, они должны были, кров, на протяжении веков, инструменты, чтобы сделать, в настоящее время, тому назад, паровой двигатель, рост, массовое производство товаров, время доступа, произвел революцию, сделала большой вклад, например, из железа, в течение веков, очень сильно, зависит


Задание 5


  1. Найдите в текстах слова близкие по значению.

Wide, to research, to attempt, to believe, to examine, main, complex, difficult, to start, big, a motor, various, to study.

  1. Найдите в текстах слова противоположные по значению.

Narrow, easy, practice, artificial, old, more, to begin, small, little.


Задание 6 Заполните пропуски необходимыми словами:


  1. Science d… with a variety of subjects.

  2. Scientists s… for the answers to the different questions.

  3. The structure of the cells is e… by the scientists.

  4. Different theories u… the facts.

  5. The b… of some scientific fields are not clear.

  6. The natural, social and technical sciences are closely i….

  7. T… the ages, people have invented tools, machines, and materials to make work easier.

  8. Science c… much to modern technology.

9. Some modern technologies d… on science.

10. During our l… time we watch TV.


Задание 7 Образуйте общие вопросы к данным предложениям:


  1. Science deals with the fact and the relationship among these facts.

  2. A theory becomes a part of scientific knowledge.

  3. Science attempts to explain how and why things happen.

  4. Technology makes things happen

  5. Technology influences different aspects of people’s lives.


Задание 8 Образуйте специальный вопрос к предложениям:


  1. The word “science” mean “knowledge” (what).

  2. The scientific can order facts (what).

  3. The scientists can unify facts (what).

  4. They usually test the theory experimentally (what).

  5. Technology influence different aspects of our life (what).


Задание 9 Обсудите следующие пословицы в парах, используя разговорные клише:


  1. Knowledge is power.

  2. Time brings wisdom.


Задание 10 Прочтите, переведите диалог, дополните диалог, активизируя лексику по теме, используя Приложение А.


A: Good morning, Pete!

B: Hello, Nick!

A: Why, were you absent yesterday?

B: I was ill, by the way what is our home task?

A: Oh, we had a very interesting lesson “Science and Technology”.

B: Is that really so?

A: Yes, it is. As for me I prepared the report about T.A. Edison.

His many successful inventions are well known.

B: I’ve never heard about him.

A: By the way, our home task is to retell the text.

B: Sorry, I must be off. I’ve got an appointment.

A: See you soon.


Задание 11 Перескажите текст “Science and Technology”.


Задание 12 Прочитайте и перескажите текст:


James Watt


James Watt was a Scottish inventor and mechanical engineer, known for his improvements of the steam engine.

Watt was born on January 19, 1736, in Greenock, Scotland. He worked as a mathematical-instrument maker from the age of 19 and soon became interested in improving the steam engine which was used at that time to pump out water from mines.

Watt determined the properties of steam, especially the relation of its density to its temperature and pressure, and designed a separate condensing chamber for the steam engine that prevented large losses of steam in the cylinder. Watt's first patent, in 1769, covered this device and other improvements on steam engine.

At that time, Watt was the partner of the inventor John Roebuck, who had financed his researches. In 1775, however, Roebuck's interest was taken over by the manufacturer Matthew Boulton, owner of the Soho Engineering Works at Birmingham, and he and Watt began the manufacture of steam engines. Watt continued his research and patented several other important inventions, including the rotary engine for driving various types of machinery; the double-action engine, in which steam is admitted alternately into both ends of the cylinder; and the steam indicator, which records the steam pressure in the engine. He retired from the firm in 1800 and thereafter devoted himself entirely to research work.

The misconception that Watt was the actual inventor of the steam engine arose from the fundamental nature of his contributions to its development. The centrifugal or flyball governor, which he invented in 1788, and which automatically regulated the speed of an engine, is of particular interest today. It embodies the feedback principle of a servomechanism, linking output to input, which is the basic concept of automation. The watt, the unit of power, was named in his honour. Watt was also a well-known civil engineer. He invented, in 1767, an attachment that adapted telescopes for use in the measurement of distances. Watt died in Heathfield, near Birmingham, in August 1819.


Задание 13 На основе упражнения 12 подготовьте в письменной форме рассказ о каком-нибудь ученом и его вкладе в науку, используя тексты из Приложения Б.


Тема 3.1 Металлы.


Цель: овладеть новой лексикой по теме, временами пассивного залога.


Студент должен

иметь представление:

  • о металлах, методах горячей обработки металлов;

знать:

  • времена пассивного залога;

уметь:

  • прочитать, перевести и пересказать текст, используя профессиональную лексику в высказывании, выполнить выборочный письменный перевод, используя информацию в тексте, составлять диалоги.


Тематика текстов для чтения: Металлы, Сталь, Методы горячей обработки металлов.


Грамматика: времена группы пассивного залога.


Виды практических заданий: лексические и грамматические упражнения: упр.275-278, 284, 288, 291, 296 стр. 234-247 (1); упр.1 стр.112, упр.9 стр.115 (2); перевод и пересказ текстов, выполнение лексического диктанта, составление диалогов.


Вид контроля: устный и письменный опрос.


Текст 1

Metals


Задание 1 Выучить данную лексику:


property — свойство

metallurgy — металлургия

separation — разделение, отстояние

dense — плотный

arrangement — расположение

regularly — регулярно, правильно to

slide — скользить

malleable — ковкий, податливый, способный деформироваться

bent pp of bend гнуть

to fractureломать

ductile — эластичный, ковкий

to draw — волочить, тянуть

wire — проволока

lead — свинец

iron — железо, чугун

grain — зерно

depend — зависеть

size— размер, величина

shape — форма, формировать

composition — состав

coarse — грубый, крупный

treatment — обработка

quenching — закалка

tempering — отпуск после закалки, нормализация

annealing — отжиг, отпуск

rolling — прокатка

to hammer — ковать (напр. молотом)

extrusion — экструзия

metal fatigue — усталость металла

creep — ползучесть

stress — давление, напряжение

failure — повреждение, разрушение

vessel — сосуд, котел, судно

lathe — токарный станок

milling machine — фрезерный станок

shaper — строгальный станок

grinder — шлифовальный станок

to melt — плавить, плавиться расплавить

to cast — отливать, отлить

mould — форма (для отливки)


Задание 2 Прочитайте и переведите текст. Выполните задания, следующие за текстом:

Metals


Metals are materials most widely used in industry because of their properties. The study of the production and properties of metals is known as metallurgy.

The separation between the atoms in metals is small, so most metals are dense. The atoms are arranged regularly and can slide over each other. That is why metals are malleable (can be deformed and bent without fracture) and ductile (can be drawn into wire). Metals vary greatly in their properties. For example, lead is soft and can be bent by hand, while iron can only be worked by hammering at red heat.

The regular arrangement of atoms in metals gives them a crystalline structure. Irregular crystals are called grains. The properties of the metals depend on the size, shape, orientation, and composition of these grains. In general, a metal with small grains will be harder and stronger than one with coarse grains.

Heat treatment such as quenching, tempering, or annealing controls the nature of the grains and their size in the metal. Small amounts of other metals (less than 1 per cent) are often added to a pure metal. This is called alloying (легирование) and it changes the grain structure and properties of metals.

All metals can be formed by drawing, rolling, hammering and extrusion, but some require hot-working. Metals are subject to metal fatigue and to creep (the slow increase in length under stress) causing deformation and failure. Both effects are taken into account by engineers when designing, for example, airplanes, gas-turbines, and pressure vessels for high-temperature chemical processes. Metals can be worked using machine-tools such as lathe, milling machine, shaper and grinder.

The ways of working a metal depend on its properties. Many metals can be melted and cast in moulds, but special conditions are required for metals that react with air.


Задание 3 Ответить на вопросы:


1. What are metals and what do we call metallurgy?

2. Why are most metals dense?

3. Why are metals malleable?

4. What is malleability?

5. What are grains?

6. What is alloying?

7. What is crystalline structure?

8. What do the properties of metals depend on?

9. What changes the size of grains in metals?

10. What are the main processes of metal forming?

11. How are metals worked?

12. What is creeping?


Задание 4 Найдите эквиваленты русских слов и словосочетаний:


1. свойства металлов

2. расстояние между атомами

3. правильное расположение

4. сильно отличаются по своим свойствам

5. кристаллическая структура

6. размер зерен

7. форма зерен

8. закалка

9. отжиг

10. волочение

11. прокатка

12. ковка

13.экструзия

14. структура и свойства зерна

15. горячая обработка

16. усталость металла

17. ползучесть металла

18. плавка и отливка в формы

19. способы обработки металлов


Задание 5 Дополните предложения:


1. Metals are...

2. Metallurgy is...

3. Most metals are...

4. The regular arrangement of atoms in metals...

5. Irregular crystals...

6. The properties of the metals depend...

7. Metals with small grains will be...

8. ...controls the nature of the grains in the metal.

9. Alloying is...

10. All metals can be formed by...

11. Creep is...

12. Metals can be worked using...


Задание 6 Объясните на английском языке значение слов и словосочетаний:

1. malleability

2. crystalline structure

3. grains

4. heat treatment

5. alloying

6. creep


Задание 7 Переведите на английский язык:


1. Металлы — плотные материалы потому, что между атомами в металлах малое расстояние.

2. Металлы имеют кристаллическую структуру из-за правильного расположения атомов.

3. Чем меньше зерна, тем тверже металл.

4. Закалка и отжиг изменяют форму и размер зерен в металлах.

5. Легирование изменяет структуру зерен и свойства металлов.

6. Металл деформируется и разрушается из-за усталости и ползучести.


Задание 8 Прочтите текст и переведите на русский язык в письменной форме абзацы 1,2,5; используя следующую лексику:


1. lustre

2. property

3. quantity

4. conductivity

5. solid state

6. brittle

7. undergo

8. to protect from

9. environment

10. alloy

11. poor conductor

12. distinction

13. strength

14. hardness

блеск

свойство

количество

проводимость

твердое состояние

хрупкий

подвергаться

защищать от

окружающая среда

сплав

плохой проводник

различие

прочность

жесткость


METALS AND NONMETALS


1. There are some distinctions between metals and nonmetals. Metals are distinguished from nonmetals by their high conductivity for heat and electricity, by metallic lustre and by their resistance to electric current. Their use in industry is explained not only by those properties, but also by the fact that their properties, such as strength and hardness, can be greatly improved by alloying them with other metals.

2. There are several important groups of metals and alloys. The common metals such as iron, copper, zinc, etc. are produced in great quantities.

3. The so-called precious metals include silver, gold, platinum and palladium. The light metals are aluminium, berillium and titanium. They are important in aircraft and rocket construction.

4. Many elements are classified as semimetals (bismuth, for example) because they have much poorer conductivity than common metals.

5. Nonmetals (carbon, silicon, sulphur) in the solid state are usually brittle materials without metallic lustre and are usually poor conductors of electricity. Nonmetals show greater variety of chemical properties than common metals do.

6. Metals can undergo corrosion, changing in this case their chemical and electromechanical properties. In order to protect metals from corrosion the products made of metals and steel are coated by some films (coatings). Organic coatings protect metals and steel from corrosion by forming a corrosion-resistant barrier between metal or steel and the corrosive environment.


Задание 9 Составить диалог на основе задания 3 и приложения А, используя информацию из текста Metals.


Текст 2

Steel


Задание 1 Выучить данную лексику и подготовиться к лексическому диктанту:


alloy — сплав

carbon — углерод

stiff — жесткий

to corrode — разъедать, ржаветь

rusty — ржавый

stainless — нержавеющий

to resist — сопротивляться

considerably — значительно, гораздо

tough — крепкий, жесткий, прочный, выносливый

forging — ковка

welding — сварка

brittle — хрупкий, ломкий

cutting tools — режущие инструменты

surgical instruments — хирургические инструменты

blade — лезвие

spring пружина

inclusionвключение

to affectвлиять

manganeseмарганец

silicon — кремний

rust-proof нержавеющий

nitrogen — азот

tungsten — вольфрам


Задание 2 Прочитайте и переведите текст. Выполните задания, следующие за текстом:

STeel


The most important metal in industry is iron and its alloy — steel. Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon. It is strong and stiff, but corrodes easily through rusting, although stainless and other special steels resist corrosion. The amount of carbon in a steel influences its properties considerably. Steels of low carbon content (mild steels) are quite ductile and are used in the manufacture of sheet iron, wire, and pipes. Medium-carbon steels containing from 0.2 to 0.4 per cent carbon are tougher and stronger and are used as structural steels. Both mild and medium-carbon steels are suitable for forging and welding. High-carbon steels contain from 0.4 to 1.5 per cent carbon, are hard and brittle and are used in cutting tools, surgical instruments, razor blades and springs. Tool steel, also called silver steel, contains about 1 per cent carbon and is strengthened and toughened by quenching and tempering.

The inclusion of other elements affects the properties of the steel. Manganese gives extra strength and toughness. Steel containing 4 per cent silicon is used for transformer cores or electromagnets because it has large grains acting like small magnets. The addition of chromium, gives extra strength and corrosion resistance, so we can get rust-proof steels. Heating in the presence of carbon or nitrogen-rich materials is used to form a hard surface on steel (case-hardening). High-speed steels, which are extremely important in machine-tools, contain chromium and tungsten plus smaller amounts of vanadium, molybdenum and other metals.


Задание 3 Найдите эквиваленты русских слов и словосочетаний:


1. сплав железа и углерода

2. прочный и жесткий

3. легко коррозирует

4. нержавеющая сталь

5. низкое содержание углерода

6. ковкость

7. листовое железо, проволока, трубы

8. конструкционные стали

9. пригодны для ковки и сварки

10. твердый и хрупкий

11. режущие инструменты

12. хирургические инструменты

13. инструментальная сталь 14.упрочнять

15. добавление марганца (кремния, хрома, вольфрама, молибдена, ванадия)


Задание 4 Ответьте на вопросы и на их основе перескажите текст:


l. What is steel?

2. What are the main properties of steel?

3. What are the drawbacks of steel?

4. What kinds of steel do you know? Where are they used?

5. What gives the addition of manganese, silicon and chromium to steel?

6. What can be made of mild steels (medium-carbon - steels, high-carbon steels)?

7. What kind of steels can be forged and welded?

8. How can we get rust-proof (stainless) steel?

9. What is used to form a hard surface on steel?

10. What are high-speed steels alloyed with?


Текст 3

Methods of Steel Heat Treatment


Задание 1 Выучить данную лексику:


to immerse — погружать

to apply — применять

intermediate — промежуточный

oxide film — оксидная пленка

annealing — отжиг, отпуск

cracking — растрескивание


Задание 2 Прочитайте и переведите текст. Выполните задания, следующие за текстом:




Methods of Steel Heat Treatment


Quenching is a heat treatment when metal at a high temperature is rapidly cooled by immersion in water or oil. Quenching makes steel harder and more brittle, with small grains structure.

Tempering is a heat treatment applied to steel and certain alloys. Hardened steel after quenching from a high temperature is too hard and brittle for many applications and is also brittle. Tempering, that is re-heating to an intermediate temperature and cooling slowly, reduces this hardness and brittleness. Tempering temperatures depend on the composition of the steel but are frequently between 100 and 650 "C. Higher temperatures usually give a softer, tougher product. The colour of the oxide film produced on the surface of the heated metal often serves as the indicator of its temperature.

Annealing is a heat treatment in which a material at high temperature is cooled slowly. After cooling the metal again becomes malleable and ductile (capable of being bent many times without cracking).

All these methods of steel heat treatment are used to obtain steels with certain mechanical properties for certain needs.


Задание 3 Ответьте на вопросы:


1. What can be done to obtain harder steel?

2. What makes steel more soft and tough?

3. What makes steel more malleable and ductile?

4. What can serve as the indicator of metal temperature while heating it?

5. What temperature range is used for tempering?

6. What are the methods of steel heat treatment used for?


Задание 4 Переведите на английский язык:


1. температура нормализации

2. мелкозернистая структура

3. быстрое охлаждение

4. закаленная сталь

5. состав стали

6. окисная пленка

7. индикатор температуры,

8. медленное охлаждение


Задание 5 Составьте письменную аннотацию к тексту «Methods of Steel Heat Treatment».


Задание 6 Составить диалог на основе задания 3 и приложения А, используя информацию из текста Methods of steel heat treatment/

Тема 3.2 Обработка металлов.


Цель: овладеть новой лексикой по теме, косвенная речь.


Студент должен

иметь представление:

  • о процессах металлообработки: прокатке, экструзии, растяжении, ковке и листовом прокате;

знать:

  • косвенную речь;

уметь:

  • прочитать, перевести и пересказать текст, используя профессиональную лексику в высказывании, выполнить перевод текста в письменной форме, составить аннотацию к тексту, активизируя лексику по теме, составлять диалоги.


Тематика текстов для чтения: Процессы обработки металлов, Свойства металлов.


Грамматика: косвенная речь.


Виды практических заданий: лексические и грамматические упражнения: упр.316, 318, 321, 325, 327, 339, 345 cтр. 263-281 (1), упр.1 стр.100, упр.1 стр.101, упр.1 стр.102, упр.3 стр.103 (2); перевод и пересказ текстов, составление диалогов.


Вид контроля: устный и письменный опрос.


Текст 1

Metalworking


Задание 1 Выучить данную лексику и подготовиться к лексическому диктанту:


useful — полезный

shape — форма, формировать

rolling — прокатка

extrusion — экструзия, выдавливание

drawing — волочение

forging — ковка

sheet — лист

to subject — подвергать

amount — количество

condition — состояние, условие

perform — выполнять, проводить

to harden — делаться твердым, упрочняться

at least — по крайней мере

common — общий

billet — заготовка, болванка

orifice — отверстие

die — штамп, пуансон, матрица, фильера, во­лочильная доска

cross section — поперечное сечение

window frame — рама окна

tube — труба

hollow — полый

initial — первоначальный, начальный

thick-walled — толстостенный

mandrel — оправка, сердечник

impact — удар

loosely — свободно, с зазором

fitting — зд. посадка

ram — пуансон, плунжер

force — сила

gap — промежуток, зазор

to determine — устанавливать, определять


Задание 2 Прочитайте и переведите текст. Выполните задания, следующие за текстом:


METALWORKING


Metals are important in industry because they can be easily deformed into useful shapes. A lot of metalworking processes have been developed for certain applications. They can be divided into five broad groups:

1. rolling,

2. extrusion,

3. drawing,

4. forging,

5. sheet-metal forming.

During the first four processes metal is subjected to large amounts of strain (deformation). But if deformation goes at a high temperature, the metal will recrystallize that is, new strain-free grains will grow instead of deformed grains. For this reason metals are usually rolled, extruded, drawn, or forged above their recrystallization temperature. This is called hot working. Under these conditions there is no limit to the compressive plastic strain to which the metal can be subjected.

Other processes are performed below the recrystallization temperature. These are called cold working. Cold working hardens metal and makes the part stronger. However, there is a limit to the strain before a cold part cracks.


Rolling

Rolling is the most common metalworking process. More than 90 percent of the aluminum, steel and copper produced is rolled at least once in the course of production. The most common rolled product is sheet. Rolling can be done either hot or cold. If the rolling is finished cold, the surface will be smoother and the product stronger.


Extrusion

Extrusion is pushing the billet to flow through the orifice of a die. Products may have either a simple or a complex cross section. Aluminium window frames are the examples of complex extrusions.

Tubes or other hollow parts can also be extruded. The initial piece is a thick-walled tube, and the extruded part is shaped between a die on the outside of the tube and a mandrel held on the inside.

In impact extrusion (also called back-extrusion) (штамповка выдавливанием), the workpiece is placed in the bottom of a hole and a loosely fitting ram is pushed against it. The ram forces the metal to flow back around it, with the gap between the ram and the die determining the wall thickness. The example of this process is the manufacturing of aluminium beer cans.

Задание 3 Ответьте на вопросы:


1. Why are metals so important in industry?

2. What are the main metalworking processes?

3. Why are metals worked mostly hot?

4. What properties does cold working give to metals?

5. What is rolling? Where is it used?

6. What is extrusion? What shapes can be obtained after extrusion?

7. What are the types of extrusion?


Задание 4 Найдите эквиваленты русских слов и словосочетаний:


1. могут легко деформироваться

2. нужные формы

3. подвергать большим деформациям

4. зерна свободные от деформации

5. температура перекристаллизации

6. пластическая деформация сжатия

7. самый обычный процесс обработки металла

8. самое обычное изделие проката

9. отверстие фильеры

10. первоначальный

11. сложное сечение

12. пустотелые детали

13. свободно входящий плунжер

14. зазор между плунжером (пуансоном) и штампом

15. толщина стенки


Задание 5 Переведите на английский язык:


1. Способность металла перекристаллизовываться при высокой температуре используется при горячей обработке.

2. Перекристаллизация — это рост новых, свободных от деформации зерен.

3. Во время горячей обработки металл может подвергаться очень большой пластической деформации сжатия.

4. Холодная обработка делает металл тверже и прочнее, но некоторые металлы имеют предел деформации.

5. Листовой прокат может производиться горячим

или холодным.

6. Поверхность холоднокатаного листа более гладкая и он прочнее.

7. Поперечное сечение фильеры для экструзии может быть простым или сложным.

8. Алюминиевые и медные сплавы являются наилучшими для экструзии из-за их пластичности при деформации.

9. Алюминиевые банки, тюбики для зубной пасты являются примерами использования штамповки выдавливанием.

10. Толщина стенки алюминиевой банки определяется зазором между пунсоном и штампом.


Задание 6 Прочитайте и переведите текст в письменной форме:




MAKING A CAR PANEL


This panel (FIG. 1) fits onto the front right-hand side of a car. It is made by three methods.

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First, sheet steel is made. This is done by pushing a piece of steel between two rollers (see FIG.2), which squeeze the metal and make it longer and thinner. This method is called ROLLING. Not all metals can be rolled. For example, iron cannot be rolled because it is too brittle. But steel can be rolled because it is tough and malleable enough.

Next, the steel is cut into a flat shape (see FIG.3). This is done by placing the sheet onto a die, and then cutting a hole in it with a punch. The method is called PUNCHING. The steel can be cut easily because it is now very thin.

Finally, the sheet steel is bent and pressed into a rounded shape (like in FIG.1). This is done by putting the sheet onto a die and then bending the sheet around the die with a press (see FIG.4). This method is called PRESSING. It is not difficult to press sheet steel because it is thin and malleable.


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Текст 2

Drawing


Задание 1 Выучить данную лексику:


to pull — тянуть

reduction — сокращение

to achieve — достигать

in series — серия, последовательно

beyond — выше, свыше

yield point — точка текучести металла

to retain — сохранять, удерживать

to bend — гнуть

shearing — обрезка, отрезание

edge — край

to grip — схватывать

lower die — нижний штамп

upper die — верхний штамп

forming operation — операция штампования

dimension — измерение, размеры

required — необходимый

increase — увеличение

open-die forging — ковка в открытом штампе (под­кладном)

hammering — ковка, колотить

within — внутри, в пределах

to enclose — заключать

rod — прут, стержень

bar — прут, брусок

involved — включенный

tolerance — допуск

upsetting — высадка, выдавливание

blow — удар

coining — чеканка

imprint — отпечаток

clamp — зажим

to hit — ударять


Задание 2 Прочитайте и переведите текст. Выполните задания, следующие за текстом:

DRAWING


Drawing consists of pulling metal through a die. One type is wire drawing. The diameter reduction that can be achieved in one die is limited, but several dies in series can be used to get the desired reduction.


Sheet metal forming

Sheet metal forming (штамповка листового металла) is widely used when parts of certain shape and size are needed. It includes forging, bending and shearing. One characteristic of sheet metal forming is that the thickness of the sheet changes little in processing. The metal is stretched just beyond its yield point (2 to 4 percent strain) in order to retain the new shape. Bending can be done by pressing between two dies. Shearing is a cutting operation similar to that used for cloth.

Each of these processes may be used alone, but often all three are used on one part. For example, to make the roof of an automobile from a flat sheet, the edges are gripped and the piece pulled in tension over a lower die. Next an upper die is pressed over the top, finishing the forming operation (штамповку), and finally the edges are sheared off to give the final dimensions.

Forging

Forging is the shaping of a piece of metal by pushing with open or closed dies. It is usually done hot in order to reduce the required force and increase the metal's plasticity.

Open-die forging is usually done by hammering a part between two flat faces. It is used to make parts that are too big to be formed in a closed die or in cases where only a few parts are to be made. The earliest forging machines lifted a large hammer that was then dropped on the workpiece, but now air or steam hammers are used, since they allow greater control over the force and the rate of forming. The part is shaped by moving or turning it between blows.

Closed-die forging is the shaping of hot metal within the walls of two dies that come together to enclose the workpiece on all sides. The process starts with a rod or bar cut to the length needed to fill the die. Since large, complex shapes and large strains are involved, several dies may be used to go from the initial bar to the final shape. With closed dies, parts can be made to close tolerances so that little finish machining is required.

Two closed-die forging operations are given special names. They are upsetting and coining. Coining takes its name from the final stage of forming metal coins, where the desired imprint is formed on a metal disk that is pressed in a closed die. Coining involves small strains and is done cold. Upsetting involves a flow of the metal back upon itself. An example of this process is the pushing of a short length of a rod through a hole, clamping the rod, and then hitting the exposed length with a die to form the head of a nail or bolt.


Задание 3 Ответьте на вопросы:


1. How can the reduction of diameter in wire drawing be achieved?

2. What is sheet metal forming and where it can be used?

3. What is close-die forging?

4. What is forging?

5. What are the types of forging?

6. What types of hammers are used now?

7. Where are coining and upsetting used?

8. What process is used in wire production?

9. Describe the process of making the roof of a car.


Задание 4 Найдите эквиваленты русских слов и словосочетаний:


1. протягивание металла через фильеру

2. волочение проволоки

3. уменьшение диаметра

4. толщина листа

5. растягивать выше точки текучести

6. сохранить новую форму

7. края отрезаются

8. конечные размеры

9. уменьшить необходимое усилие

10. увеличить пластичность металла

11. воздушные или паровые молоты

12. сила и скорость штампования

13. внутри стенок двух штампов

14. отделочная обработка

15. малые допуски


Задание 5 Переведите на английский язык:


1. При волочении проволоки диаметр отверстия волочильной доски каждый раз уменьшается.

2. Штамповка листового металла включает в себя ковку, изгиб и обрезку.

3. Небольшая деформация листа при растяжении помогает сохранить новую форму детали.

4. Изменение формы при штамповке производится путем сжатия между двумя штампами.

5. Края листа при штамповке отрезаются для по­лучения конечных размеров.

6. При проковке деталь должна быть горячей для уменьшения необходимых усилий и увеличения пластичности металла.

7. После ковки в закрытых штампах детали не требуют большой механической обработки.

8. При чеканке деформация металла невелика и отпечаток формируется на поверхности металла.

9. Высадка используется для изготовления головок гвоздей и болтов.


Задание 6 На основе вопросов к тексту задания 3 го составить краткий пересказ, используя в своей речи слова и словосочетания из текста.


Текст 3

Metalworking and metal properties


Задание 1 Выучить данную лексику:


feature — черта, особенность

to provide — обеспечивать

improvement — улучшение

property — свойство

eliminate — ликвидировать, исключать

porosity — пористость

directional — направленный

to segregate — разделять

casting — отливка

elongated — удлиненный

to weaken — ослабевать, ослаблять

transverse — поперечный

flow — течение, поток

finished — отделанный

thinning — утончение

fracture — разрушение

strain hardening — деформационное упрочнение

brass — латунь

beverage — напиток

can — консервная банка

to exhibit — проявлять

inner — внутренний

flaws — недостатки, дефекты кристалличес­кой решетки

inclusion — включение

trapped — зд. заключенный

refining — очищать, очистка

to avoid — избегать

to undergo — подвергаться

tensile ductility — пластичность при растяжении


Задание 2 Прочитайте и переведите текст. Выполните задания, следующие за текстом:


METALWORKING AND METAL properties


An important feature of hot working is that it provides the improvement of mechanical properties of metals. Hot-working (hot-rolling or hot-forging) eliminates porosity, directionality, and segregation that are usually present in metals. Hot-worked products have better ductility and toughness than the unworked casting. During the forging of a bar, the grains of the metal become greatly elongated in the direction of flow. As a result, the toughness of the metal is greatly improved in this direction and weakened in directions transverse to the flow. Good forging makes the flow lines in the finished part oriented so as to lie in the direction of maximum stress when the part is placed in service.

The ability of a metal to resist thinning and fracture during cold-working operations plays an important role in alloy selection. In operations that involve stretching, the best alloys are those which grow stronger with strain (are strain hardening) — for example, the copper-zinc alloy, brass, used for cartridges and the aluminum-magnesium alloys in beverage cans, which exhibit greater strain hardening.

Fracture of the workpiece during forming can result from inner flaws in the metal. These flaws often consist of nonmetallic inclusions such as oxides or sulfides that are trapped in the metal during refining. Such inclusions can be avoided by proper manufacturing procedures.

The ability of different metals to undergo strain varies. The change of the shape after one forming operation is often limited by the tensile ductility of the metal. Metals such as copper and aluminum are more ductile in such operations than other metals.


Задание 3 Ответьте на вопросы:


1. What process improves the mechanical properties of metals?

2. What new properties have hot-worked products?

3. How does the forging of a bar affect the grains of the metal? What is the result of this?

4. How are the flow lines in the forged metal oriented and how does it affect the strength of the forged part?

5. What are the best strain-hardening alloys? Where can we use them?

6. What are the inner flaws in the metal?

7. Can a metal fracture because of the inner flaw?

8. What limits the change of the shape during forming operations?


Задание 4 Найдите эквиваленты русских слов и словосочетаний:


1. важная особенность горячей обработки

2. улучшение механических свойств металла

3. необработанная отливка

4. направление максимального напряжения

5. способность сопротивляться утончению и разру­шению

6. проявлять большее деформационное упрочнение

7. разрушение детали при штамповке

8. внутренние дефекты в металле

9. неметаллические включения

10. способность металлов подвергаться деформации

11. ограничивается пластичностью металла при ра­стяжении


Задание 5 Переведите на английский язык:


1. Горячая обработка металла улучшает его механические свойства и устраняет пористость и внутренние дефекты.

2. Удлинение зерен в направлении текучести при ковке значительно улучшает прочность металла в этом направлении и уменьшает его прочность в поперечном.

3. Хорошая проковка ориентирует линии текучести в направлении максимального напряжения.

4. Деформационное упрочнение металла при холодной обработке очень важно для получения металлов с улучшенными свойствами.

5. Внутренние дефекты металла — это неметаллические включения типа окислов или сульфидов.

6. Изменение формы при штамповании металлических деталей ограничивается пластичностью металла при растяжении.


Задание 6 Составить диалог на основе задания 3 и приложения А, используя информацию из текста Metalworking and metal properties.









Тема 3.3 Материалы и технологии.


Цель: овладеть новой лексикой по теме, знать образование и употребление инфинитива.


Студент должен

иметь представление:

  • о материалах, технологиях, механических свойствах материалов;

знать:

  • образование и употребление инфинитива;

уметь:

  • прочитать, перевести и пересказать текст, использовать его в коммуникативно-обращенном устном монологическом высказывании, составлять аннотацию к тексту, описать механические свойства металлов, используя информацию текста, составлять диалоги.


Тематика текстов для чтения: Материалы и технологии, Механические свойства материалов.


Грамматика: Инфинитив.


Виды практических заданий: лексические и грамматические упражнения: инфинитив – упр.363 - 365, 368, 372 стр.294-303 (1), упр.1-3 стр. 298, упр.9-12 стр.300-301(2); чтение, перевод и пересказ текстов; составление аннотаций к текстам, составление диалогов.


Вид контроля: устный и письменный опрос.


Текст 1

Mechanical properties оf material


Задание 1 Выучить данную лексику и подготовиться к лексическому диктанту:


bar — брусок, прут

completely — полностью, совершенно

compression — сжатие

creep — ползучесть

cross-sectional area — площадь поперечного сечения

cyclic stress — циклическое напряжение

decrease — уменьшение

elastic deformation — упругая деформация

elastic limit — предел упругости

exceed — превышать

external forces — внешние силы

fatigue — усталость металла

fracture — перелом, излом

loosen — ослаблять, расшатывать

permanent deformation — постоянная деформация

remaining — оставшийся

shear — срез

simultaneously — одновременно

to stretch — растягивать

technique — методы

tension — напряженность

to propagate — распространять(ся)

to bend — гнуть, согнуть

to extend — расширять, продолжаться

to meet the needs — отвечать требованиям

to occur — происходить

to respond — отвечать реагировать

to suffer — страдать

torsion — кручение

twisting — закручивание, изгиб

volume — объем, количество

rupture — разрыв


Задание 2 Прочитайте и переведите текст. Выполните задания, следующие за текстом:


Mechanical properties оf material


Materials Science and Technology is the study of materials and how they can be fabricated to meet the needs of modern technology. Using the laboratory techniques and knowledge of physics, chemistry, and metallurgy, scientists are finding new ways of using metals, plastics and other materials.

Engineers must know how materials respond to external forces, such as tension, compression, torsion, bending, and shear. All materials respond to these forces by elastic deformation. That is, the materials return their original size and form when the external force disappears. The materials may also have permanent deformation or they may fracture. The results of external forces are creep and fatigue.

Compression is a pressure causing a decrease in volume. When a material is subjected to a bending, shearing, or torsion (twisting) force, both tensile and comp­ressive forces are simultaneously at work. When a metal bar is bent, one side of it is stretched and subjected to a tensional force, and the other side is compressed.

Tension is a pulling force; for example, the force in a cable holding a weight. Under tension, a material usually stretches, returning to its original length if the force does not exceed the material's elastic limit. Under larger tensions, the material does not return completely to its original condition, and under greater forces the material ruptures.

Fatigue is the growth of cracks under stress. It occurs when a mechanical part is subjected to a repeated or cyclic stress, such as vibration. Even when the maximum stress never exceeds the elastic limit, failure of the material can occur even after a short time. No deformation is seen during fatigue, but small localized cracks develop and propagate through the material until the remaining cross-sectional area cannot support the maximum stress of the cyclic force. Knowledge of tensile stress, elastic limits, and the resistance of materials to creep and fatigue are of basic importance in engineering.

Creep is a slow, permanent deformation that results from a steady force acting on a material. Materials at high temperatures usually suffer from this deformation. The gradual loosening of bolts and the deformation of components of machines and engines are all the examples of creep. In many cases the slow deformation stops because deformation eliminates the force causing the creep. Creep extended over a long time finally leads to the rupture of the material


Задание 3 Найдите эквиваленты русских слов и словосочетаний:


1. отвечать требованиям современной технологии

2. используя лабораторные методы

3. новые способы использования металлов

4. сжатие, растяжение, изгиб, кручение, срез

5. возвращать первоначальный размер и форму

6. внешняя сила

7. постоянная деформация

8. уменьшение объема

9. растягивающие и сжимающие силы

10. превышать предел упругости материала

11. повторяющиеся циклические напряжения

12. разрушение материала

13. развитие и распространение мелких трещин

14. сопротивление материалов ползучести и устало­сти


Задание 4 Переведите на английский язык:


1. Упругая деформация — это реакция всех мате­риалов на внешние силы, такие, как растяжение, сжатие, скручивание, изгиб и срез.

2. Усталость и ползучесть материалов являются результатом внешних сил.

3. Внешние силы вызывают постоянную деформацию и разрушение материала.

4. Растягивающие и сжимающие силы работают одновременно, когда мы изгибаем или скручиваем материал.

5. Растяжение материала выше предела его упругости дает постоянную деформацию или разрушение.

6. Когда деталь работает долгое время под циклическими напряжениями в ней появляются небольшие. растущие трещины из-за усталости металла.

7. Ползучесть — это медленное изменение размера детали под напряжением.


Задание 5 Ответьте на вопросы, используя информацию текста. На основе вопросов перескажите текст.


1. What are the external forces causing the elastic deformation of materials? Describe those forces that change the form and size of materials.

2. What are the results of external forces?

3. What kinds of deformation are the combinations of tension and compression?

4. What is the result of tension? What happens if the elastic limit of material is exceeded under tension?

5. What do we call fatigue? When does it occur? What are the results of fatigue?

6. What do we call creep? When does this type of permanent deformation take place? What are the results of creep?


Текст 2

Mechanical Properties of Materials


Задание 1 Выучить данную лексику и подготовиться к лексическому диктанту:


ability — способность

amount — количество

absorb — поглощать

amount — количество

application — применение

brittle — хрупкий, ломкий

car body — кузов автомобиля

constituent — компонент

crack — трещина

creep resistance — устойчивость к ползучести

definition — определение

density — плотность

ductility — ковкость, эластичность

failure — повреждение

gradual — постепенный

permanent — постоянный

rigid — жесткий

to sink — тонуть

square root — квадратный корень

stiffness — жесткость

strain — нагрузка, напряжение, деформация

strength — прочность

stress — давление, напряжение

tensile strength — прочность на разрыв

toughness — прочность, стойкость

yield strength — прочность текучести

Young modulus — модуль Юнга


Задание 2 Прочитайте и переведите текст. Выполните задания, следующие за текстом:


Mechanical Properties of Materials


Density (specific weight) is the amount of mass in a unit volume. It is measured in kilograms per cubic metre. The density of water is 1000 kg/ m3 but most materials have a higher density and sink in water. Aluminium alloys, with typical densities around 2800 kg/ m3 are considerably less dense than steels, which have typical densities around 7800 kg/ m3. Density is important in any application where the material must not be heavy.

Stiffness (rigidity) is a measure of the resistance to deformation such as stretching or bending. The Young modulus is a measure of the resistance to simple stretching or compression. It is the ratio of the applied force per unit area (stress) to the fractional elastic deformation (strain). Stiffness is important when a rigid structure is to be made.

Strength is the force per unit area (stress) that a material can support without failing. The units are the same as those of stiffness, MN/m2, but in this case the deformation is irreversible. The yield strength is the stress at which a material first deforms plastically. For a metal the yield strength may be less than the fracture strength, which is the stress at which it breaks. Many materials have a higher strength in compression than intension.

Ductility is the ability of a material to deform without breaking. One of the great advantages of metals is their ability to be formed into the shape that is needed, such as car body parts. Materials that are not ductile are brittle. Ductile materials can absorb energy by deformation but brittle materials cannot.

Toughness is the resistance of a material to breaking when there is a crack in it. For a material of given toughness, the stress at which it will fail is inversely proportional to the square root of the size of the largest defect present. Toughness is different from strength: the toughest steels, for example, are different from the ones with highest tensile strength. Brittle materials have low toughness: glass can be broken along a chosen line by first scratching it with a diamond. Composites can be designed to have considerably greater toughness than their constituent materials. The example of a very tough composite is fiberglass that is very flexible and strong.

Creep resistance is the resistance to a gradual permanent change of shape, and it becomes especially important at higher temperatures. A successful research has been made in materials for machine parts that operate at high temperatures and under high tensile forces without gradually extending, for example the parts of plane engines.


Задание 3 Ответьте на вопросы:

1. What is the density of a material?

2. What are the units of density? Where low density is needed?

3. What are the densities of water, aluminium and steel?

4. A measure of what properties is stiffness? When stiffness is important?

5. What is Young modulus?

6. What is strength?

7. What is yield strength? Why fracture strength is always greater than yield strength?

8. What is ductility? Give the examples of ductile materials. Give the examples of brittle materials.

8. What is toughness?

9. What properties of steel are necessary for the manufacturing of: a) springs, b) car body parts, c) bolts and nuts, d) cutting tools?

10. Where is aluminium mostly used because of its lightweight?


Задание 4 Найдите эквиваленты русских слов и словосочетаний:


1. количество массы в единице объема

2. килограмм на кубический метр

3. мера сопротивления деформации

4. отношение приложенной силы на единицу площади к частичной упругой деформации

5. жесткая конструкция

6. прочность на сжатие

7. способность материала деформироваться не разрушаясь

8. поглощать энергию путем деформации

9. обратно пропорционально квадрату размера дефекта

10. постепенное изменение формы

11. повышенные температуры

12. высокие растягивающие усилия


Задание 5 Переведите на английский язык:


1. Плотность измеряется в килограммах на кубический метр.

2. Большинство материалов имеют более большую плотность, чем вода и тонут в воде.

3. Плотность материала очень важна, особенно в авиации.

4. Модуль Юнга — отношение приложенной силы к упругой деформации данного материала.

5. Чем более металл жесткий, тем менее он деформируется под нагрузкой.

6. Когда металл растягивают, он сначала течет, то есть пластически деформируется.

7. Свинец, медь, алюминий и золото — самые ковкие металлы.

8. Сопротивление ползучести является очень важным свойством материалов, которые используются в авиационных моторах.


Задание 6 Дайте краткое описание механических свойств металлов, используя информацию текста.


Задание 7 Составить диалог на основе задания 3 и приложения А, используя информацию из текста Mechanical properties of materials.


Тема 3.4 Станки.


Цель: овладеть новой лексикой по теме, образование и употребление герундия.


Студент должен

иметь представление:

  • о различных видах станков;

знать:

  • образование и употребление герундия;

уметь:

  • прочитать, перевести и пересказать текст, использовать его в коммуникативно-обращенном устном монологическом высказывании, письменно перевести текст, дать краткое описание станков, используя лексику по теме, составлять аннотацию к тексту.


Тематика текстов для чтения: Станки, Токарный станок, Фрезерный станок, Штампы, Цифровой контроль.


Грамматика: герундий.


Виды практических заданий: лексические и грамматические упражнения: герундий - упр.396-402 стр. 326-331 (1), упр. 1,2,3 стр.276-277 (2), причастие - упр.374, 378,379 (1), упр.1 стр. 332, упр.3 стр. 333, упр.9 стр. 335 (2); перевод и пересказ текстов.


Вид контроля: устный и письменный опрос.


Текст 1

Machine-tools


Задание 1 Выучить данную лексику и подготовиться к лексическому диктанту:


machine-tools станки

electrically driven с электроприводом

shape — форма

workpiece деталь

accurateточный

development — развитие

to allow — позволять, разрешать

interchangeable — взаимозаменяемый

facility — приспособление

relative — относительный

amount — количество

fluid — жидкость

to lubricate — смазывать

spark erosion — электроискровая обработка

discharge — разряд

by means of посредством

beamлуч

drilling сверление

flexibleгибкий

range — ассортимент, диапазон


Задание 2 Прочитайте и переведите текст:


Machine-tools


Machine-tools are used to shape metals and other materials. The material to be shaped is called the workpiece. Most machine-tools are now electrically driven. Machine-tools with electrical drive are faster and more accurate than hand tools: they were an important element in the development of mass-production processes, as they allowed individual parts to be made in large numbers so as to be interchangeable.

All machine-tools have facilities for holding both the workpiece and the tool, and for accurately controlling the movement of the cutting tool relative to the workpiece. Most, machining operations generate large amounts of heal, and use cooling fluids (usually a mixture of water and oils) for cooling and lubrication.

Machine-tools usually work materials mechanically but other machining methods have been developed lately. They include chemical machining, spark erosion to machine very hard materials to any shape by means of a continuous high-voltage spark (discharge) between an electrode and a workpiece. Other machining methods include drilling using ultrasound, and cutting by means of a laser beam. Numerical control of machine-tools and flexible manufacturing systems have made it possible for complete systems of machine-tools to be used flexibly for the manufacture of a range of products.


Текст 2

Lathe


Задание 1 Выучить данную лексику и подготовиться к лексическому диктанту:


lathe — токарный станок

circular cross-section — круглое, поперечное сечение

surface — поверхность

stationary — неподвижный, стационар­ный

sideways — в сторону

variety — разнообразие, разновидность

depth — глубина

headstock — передняя бабка

spindle — шпиндель

chuck — зажим, патрон

faceplate — планшайба

lathe bed — станина станка

to enable — давать возможность

tolerance — допуск


Задание 2 Прочитайте и переведите текст:


Lathe


Lathe is still the most important machine-tool. It produces parts of circular cross-section by turning the workpiece on its axis and cutting its surface with a sharp stationary tool. The tool may be moved sideways to produce a cylindrical part and moved towards the workpiece to control the depth of cut. Nowadays all lathes are power-driven by electric motors. That allows continuous rotation of the workpiece at a variety of speeds. The modern lathe is driven by means of a headstock supporting a hollow spindle on accurate bearings and carrying either a chuck or a faceplate, to which the workpiece is clamped. The movement of the tool, both along the lathe bed and at right angle to it, can be accurately controlled, so enabling a part to be machined to close tolerances. Modern lathes are often under numerical control.


Задание 3 Выполните задания к текстам «Machine tools» и «Lathe»


Задание 3.1 Ответьте на вопросы:


1. What are machine-tools used for?

2. How are most machine-tools driven nowadays?

3. What facilities have all machine-tools?

4. How are the cutting tool and the workpiece cooled during machining?

5. What other machining methods have been developed lately?

6. What systems are used now for the manufacture of a range of products without the use of manual labour?

7. What parts can be made with lathes?

8. How can the cutting tool be moved on a lathe?

9. How is the workpiece clamped in a lathe?

10. Can we change the speeds of workpiece rotation in a lathe?

11. What is numerical control of machine tools used for?


Задание 3.2 Найдите эквиваленты русских слов и словосочетаний:


1. обрабатываемый материал

2. электропривод

3. более точный

4. отдельные детали

5. процесс массового производства

6. приспособления для держания резца и детали

7. операции по механической обработке детали

8. высоковольтный разряд

9. сверление ультразвуком

10. резание с помощью лазерного луча

11. гибкие производственные системы

12. детали круглого сечения

13. поворачивать деталь вокруг ее оси

14. двигать в сторону, двигать по направлению к детали

15. глубина резания

16. непрерывное вращение детали

17. движение резца вдоль станины


Задание 3.3 Переведите на английский язык:


1. Токарный станок позволяет производить детали круглого сечения.

2. Деталь зажимается в патроне или на планшайбе токарного станка.

3. Резец может двигаться как вдоль станины, так и под прямым углом к ней.

4. Современные токарные станки часто имеют цифровое управление.

Задание 4 Прочтите текст и переведите на русский язык в письменной форме абзацы 3,4 и 5; используя данные слова и словосочетания:

1. engine lathe

2. turning

3. drilling

4. screw cutting

5. headstock

6. tailstock

7. saddle

8. lever

9. apron

10. carriage

11. guideways

12. handle

токарно-винторезный станок

обточка

сверление

нарезание винтов

передняя бабка

задняя бабка

суппорт

рычаг

фартук (суппорта)

каретка

направляющие (станка)

рукоятка

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ENGINE LATHE

1. The engine lathe is the most commonly used machine-tool. It is used for great variety of metal operations, such as turning, drilling, screwcutting and many others.

2. The principal units of the lathe are the bed, the headstock, the tailstock and the carriage with the apron.

3. The bed is the base of any machine-tool and it is made of grey iron casting on which the saddle and the tailstock slide along special guideways. The headstock is also located and bolted on the bed.

4. The headstock contains the spindle and the speed gearbox. The spindle is the part of the machine to which power is applied to rotate the work. The changing of the spindle speed is effected by levers.

5. The tailstock consists of a casting fitted to the bed. The function of the tailstock is to support one end of the work turned between centres and to mount the tools.

6. The carriage of the lathe, which carries the tool, is made up of two principal parts: the saddle and the apron. The saddle travels along the guideways of the bed. The apron represents the front wall of the carriage. On the front of the apron are mounted the handles and levers by which the actions of the tool are controller.


Текст 3

Milling machine


Задание 1 Выучить данную лексику:


milling machine — фрезерный станок

series — серия, ряд

cutting edge режущий край, острие

circumference — окружность

to feed — подавать

longitudinal — продольный

horizontal — горизонтальный

vertical — вертикальный

versatile — универсальный

flat — плоский

contoured — контурный

angle — угол

slot — прорезь, паз

gear teeth — зубы шестерни

drill — дрель, сверло, сверлить

hole — отверстие

to enlarge — увеличивать

thread — резьба

portable — портативный

unit — единица, целое, узел

previously — ранее

to slide — скользить

strokeход

lateral боковой

displacementсмещение

straight — прямой

idle — на холостом ходу

workshop — цех, мастерская

to mountкрепить

holder держатель

to executeвыполнять

simultaneous — одновременный

multiple — многочисленный

grinder — шлифовальный станок

wheel — круг, колесо

bonded — скрепленный

to remove — удалять

pass — проход

fine — точный

conventional— обычный

device — устройство, прибор

fragile — хрупкий


Задание 2 Прочитайте и переведите текст. Выполните задания, следующие за текстом:


Milling machine


In a milling machine the cutter (фреза) is a circular device with a series of cutting edges on its circumference. The workpiece is held on a table that controls the feed against the cutter. The table has three possible movements: longitudinal, horizontal, and vertical; in some cases it can also rotate. Milling machines are the most versatile of all machine tools. Flat or contoured surfaces may be machined with excellent finish and accuracy. Angles, slots, gear teeth and cuts can be made by using various shapes of cutters.


Drilling and Boring Machines

To drill a hole usually hole-making machine-tools are used. They can drill a hole according to some specification, they can enlarge it, or they can cut threads for a screw or to create an accurate size or a smooth finish of a hole.

Drilling machines (сверлильные станки) are different in size and function, from portable drills to radial drilling machines, multispindle units, automatic production machines, and deep-hole-drilling machines.

Boring (расточка) is a process that enlarges holes previously drilled, usually with a rotating single-point cutter held on a boring bar and fed against a stationary workpiece.


Shapers and Planers

The shaper (поперечно-строгальный станок) is used mainly to produce different flat surfaces. The tool slides against the stationary workpiece and cuts on one stroke, returns to its starting position, and then cuts on the next stroke after a slight lateral displacement. In general, the shaper can make any surface having straight-line elements. It uses only one cutting-tool and is relatively slow, because the return stroke is idle. That is why the shaper is seldom found on a mass production line. It is, however, valuable for tool production and for workshops where flexibility is important and relative slowness is unimportant.

The planer (продольно-строгальный станок) is the largest of the reciprocating machine tools. It differs from the shaper, which moves a tool past a fixed workpiece because the planer moves the workpiece to expose a new section to the tool. Like the shaper, the planer is intended to produce vertical, horizontal, or diagonal cuts. It is also possible to mount several tools at one time in any or all tool holders of a planer to execute multiple simultaneous cuts.

Grinders (шлифовальные станки) remove metal by a rotating abrasive wheel. The wheel is composed of many small grains of abrasive, bonded together, with each grain acting as a miniature cutting tool. The process gives very smooth and accurate finishes. Only a small amount of material is removed at each pass of the wheel, so grinding machines require fine wheel regulation. The pressure of the wheel against the workpiece is usually very light, so that grinding can be carried out on fragile materials that cannot be machined by other conventional devices.


Задание 3 Ответьте на вопросы:


1. What is the shape of a cutter in a milling machine?

2. What moves in a milling machine, a table or a cutter?

3. What possible movements has the table of a milling machine?

4. What kind of surfaces and shapes may be machined by a milling machine?

5. What can we use a drilling machine for?

6. What kinds of drilling machines exist?

7. What is rotated while boring, a cutter or a work-piece?

8. Describe the work of a shaper (planer).

9. What must be done to execute multiple simultaneous cuts on a planer?

10. What is the working tool in a grinder?

11. Can we obtain a very smooth surface after grinding and why?

12. Can we grind fragile materials and why?


Задание 4 Найдите эквиваленты русских слов и словосочетаний:


1. Токарный станок все еще остается самым важным станком.

2. Все современные токарные станки оборудованы электроприводами.

3. Движение инструмента контролируется с высокой точностью.

4. Электропривод позволяет обрабатывать заготовку на различных скоростях.


Задание 5 Дайте краткое описание станков, используя лексику текста.


1. Поперечно-строгальный станок.

2. Продольно-строгальный станок.

3. Шлифовальный станок.


Текст 4

Numerical control


Задание 1 Выучить данную лексику


programmable automation – программированная автоматизация

code – код, кодировать

a medium – средство

initial – первоначальный

application – применение

a cutting tool – режущий инструмент

NC (numerical control) – цифровой контроль

an instruction – режим

a work part – рабочая деталь

a feedback – обратная связь

to implement – оборудовать

CNC – computer numerical control

involve – вовлекать

DNC – direct numerical control

componentinsertion machines – приборы для установки компонентов на плату

drafting machines – приборы использующиеся для выполнения чертежей, схем

an inspection – программа, контроль

data – данные

work head – главная часть прибора

relative – относительно

to position - устанавливать

semiconductor - полупроводник

conductor – проводник

a printed circuit board (PCB) – печатная плата

an individual component – отдельная деталь

to place – размещать, помещать

surface – поверхность

a small hole – небольшое отверстие


Задание 2 Прочитайте и переведите текст. Выполните задания, следующие за текстом.


Numerical control


Numerical control is a form of programmable automation in which a machine is controlled by numbers (and other symbols) that have been coded on punched paper tape or an alternative storage medium. The initial application of numerical control was in the machine tool industry, to control the position of a cutting tool relative to the work part being machined. The NC part program represents the set of machining instructions for the particular part. The coded numbers in the program specify x-y-z coordinates in a Cartesian axis system, defining the various positions of the cutting tool in relation to the work part. By sequencing these positions in the program, the machine tool is directed to accomplish the machining of the part. A position feedback control system is used in most NC machines to verify that the coded instructions have been correctly performed. Today a small computer is used as the controller in an NC machine tool. Since this form of numerical control is implemented by computer, it is called computer numerical control, or CNC. Another variation in the implementation of numerical control involves sending part programs over telecommunications lines from a central computer to individual machine tools in the factory. This form of numerical control is called direct numerical control, or DNC.

Many applications of numerical control have been developed since its initial use to control machine tools. Other machines using numerical control include component-insertion machines used in electronics assembly, drafting machines that prepare engineering drawings, coordinate measuring machines that perform accurate inspections of parts. In these applications coded numerical data are employed to control the position of a tool or workhead relative to some object. Such machines are used to position electronic components (e.g., semiconductor chip modules) onto a printed circuit board (PCB). It is basically an x-y positioning table that moves the printed circuit board relative to the part-insertion head, which then places the individual component into position on the board. A typical printed circuit board has dozens of individual components that must be placed on its surface; in many cases, the lead wires of the components must be inserted into small holes in the board, requiring great precision by the insertion machine. The program that controls the machine indicates which components are to be placed on the board and their locations. This information is contained in the product-design database and is typically communicated directly from the computer to the insertion machine.


Задание 3 Дайте расшифровку и перевод аббревиатур:


NC

CNC

DNC

PBC


Задание 4 Переведите на английский язык.


  1. числовой контроль

  2. числа или символы

  3. чтобы контролировать положение

  4. программа числового контроля, следящая за изготовлением детали

  5. различные положения режущего инструмента

  6. система контроля обратной связи

  7. станки с числовым контролем

  8. чтобы выполнить чертежи

  9. измерительные приборы

  10. программа, контролирующая станок


Задание 5 Ответьте на вопросы, используя информацию текста.


  1. What is numerical control?

  2. In what industry was the initial application of numerical control?

  3. How many forms of numerical control do you know?

  4. Where are the machines with numerical control used?

  5. How do they work?

  6. Are such machines used to position electronic components?

  7. Where is the information contained?




Задание 6 Подготовьте краткий пересказ текста, используя задание 5.


Текст 5

Dies


Задание 1 Выучить данную лексику:


chip — стружка

sharp — острый

friction — трение

content — содержание

range — диапазон

inexpensive — недорогой

to permit — позволять, разрешать

common — обычный

tungsten — вольфрам

ingredient — ингредиент

diamond — алмаз

tips — наконечники

ceramic — керамический

truing — правка, наводка, заточка

die — матрица, штамп

matrix — матрица

to employ — применять

to pierce — протыкать, прокалывать

to punch — пробивать отверстие

matching — сочетающийся, парный

coarse — грубый

wire — проволока

to draw — тащить, волочить

thread — резьба

hardened — закаленный

to lubricate — смазывать

to screw — привинчивать

nut — гайка

outside — наружный, внешний

inside — внутри, внутренний


Задание 2 Прочитайте и переведите текст. Выполните задания, следующие за текстом:

Dies


Dies are tools used for the shaping solid materials, especially those employed in the pressworking of cold metals.

In presswork, dies are used in pairs. The smaller die, or punch, fits inside the larger die, called the matrix or, simply, the die. The metal to be formed, usually a sheet, is placed over the matrix on the press. The punch is mounted on the press and moves down by hydraulic or mechanical force.

A number of different forms of dies are employed for different operations. The simplest are piercing dies (пробивной штамп), used for punching holes. Bending and folding dies are designed to make single or compound bends. A combination die is designed to perform more than one of the above operations in one stroke of the press. A progressive die permits successive forming op­erations with the same die.

In coining, metal is forced to flow into two matching dies, each of which bears a engraved design.


Задание 3 Найдите эквиваленты русских слов и словосочетаний:


1. удалять металлическую стружку

2. острый режущий край

3. содержание углерода

4. режущая способность

5. сталь для скоростного резания

6. правка шлифовальных кругов

7. гидравлическое или механическое давление

8. различные формы штампов


Задание 4 Переведите на английский язык:


1. Все резцы и фрезы должны иметь острую режущую кромку.

2. Во время резания режущий инструмент и деталь имеют высокую температуру и должны охлаждаться.

3. Углеродистые стали часто используются для изготовления резцов потому что они недорогие.

4. Быстрорежущие стали содержат вольфрам, хром и ванадий.

5. Алмазы используются для резания абразивных материалов и чистовой обработки поверхности твердых материалов.

6. Для различных операций используют различные штампы.

7. Волочильные доски для проволоки делаются из очень твердых материалов.

8. Резьбонарезные плашки и метчики используются для нарезки резьбы снаружи и внутри.


Здание 5 Переведите в письменной форме один из предложенных вариантов текстов.


1 вариант


Wiredrawing Dies


In the manufacture of wire, a drawplate (волочильная доска) is usually employed. This tool is a metal plate; containing a number of holes, successively less in diameter and known as wire dies. A piece of metal is pulled through the largest die to make a coarse wire. This wire is then drawn through the smaller hole, and then the next, until the wire is reduced to the desired measurement. Wiredrawing dies are made from extremely hard materials, such as tungsten carbide or diamonds.


2 вариант


Thread-Cutting Dies


For cutting threads on bolts or on the outside of pipes, a thread-cutting die (резьбонарезная плашка) is used. It is usually made of hardened steel in the form of a round plate with a hole in the centre. The hole has a thread. To cut an outside thread, the die is lubricated with oil and simply screwed onto an unthreaded bolt or piece of pipe, the same way a nut is screwed onto a bolt. The corresponding tool for cutting an inside thread, such as that inside a nut, is called a tap (метчик).







Тема 3.5 Сварка и виды сварки.


Цель: овладеть новой лексикой по теме, The Sequence of Tenses.


Студент должен

иметь представление:

  • о сварке, видах сварки, о технике безопасности при работе со сваркой;

знать:

  • согласование времён в сложных предложениях;

уметь:

  • прочитать, перевести и пересказать текст, использовать его в коммуникативно-обращенном устном монологическом и диалогическом высказывании.


Тематика текстов для чтения: Сварка, Виды сварки, Лазерная и плазменная сварка.


Грамматика: согласование времён в сложных предложениях.


Виды практических заданий: лексические и грамматические упражнения: упр.275-278, 284, 288, 291, 296 стр. 234-248 (1); упр.1 стр.112, упр.9 стр.115 (2); перевод и пересказ текстов, составление диалогов.


Вид контроля: устный и письменный опрос.


Текст 1

Welding


Задание 1 Выучить данную лексику:


to join — соединять

pressure welding — сварка давлением

heat welding — сварка нагреванием

instead — вместо, взамен

bolting — скрепление болтами

riveting — клепка

basic— основной

to manufacture — изготовлять

to depend — зависеть от

purpose — цель

available — имеющийся в наличии

equipment — оборудование

source — источник

gas — газосварка

arc welding — электродуговая сварка

resistance welding — контактная сварка

laser welding — лазерная сварка

electron-beam welding — электронно-лучевая сварка

flame — пламя

edge — край

simultaneously — одновременно

filler — наполнитель

wire — проволока

rod — прут, стержень

to melt — плавить(ся)

joint — соединение, стык

advantage —- преимущество

to require — требовать нуждаться

surface — поверхность

coated — покрытый

flux — флюс

fusible — плавкий

to shield — заслонять, защищать

touching — касание

tip — кончик


Задание 2 Прочитайте и переведите текст. Выполните задания, следующие за текстом:


WELDING


Welding is a process when metal parts are joined together by the application of heat, pressure, or a combination of both. The processes of welding can be divided into two main groups:

pressure welding, when the weld is achieved by pressure and

heat welding, when the weld is achieved by heat. Heat welding is the most common welding process used today.

Nowadays welding is used instead of bolting and riveting in the construction of many types of structures, including bridges, buildings, and ships. It is also a basic process in the manufacture of machinery and in the motor and aircraft industries. It is necessary almost in all productions where metals are used.

The welding process depends greatly on the properties of the metals, the purpose of their application and the available equipment. Welding processes are classified according to the sources of heat and pressure used.

The welding processes widely employed today include gas welding, arc welding, and resistance welding. Other joining processes are laser welding, and electron-beam welding.

Gas Welding

Gas welding is a non-pressure process using heat from a gas flame. The flame is applied directly to the metal edges to be joined and simultaneously to a filler metal in the form of wire or rod, called the welding rod, which is melted to the joint. Gas welding has the advantage of using equipment that is portable and does not require an electric power source. The surfaces to be welded and the welding rod are coated with flux, a fusible material that shields the material from air, which would result in a defective weld.

Arc Welding

Arc-welding is the most important welding process for joining steels. It requires a continuous supply of either direct or alternating electrical current. This current is used to create an electric arc, which generates enough heat to melt metal and create a weld.

Arc welding has several advantages over other welding methods. Arc welding is faster because the concentration of heat is high. Also, fluxes are not necessary in certain methods of arc welding. The most widely used arc-welding processes are shielded metal arc, gas-tungsten arc, gas-metal arc, and submerged arc.

Shielded Metal Arc

In shielded metal-arc welding, a metallic electrode, which conducts electricity, is coated with flux and connected to a source of electric current. The metal to be welded is connected to the other end of the same source of current. An electric arc is formed by touching the tip of the electrode to the metal and then drawing it away.

The intense heat of the arc melts both parts to be welded and the point of the metal electrode, which supplies filler metal for the weld. This process is used mainly for welding steels.


Задание 3 Ответьте на вопросы:

1. How can a process of welding be defined?

2. What are the two main groups of processes of welding?

3. How can we join metal parts together?

4. What is welding used for nowadays?

5. Where is welding necessary?

6. What do the welding processes of today include?

7. What are the principles of gas welding?

8. What kinds of welding can be used for joining steels?

9. What does arc welding require?

10. What is the difference between the arc welding and shielded-metal welding?


Задание 4 Найдите эквиваленты русских слов и словосочетаний:

1. сварка давлением

2. тепловая сварка

3. болтовое (клепаное) соединение

4. процесс сварки

5. зависеть от свойств металлов

6. имеющееся оборудование

7. сварочный электрод

8. плавкий материал

9. дефектный сварной шов

10. непрерывная подача электрического тока

11. электрическая дуга

12. источник электрического тока


Задание 5 Дайте краткое описание видов сварок, используя информацию текста.

1. Gas Welding

2. Arc Welding

3. Shielded Metal Arc


Задание 6 Составить диалог на основе задания 3 и приложения А, используя информацию из текста Welding


Текст 2

Other types of welding


Задание 1 Выучить данную лексику и подготовиться к лексическому диктанту:


gas-tungsten — сварка оплавлением вольфрамовым электродом в среде инертного газа

inert — инертный

edge — край

bare — голый

rate — зд. скорость

gas-metal arc — аргонодуговая сварка

considerably — значительно, гораздо

surrounding — окружающий

carbon dioxide — углекислый газ

droplet — капелька

liquid — жидкость, жидкий

beneath — под, ниже, внизу

layer —слой

weld seam — сварной шов

resistance — сопротивление

clamp — зажим, зажимать

sheet лист

fusible — плавкий

granular — плавкий

semi-automatic — полуавтоматическая

create — создавать

to submerge — погружать


Задание 2 Прочитайте и переведите текст. Выполните задания, следующие за текстом:


Other types of welding


Non-consumable Electrode Arc welding

As a non-consumable electrodes tungsten or carbon electrodes can be used. In gas-tungsten arc welding a tungsten electrode is used in place of the metal electrode used in shielded metal-arc welding. A chemically inert gas, such as argon, helium, or carbon dioxide is used to shield the metal from oxidation. The heat from the arc formed between the electrode and the metal melts the edges of the metal. Metal for the weld may be added by placing a bare wire in the arc or the point of the weld. This process can be used with nearly all metals and pro­duces a high-quality weld. However, the rate of welding is considerably slower than in other processes.


Gas-Metal Arc

In gas-metal welding, a bare electrode is shielded from the air by surrounding it with argon or carbon dioxide gas and sometimes by coating the electrode with flux. The electrode is fed into the electric arc, and melts off in droplets that enter the liquid metal of the weld seam. Most metals can be joined by this process.

Submerged Arc

Submerged-arc welding is similar to gas-metal arc welding, but in this process no gas is used to shield the weld. Instead of that, the arc and tip of the wire are submerged beneath a layer of granular, fusible material that covers the weld seam. This process is also called electroslag welding. It is very efficient but can be used only with steels.

Resistance Welding

In resistance welding, heat is obtained from the resistance of metal to the flow of an electric current. Electrodes are clamped on each side of the parts to be welded, the parts are subjected to great pressure, and a heavy current is applied for a short period of time. The point where the two metals touch creates resistance to the flow of current. This resistance causes heat, which melts the metals and creates the weld. Resistance welding is widely employed in many fields of sheet metal or wire manufacturing and is often used for welds made by automatic or semi-automatic machines especially in automobile industry.


Задание 3 Ответьте на вопросы:


1. What is the difference between the arc-welding and non-consumable electrode arc welding?

2. What are the disadvantages of the non-consumable electrode arc welding?

3. How is electrode protected from the air in gas-metal arc welding?

4. What is submerged arc welding?

5. What is the principle of resistance welding?

6. Where is semi-automatic welding employed?


Задание 4 Переведите на английский язык:


1. вольфрамовый электрод

2. инертный газ

3. окисление

4. высококачественный сварочный шов

5. скорость сварки

6. аргон, гелий, углекислый газ

7. жидкий металл

8. слой плавкого материала в виде гранул

9. листовой металл

10. полуавтоматические сварочные станки


Задание 5 Переведите на русский язык:


1. In resistance welding, heat is obtained from the resistance of metal to the flow of an electric current.

2. The heat from the arc melts the edges of the metal.

3. A bare electrode is shielded from the air by surrounding it with argon or carbon dioxide gas.

4. Submerged-arc welding is similar to gas-metal arc welding.

5. Electrodes are clamped on each side of the parts to be welded.

6. Resistance causes heat which melts the metals and creates the weld.


Задание 6 Прочтите текст, найдите и переведите абзацы 1,3 и 4; используя данные слова и словосочетания:


1. non-detachable joining

2. to replace

3. arc welding

4. laser welding

5. application

6. to weld

7. pulsed laser

8. joint

9. correspondingly

10. to permit

11. dissimilar

12. plasma arc welding

13. particularly

14. with the exception

неразъемное соединение

заменять

дуговая сварка

лазерная сварка

применение

сваривать

пульсирующий лазер

стык, соединение

соответственно

позволять

неодинаковые (разные)

плазменная сварка

в частности

за исключением




LASER AND PLASMA WELDING


1. Welding is a process which provides a non-detachable joining of two like metal pieces by heating them till melting condition or fusion without or with mechanical pressure.

2. Laser welding is quickly becoming a practical welding process. In its present stage of development, the laser can form welds up to about 1/32 inch deep.

3. Pulsed lasers are often used in industry today. The laser's heat input is very small, so the heat-affected zone around a joint is correspondingly small.

The laser's high power intensity permits welds between dissimilar metals of widely varying physical properties.

4. Plasma arc welding is efficient for fusion welding stainless steels, titanium, nickel from 0.001 to 0.030 inch thick. The process is particularly well suited for repairing delicate parts, for joining thin structures, and for welding electronic components. With the exception of aluminium any metal or combination of metals can be welded with plasma arc process.


Задание 7 Прочтите и переведите «Инструкцию по технике безопасности при работе со сваркой», дайте краткий пересказ:


How to weld (Electric Arc)


1 Hold the screen in front of your eyes.

2 Hold the electrode at 80° to the surface of the plates.

3 Make sure that the tip of the electrode is less than 3 mm

from the plate.

4 Strike an arc between the tip and the plate.

5 Move the electrode steadily backwards in a straight line (see FIG.1).


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Тема 3.6 Автоматизация, виды автоматизации.

Роботы в промышленности.


Цель: овладеть новой лексикой по теме, обобщающее повторение грамматического материала.


Студент должен:

иметь представление:

  • об автоматизации, видах автоматизации, использовании автоматизации в промышленности, технике безопасности;

знать:

  • пройденный грамматический материал;

уметь:

  • прочитать, перевести в устной и письменной форме текст, дать краткий пересказ текста, составить аннотацию к тексту, активизируя в своей речи новые слова и словосочетания, составлять разные по типу вопросы и диалоги.


Тематика текстов для чтения: Автоматизация, Виды автоматизации, Роботы в промышленности.


Грамматика: обобщающее повторение грамматического материала.


Виды практических заданий: лексические и грамматические упражнения: упр.275-278, 284, 288, 291, 296 стр. 234-245 (1); упр.1 стр.112, упр.9 стр.115 (2); перевод и пересказ текстов, составление диалогов.


Вид контроля: устный и письменный опрос, грамматический тест.


Текст 1

Automation


Задание 1 Выучить данную лексику и подготовиться к лексическому диктанту:


automation — автоматизация

previously — ранее

sequence — последовательность

assembly plant — сборочный завод

non-manufacturing — непроизводственный

device — устройство, прибор

resemble — походить

efficiency — эффективность

flyball governor — центробежный регулятор

steam engine — паровоз

household thermostat — бытовой термостат

facilitate — способствовать

punched — перфорированный

aid — помощь

dimension — измерение, размеры


Задание 2 Прочитайте и переведите текст. Выполните задания, следующие за текстом:


Automation


Automation is the system of manufacture performing certain tasks, previously done by people, by machines only. The sequences of operations are controlled automatically. The most familiar example of a highly auto mated system is an assembly plant for automobiles or other complex products.

The term automation is also used to describe non-manufacturing systems in which automatic devices can operate independently of human control. Such devices as automatic pilots, automatic telephone equipment and automated control systems are used to perform various operations much faster and better than could be done by people.

Automated manufacturing had several steps in its development. Mechanization was the first step necessary in the development of automation. The simplification of work made it possible to design and build machines that resembled the motions of the worker. These specialized machines were motorized and they had better production efficiency.

Industrial robots, originally designed only to perform simple tasks in environments dangerous to human workers, are now widely used to transfer, manipulate, and position both light and heavy workpieces performing all the functions of a transfer machine.

In the 1920s the automobile industry for the first time used an integrated system of production. This method of production was adopted by most car manufacturers and became known an Detroit automation.

The feedback principle is used in all automatic-control mechanisms when machines have ability to correct themselves. The feedback principle has been used for centuries. An outstanding early example is the flyball governor, invented in 1788 by James Watt to control the speed of the steam engine. The common household thermostat is another example of a feedback device.

Using feedback devices, machines can start, stop, speed up, slow down, count, inspect, test, compare, and measure. These operations are commonly applied to a wide variety of production operations.

Computers have greatly facilitated the use of feedback in manufacturing processes. Computers gave rise to the development of numerically controlled machines. The motions of these machines are controlled by punched paper or magnetic tapes. In numerically controlled machining centres machine tools can perform several different machining operations.

More recently, the introduction of microprocessors and computers have; made possible the development of computer aided design and computer-aided manufacture (CAD and CAM) technologies. When using these systems a designer draws a part and indicates its dimensions with the help of a mouse, light pen, or other input device. After the drawing has been completed the computer automatically gives the instructions that direct a machining centre to machine the part.

Another development using automation are the flexible manufacturing systems (FMS). A computer in FMS can be used to monitor and control the operation of the whole factory.

Automation has also had an influence on the areas of the economy other than manufacturing. Small computers are used in systems called word processors, which are rapidly becoming a standard part of the modern office. They are used to edit texts, to type letters and so on.


Задание 3 Ответьте на вопросы:


1. How is the term automation defined in the text?

2. What is the most«familiar example » of automation given in the text?

3. What was the first step in the development of automaton?

4. What were the first robots originally designed for?

5. What was the first industry to adopt the new integrated system of production?

6. What is feedback principle?

7. What do the abbreviations CAM and CAD stand for?

8. What is FMS?

9. What industries use automation technologies?


Задание 4 Найдите эквиваленты русских слов и словосочетаний:


1. автоматические устройства

2. автоматизированное производство

3. выполнять простые задачи

4. как легкие, так и тяжелые детали

5. интегрированная система производства

6. принцип обратной связи

7. механизм может разгоняться и тормозить

8. компьютер автоматически посылает команды

9. высокоавтоматизированная система

10. непроизводственная система


Задание 5 Составьте диалог на основе задания 3 и приложения А, используя информацию из текста «Automation».


Задание 6 Прочитайте, переведите текст и подготовьте краткий пересказ текста, активизируя лексику по теме:


Automation in Industry


Many industries are highly automated or use automation technology in some part of their operation. In communications and especially in the telephone industry dialling and transmission are all done automatically. Railways are also controlled by automatic signalling devices, which have sensors that detect carriages passing a particular point. In this way the movement and location of trains can be monitored.

Not all industries require the same degree of automation. Sales, agriculture, and some service industries are difficult to automate, though agriculture industry may become more mechanized, especially in the processing and packaging of foods.

The automation technology in manufacturing and assembly is widely used in car and other consumer product industries.

Nevertheless, each industry has its own concept of automation that answers its particular production needs.


Текст 2

Types of automation


Задание 1 Выучить данную лексику:


equipment — оборудование

sequence — последовательность

initial — первоначальный, начальный

investment — инвестиция, вклад

to facilitate — способствовать

rate — скорость, темп

assembly machines — сборочные машины

quantity количество

nonproductive — непроизводительный

changeover — переход, переналадка


Задание 2 Прочитайте и переведите текст. Выполните задания, следующие за текстом:


Applications of Automation and Robotics in Industry


Manufacturing is one of the most important application are for automation technology. There are several types of automation in manufacturing. The examples of automated systems used in manufacturing are described below.

1. Fixed automation, sometimes called «hard automation» refers to automated machines in which the equipment configuration allows fixed sequence of processing operations. These machines are programmed by their design to make only certain processing operations. They are not easily changed over- from one product style to another. This form of automation needs high initial in vestments and high production rates. That is why it is suitable for products that are made in large volumes. Examples of fixed automation are machining transfer lines found in the automobile industry, automatic assembly machines and certain chemical processes.

2. Programmable automation is a form of automation for producing products in large quantities, ranging from several dozen to several thousand units at a time. For each new product the production equipment must be reprogrammed and changed over. This reprogramming and change over fake a period of non-productive time. Production rates in programmable automation are generally lower than in fixed automation, because the equipment is designed to facilitate product changeover rather than for product specialization. A numerical-control machine-tool is a good example of programmable automation. The program is coded in computer memory for each different product style and the machine-tool is controlled by the computer programmer.

3. Flexible automation is a kind of programmable automation. Programmable automation requires time to re-program and change over the production equipment for each series of new product. This is lost production time, which is expensive. In flexible automation the number of products is limited so that the changeover of the equipment, can be done very quickly and automatically. The reprogramming of the equipment in flexible automation is done at a computer terminal without using the production equipment itself. Flexible automation allows a mixture of different products to be produced one right after another.


Задание 3 Ответьте на вопросы и подготовьте краткий пересказ текста:


1. What is the most important application of automation?

2. What are the types of automation used in manufacturing?

3. What is fixed automation?

4. What are the limitations of hard automation?

5. What is the best example of programmable automation?

6. What are the limitations of programmable automation?

7. What are the advantages of flexible automation?

8. Is it possible to produce different products one after another using automation technology?


Задание 4 Найдите эквиваленты русских слов и словосочетаний:


1. сфера применения

2. фиксированная последовательность операций

3. автоматические сборочные машины

4. определенные химические процессы

5. станок с числовым программным управлением

6. потерянное производственное время

7. разнообразная продукция


Задание 5 Переведите на русский язык:


1. automation technology

2. fixed automation

3. assembly machines

4. non-productive time

5. programmable automation

6. computer terminal

7. numerical-control machine-tool


Задание 6 Напишите перевод текста в письменной форме:


Safety Engineering


This field of engineering has as its object the prevention of accidents. In recent years safety engineering has become a speciality adopted by individuals trained in other branches of engineering. Safety engineers develop methods and procedures to safeguard workers in hazardous occupations. They also assist in designing machinery, factories, ships and roads, suggesting alterations and improvements to reduce the possibility of accident. In. the design of machine, for example, the safety engineer try to cover all moving: parts or keep them from accidental contact with the operator, to put cutoff switches within reach of the operator and to eliminate dangerous sharp parts. In designing roads the safety engineer seeks to avoid such hazards as sharp turns and blind intersections that lead to traffic accidents.


Задание 7 Подготовьте краткое описание следующих видов автоматизации, используя информацию текста.


1. Жесткая автоматизация.

2. Программированная автоматизация.

3. Гибкая автоматизация.


Текст 3

Robots in manufacturing


Задание 1 Выучить данную лексику:


handling — обращение

transfer — передача, перенос

location — местонахождение

pick up — брать, подбирать

arrangement — расположение

to utilize — утилизировать, находить при­менение

gripper — захват

to grasp — схватывать

spot welding — точечная сварка

continuous — непрерывный

arc welding — электродуговая сварка

spray painting — окраска распылением

frame — рама

spray-painting gun — распылитель краски

grinding — шлифование

polishing — полирование

spindle — шпиндель

manual — ручной

labour — труд

hazardous — опасный

shift — смена


Задание 2 Прочитайте и переведите текст. Выполните задания, следующие за текстом:

Robots in manufacturing


Today most robots are used in manufacturing operations. The applications of robots can be divided into three categories:

1. material handling

2. processing operations

3. assembly and inspection.

Material-handling is the transfer of material and loading and unloading of machines. Material-transfer applications require the robot to move materials or work parts from one to another. Many of these tasks are relatively simple: robots pick up parts from one conveyor and place them on another. Other transfer operations are more complex, such as placing parts in an arrangement that can be calculated by the robot. Machine loading and unloading operations utilize a robot to load and unload parts. This requires the robot to be equipped with a gripper that can grasp parts. Usually the gripper must be designed specifically for the particular part geometry.

In robotic processing operations, the robot manipulates a tool to perform a process on the work part. Examples of such applications include spot welding, continuous arc welding and spray painting. Spot welding of automobile bodies is one of the most common applications of industrial robots. The robot positions a spot welder against the automobile panels and frames to join them. Arc welding is a continuous process in which robot moves the welding rod along the welding seam. Spray painting is the manipulation of a spray-painting gun over the surface of the object to be coated. Other operations in this category include grinding and polishing in which a rotating spindle serves as the robot's tool.

The third application area of industrial robots is assembly and inspection. The use of robots in assembly is expected to increase because of the high cost of manual labour. But the design of the product is an important aspect of robotic assembly. Assembly methods that are satisfactory for humans are not always suitable for robots. Screws and nuts are widely used for fastening in manual assembly, but the same operations are extremely difficult for a one-armed robot.

Inspection is another area of factory operations in which the utilization of robots is growing. In a typical inspection job, the robot positions a sensor with respect to the work part and determines whether the part answers the quality specifications. In nearly all industrial robotic applications, the robot provides a substitute for human labour. There are certain characteristics of industrial jobs performed by humans that can be done by robots:

1. the operation is repetitive, involving the same basic work motions every cycle,

2. the operation is hazardous or uncomfortable for the human worker (for example: spray painting, spot welding, arc welding, and certain machine loading and unloading tasks),

3. the workpiece or tool are too heavy and difficult to handle,

4. the operation allows the robot to be used on two or three shifts.



Задание 3 Ответьте на вопросы:


1. How are robots used in manufacturing?

2. What is «material handling»?

3. What does a robot need to be equipped with to do loading and unloading operations?

4. What does robot manipulate in robotic processing operation?

5. What is the most common application of robots in automobile manufacturing?

6. What operations could be done by robot in car manufacturing industry?

7. What are the main reasons to use robots in production?

8. How can robots inspect the quality of production?

9. What operations could be done by robots in hazardous or uncomfortable for the human workers conditions?


Задание 4 Найдите эквиваленты русских слов и словосочетаний:


1. Существует несколько различных сфер использования автоматизации в производстве.

2. Для использования жесткой автоматизации необходимы большие инвестиции.

3. Жесткая автоматизация широко используется в химической промышленности.

4. Станки с числовым программным управлением — хороший пример программируемой автоматизации.

5. Гибкая автоматизация делает возможным перепрограммирование оборудования.

6. Время простоя оборудования оборачивается большими убытками.

7. Использование гибкой автоматизации делает возможным производство разнообразной продукции.


Задание 5 Составьте диалог на основе задания 3 и приложения А, используя информацию из текста «Robots in manufacturing».


Текст 4

Automated production lines


Задание 1 Выучите данную лексику.


an automated production line – автоматизированная производственная линия

a workstation – рабочее место

a transfer system – конвейер

fixed automation – фиксированная автоматизация

for long production runs – на длительный срок

a changeover – переоборудование, переналадка

a processing operation – определенная операция

stepwise – постепенно

a raw work part – заготовка

a completed product – готовый продукт

utilize – использовать

a manufacturing process – производственный процесс

machining – оборудование, механизмы

a remaining work part – получившаяся заготовка

motor component – детали для машин

multiple operations – многочисленные операции

to involve – вовлекать

a body panel – кузов автомобиля

outer shell – внешний корпус

laundry machines – оборудование в прачечных

to require – требовать

a complicated part – сложная деталь

handling mechanism – ручное управление

shape – форма, формировать


Задание 2 Прочитайте и переведите текст. Выполните задания, следующие за текстом.


Automated production lines


An automated production line consists of a series of workstations connected by a transfer system to move parts between the stations. This is an example of fixed automation, since these lines are setup for long production runs, making large number of product units and running for several years between changeovers. Each station is designed to perform a specific processing operation, so that the part or product is constructed stepwise as it progresses along the line. A raw work part enters at one end of the line, proceeds through each workstation and appears at the other end as a completed product. In the normal operation of the line, there is a work part being processed at each station, so that many parts are being processed simultaneously and a finished part is produced with each cycle of the line. The various operations, part transfers, and other activities taking place on an automated transfer line must all be sequenced and coordinated properly for the line to operate efficiently.

Modern automated lines are controlled by programmable logic controllers, which are special computers that can perform timing and sequencing functions required to operate such equipment. Automated production lines are utilized in many industries, mostly automobile, where they are used for processes such as machining and pressworking.

Machining is a manufacturing process in which metal is removed by a cutting or shaping tool, so that the remaining work part is the desired shape. Machinery and motor components are usually made by this process. In many cases, multiple operations are required to completely shape the part. If the part is mass-produced, an automated transfer line is often the most economical method of production.-Many separate operations are divided among the workstations.

Pressworking operations involve the cutting and forming of parts from sheet metal. Examples of such parts include automobile body panels, outer shells of laundry machines and metal furniture More than one processing step is often required to complete a complicated part. Several presses are connected together in sequence by handling mechanisms that transfer the partially completed parts from one press to the next, thus creating an automated pressworking line.


Задание 3 Найдите эквиваленты русских слов и словосочетаний:


  1. автоматизированные производственные линии

  2. несколько рабочих мест

  3. пример фиксированной автоматизации

  4. производить большое число производственных единиц (товаров)

  5. работать в течение нескольких лет

  6. заготовка поступает на одном конце линии

  7. работа выполняется частично на каждом рабочем месте

  8. различные операции

  9. современные автоматизированные линии

  10. оборудование

  11. конвейер


Задание 4 Дополните предложения:


  1. An automated production line consists of…

  2. These lines are set up for…

  3. These lines are running for several years between…

  4. A raw work part enters at one end of the line and…

  5. Modern automated lines are controlled by…

  6. Machining is…

  7. Pressworking operations involve…


Задание 5 Ответьте на вопросы и дайте письменную аннотацию текста, используя эти вопросы:


  1. What does an automated production line consist of?

  2. Is it an example of fixed automation?

  3. How long does it work?

  4. How does it work?

  5. Where are automated production lines utilized?

  6. How are they controlled?

  7. What is machining?

  8. What is pressworking?


Задание 6 Напишите перевод текста в письменной форме и дайте краткий пересказ.

Automated assembly


Assembly operations have traditionally been performed manually, either at single assembly workstations or on assembly lines with multiple stations. Owing to the high labour content and high cost of manual labour, greater attention has been given in recent years to the use of automation for assembly work. Assembly operations can be automated using production line principles if the quantities are large, the product is small, and the design is simple (e.g., mechanical pencils, pens, and cigarette lighters). For products that do not satisfy these conditions, manual assembly is generally required.

Automated assembly machines have been developed that operate in a manner similar to machining transfer lines, with the difference being that assembly operations, instead of machining, are performed at the workstations. A typical assembly machine consists of several stations, each equipped with a supply of components and a mechanism for delivering the components into position for assembly. A workhead at each station performs the actual attachment of the component. Typical workheads include automatic screwdrivers, welding heads and other joining devices. A new component is added to the partially completed product at each workstation, thus building up the product gradually as it proceeds through the line. Assembly machines of this type are considered to be examples of fixed automation, because they are generally configured for a particular product made in high volume. Programmable assembly machines are represented by the component-insertion machines employed in the electronics industry.


Задание 7 Составьте вопросы к тексту.


Задание 8 Прочитайте текст на время (работа по развитию навыков чтения).



Информационное обеспечение обучения не соответствует РП


Основные источники:

  1. Агабекян И.П. Английский язык. - Ростов н/Д: Феникс, 2009.- 318с.

  2. Голицынский Ю.Б. Грамматика: Сборник упражнений. СПб.: КАРО, 2007. – 544с.

  3. Березина О.А., Шпилюк Е.М. Английский язык для студентов университетов. Упражнения по грамматике = English for University Students. Grammar Exercises: учеб. Пособие для студ. высш. учеб. завед. – М.: Издательский центр «Академия», 2008. – 208с.

  4. Бузаров В.В. Практическая грамматика разговорного английского языка = Essentials of Conversational English Grammar: учеб. пособие для студ. высш. учеб. завед. – 3-е изд., стер. – М.: Издательский центр «Академия», 2010. – 416с.

  5. Восковская А.С., Карпова Т.А. Английский язык для средних специальных учебных заведений.- Изд. 3-е.- Ростов н/Д: Феникс, 2006. – 384с.

  6. Дроздова Т.Ю. English Grammar: Reference and Practice: Учебное пособие СПб.: Антология, 2010.- 164с.

  7. Методические рекомендации по проведению практических занятий по дисциплине «Английский язык» для специальностей 151001 Технология машиностроения, 220301 Автоматизация технологических процессов и производств (по отраслям) МПК ПТК НовГУ. Разработчик Пименова Т.М., 2011. – 102с.


Дополнительные источники:

  1. Английский в телекоммуникациях. Учебные материалы./ под редакцией Лядовой О.С.СПб: СКИФИЯ, 2001.-106с.

  2. Кравцова Л.И. Английский язык для средних профессиональных учебных заведений. М.: Высшая школа, 2003.

  3. Цветкова И.В. Английский язык для школьников и поступающих в ВУЗы. Москва: Глосса – Пресс, 2003.

  4. Карпова Г.А., Репетитор по английскому языку для поступающих в ВУЗы. Ростов на Дону: Феникс, 2005.

  5. Английский язык. 2770 упражнений для школьников и поступающих в ВУЗы. М.: Дрофа, 1998.

  6. English Grammar in use, Raimond Murphy Cambridge, 1997.

  7. Шляхова В.А., Любимова Т.Д. Контрольные задания для студентов технических специальностей. М.: Высшая школа, 2003.-111с.
















Приложение А


Социально-бытовые диалоги


1. Что говорят при встрече и прощании


Good morning (afternoon, evening)! — Доброе утро (день, вечер)!

Hello (Hi)! - Привет!

Nice (glad) to see you. — Приятно (рад) видеть вас.

How are you? — Как вы себя чувствуете?

How's life? — Как жизнь?

How are you getting on? — Как вы поживаете?

Fine, thanks. — Хорошо, спасибо.

Not too (so) bad. — Неплохо.

Can't complain. — He могу пожаловаться.

So so. — Так себе.

Pretty bad. — Очень плохо.

Could be better. — Могло бы быть лучше.

Let's go somewhere together. — Давай сходим куда-нибудь вместе.

I don't mind, but now I am in a hurry. — Я не возражаю, но сейчас я тороплюсь.

Good-bye! — До свидания!

Bye-bye! — Пока!

So long. — Пока, до встречи.

See you soon. — Пока, до скорой встречи.

I hope we'll meet soon. — Я надеюсь, мы скоро уви­димся.

Good luck to you. — Удачи вам.

I wish you success. — Я желаю вам успехов.

All the best. -~ Всего хорошего.

The same to you. — Того же и тебе.

Please, remember me to... — Пожалуйста, передай

привет... Have a nice holiday (journey). — Хорошего вам отдыха

(поездки). Call me some time. — Позвони мне как-нибудь.


* * *

Hello, Mike! Nice to see you.

Hello, Sam! How are you?

I'm fine, thanks. And how are you?

Thank you. Not so bad. Can't complain.

Let's go somewhere together.

I don't mind, but now I am in a hurry. Call me some time. So long. I wish you success.

The same to you. Remember me to your sister. I hope we'll meet soon.


2. Как подбодрить, посочувствовать, предложить свою помощь


Don't worry. — Не волнуйтесь. Everything will be alright. — Все будет хорошо. Relax. — Расслабьтесь. Take it easy. — Воспринимайте это легко. Don't take it to heart. — He принимайте это близко к сердцу.

Let's hope for the best. — Давайте надеяться на лучшее.

Things happen. — Всякое бывает.

Let me help you. — Позвольте мне помочь вам.

Let me do it. — Позвольте мне сделать это.

What can I do for you? — Что я могу сделать для вас?

Give it to me .— Оставьте это мне.

Can I help you? — Могу я помочь тебе?

Good luck. — Удачи вам.


* * *


Hello, Jim! Glad to see you. How's life?

Hello, Jane! Glad to see you too. I'm fine, thanks. And what about you?

Could be better!

What's about your exams results?

Don't know yet. I hope that everything will be alright. But I am a little bit nervous about it.

Don't worry and relax. Let's hope for the best.

Thanks. We'll wait and see.

And you were great at the conference yesterday. My congratulations on your excellent results!

Thanks a lot. Let's go somewhere together.

I don't mind, but now I'm in a hurry. It was nice to meet you. Have a nice weekend.

The same to you. Remember me to your sister.

O.K. Call me some time. See you soon!

All the best. Bye!


3. Как поблагодарить, ответить на благодарность


Thanks a lot. — Спасибо большое.

Thanks awfully. — Ужасно благодарен.

Thank you very much. — Большое вам спасибо.

A thousand thanks. — Тысячу благодарностей.

I would like to thank you. — Мне бы хотелось поблагодарить вас.

Thank you for... — Спасибо за...

My gratitude cannot be expressed in words. — Моя благодарность не может быть выражена в словах.

I don't know how to thank you. — Я не знаю, как поблагодарить вас.

Don't mention it. — Не стоит упоминать об этом.

Not at all. — Не стоит благодарностей.

You are welcome. — Всегда пожалуйста.

It's O.K. — Все хорошо.

That's all right. — Все хорошо.

It was no trouble at all. — Мне это ничего не стоило.

It was a real pleasure for me to do it. — Мне было приятно сделать это для вас.


* * *

- Good morning, Tom! How are you getting on?

- Good morning, Jane! Not too bad. Can't complain.

- You were great at the exam yesterday. My congratulations on your excellent results!

- Thank you very much. And what about your exam results?

- Don't know yet.

- Don't worry and relax. Don't take it to heart. I'd like to invite you to our party.

- Thank you for inviting me. At what time?

- Does 8 o'clock suit you?

- O.K.! Can I help you?

- Give it to me. See you soon.

- Bye for now!


4. Как выразить (не) согласие с мнением собеседника


Of course (not). — Конечно (нет).

Certainly (not). — Конечно (нет).

All right (I am afraid not). — Да (Боюсь, что нет).

I (don't) agree with you. — Я (не) согласен с вами.

I don't mind (I'd rather not). — Я не возражаю (Я против).

You are (not) right. — Вы (не) правы.

It's a go (No go)! — Пойдет! (Не пойдет!)

I am all for it (I am against it). — Я полностью "за" (Я против этого).

I (don't) think so. — Я так (не)думаю.

Naturally (Hardly). — Конечно (Вряд ли).

Far from it. — Далеко от этого.

You are welcome. — Всегда пожалуйста.

You are mistaken. — Вы ошибаетесь.

It's a great idea! — Это замечательная идея!

Nothing of the kind. — Ничего подобного.

It goes without saying. — Безусловно.

It's out of the question. — Об этом не может быть и речи.

I wish I could. — Если бы я мог.

On the contrary. — Наоборот.


5. Как выразить сомнение, предостережение, совет, предложение


It can't be helped. — Этому нельзя помочь.

I don't know. — Я не знаю.

If I am not mistaken. — Если я не ошибаюсь.

As far as I remember. — Насколько я помню.

It seems to me. — Мне кажется.

I can't answer right now. — Я не могу ответить прямо сейчас.

I wish I knew. — Если бы я знал.

It's hard to say. — Трудно сказать.

I doubt it. — Я сомневаюсь в этом.

I am not sure of it. — Я не уверен в этом.

Look at. — Осторожно.

Mind the steps. — Осторожно, ступеньки.

Don't take chances. — He рискуй.

Don't jump to conclusions. — He торопись с выводами.

Come on, stop it. — Перестань, прекрати.

You'll wait and see. — Поживемувидим.

Mark my words. — Помяни мои слова.

The sooner... the better. — Чем быстрей... тем лучше.

Hurry up! — Поторапливайся!

Don't be long! — He задерживайся!


6. Как спросить, попросить о чем-нибудь и как ответить


May I ask a question? — Yes, you may. — Можно задать вопрос? — Да.

Would you be so kind as to... — He могли бы вы быть так любезны...

Could you tell me about... — He могли бы вы рассказать мне о...

I'd like to ask you a question. — Мне бы хотелось задать вопрос.

Say again, please. — Скажите еще раз, пожалуйста.

I haven't quite got you. — Я не совсем понял вас.

Would you mind...? — Вы не возражаете?

What do you mean? — Что вы имеете в виду?

This isn't exactly what I mean. — Это не совсем то, что я имею в виду.

Are you following me? — Вы следите за мной?

Let's make it clear. — Давайте-ка выясним.

То my mind... In my opinion... — По моему мнению ...

То tell the truth... — По правде говоря ...


* * *

Приложение Б


Тексты о наиболее значимых достижениях науки и технологии и

великих ученых и их открытиях


FAMOUS PEOPLE OF SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleyev


Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleyev is a famous Russian chemist. He is best known for his development of the periodic table of the properties of the chemical elements. This table displays that elements' properties are changed periodically when they are arranged according to atomic weight.

Mendeleyev was born in 1834 in Tobolsk, Siberia. He studied chemistry at the University of St. Petersburg, and in 1859 he was sent to study at the University of Heidelberg. Mendeleyev returned to St. Petersburg and became Professor of Chemistry at the Technical Institute in 1863, He became Professor of General Chemistry at the University of St. Petersburg in 1866. Mendeleyev was a well-known teacher, and, because there was no good textbook in chemistry at that time, he wrote the two-volume «Principles of Chemistry» which became a classic textbook in chemistry.

In this book Mendeleyev tried to classify the elements according to their chemical properties. In 1869 he published his first version of his periodic table of elements. In 1871 he published an improved version of the periodic table, in which he left gaps for elements that were not known at that time. His table and theories were proved later when three predicted elements: gallium, germanium, and scandium were discovered.

Mendeleyev investigated the chemical theory of solution. He found that the best proportion of alcohol and water in vodka is 40%. He also investigated the thermal expansion of liquids and the nature of petroleum.

In 1893 he became director of the Bureau of Weights and Measures in St. Petersburg and held this position until his death in 1907.


Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov


Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov was a famous Russian writer, chemist, and astronomer who made a lot in literature and science.

Lomonosov was born on November 19, 1711, in Denisovka (now Lomonosov), near Archangelsk, and studied at the University of the Imperial Academy of Sciences in St. Petersburg. After studying in Germany at the Universities of Marburg and Freiberg, Lomonosov returned to St. Petersburg in 1745 to teach chemistry and built a teaching and research laboratory there four years later.

Lomonosov is often called the founder of Russian science. He was an innovator in many fields. As a scientist he rejected the phlogiston theory of matter commonly accepted at the time and he anticipated the kinetic theory of gases. He regarded heat as a form of motion, suggested the wave theory of light, and stated the idea of conservation of matter. Lomonosov was the first person to record the freezing of mercury and to observe the atmosphere of Venus during a solar transit.

Interested in the development of Russian education, Lomonosov helped to found Moscow State University in 1755, and in the same year wrote a grammar that reformed the Russian literary language by combining Old Church Slavonic with modern language. In 1760 he published the first history of Russia. He also revived the art of Russian mosaic and built a mosaic and coloured-glass factory. Most of his achievements, however, were unknown outside Russia. He died in St. Petersburg on April 15, 1765.


Sikorsky Igor Ivanovich


Sikorsky Igor Ivanovich was a well-known aircraft engineer and manufacturer.

Sikorsky was born in 1889 in Kiev, in the Ukraine, and got his education at the naval college in St. Petersburg, and later in Kiev and Paris. He was the first to make experiments in helicopter design. In 1913 he designed, built, and flew the first successful aeroplane. Later he built military aircrafts for Russia and France.

In 1919 Sikorsky moved to the United States and later helped to organize an aircraft company that produced a series of multiengine flying boats for commercial service. Sikorsky became an American citizen in 1928* In the late 1930s he returned to developing helicopters and produced the first successful helicopter in the west. Helicopters designed by Sikorsky were used mostly by the US Army Air Forces during World War II. He died in 1972 at the age of 83.

Tupolev Andrey Nikolayevich, famous aircraft designer, was born inl888. He graduated from the Moscow Higher Technical School, where he designed the first Russian wind tunnel. He helped to found the Central Aerohydrodynamics Institute in 1918 and later worked as the head of its design bureau. During his career he directed the design of more than 100 military and commercial aircraft, including the TU-2 and TU-4 bombers used in the World War II. In 1955 he designed the TU-104, the first passenger jet airliner. His TU-144 supersonic jet liner began its commercial passenger flights in 1977.


George Stephenson


George Stephenson was a British inventor and engineer. He is famous for building the first practical railway locomotive.

Stephenson was born in 1781 in Wylam, near Newcastle upon Tyne, Northumberland. During his youth he worked as a fireman and later as an engineer in the coal mines of Newcastle. He invented one of the first miner's safety lamps independently of the British inventor Humphry Davy. Stephenson's early locomotives were used to carry loads in coal mines, and in 1823 he established a factory at Newcastle for their manufacture. In 1829 he designed a locomotive known as the Rocket, which could carry both loads and passengers at a greater speed than any locomotive constructed at that time. The success of the Rocket was the beginning of the construction of locomotives and the laying of railway lines.

Robert Stephenson, the son of George Stephenson was a British civil engineer. He is mostly well-known known for the construction of several notable bridges.

He was born in 1803 in Willington Quay, near Newcastle upon Tyne, and educated in Newcastle and at the University of Edinburgh. In 1829 he assisted his father in constructing a locomotive known as the Rocket, and four years later he was appointed construction engineer of the Birmingham and London Railway, completed in 1838. Stephenson built several famous bridges, including the Victoria Bridge in Northumberland, the Britannia Bridge in Wales, two bridges across the Nile in Damietta in Egypt and the Victoria Bridge in Montreal, Canada. Stephenson was a Member of Parliament from 1847 until his death in 1859.


James Prescott Joule


James Prescott Joule, famous British physicist, was born in 1818 in Salford, England.

Joule was one of the most outstanding physicists of his time. He is best known for his research in electricity and thermodynamics. In the course of his investigations of the heat emitted in an electrical circuit, he formulated the law, now known as Joule's law of electric heating. This law states that the amount of heat produced each second in a conductor by electric current is proportional to the resistance of the conductor and to the square of the current. Joule experimentally verified the law of conservation of energy in his study of the conversion of mechanical energy into heat energy.

Joule determined the numerical relation between heat and mechanical energy, or the mechanical equivalent of heat, using many independent methods, the unit of energy, called the joule, is named after him. It is equal to 1 watt-second. Together with the physicist William Thomson (Baron Kelvin), Joule found that the temperature of a gas falls when it expands without doing any work. This phenomenon, which became known as the Joule-Thomson effect, lies in the operation of modern refrigeration and air-conditioning systems.


Приложение В


Тексты для дополнительного чтения


Engineering as a profession


Electrical and Electronics Engineering

Electrical and electronics engineering is the largest and most diverse field of engineering. It is concerned with the development and design, application, and manufacture of systems and devices that use electric power and signals. Among the most important subjects in the field are electric power and machinery, electronic circuits, control systems, computer design, superconductors, solid-state electronics, medical imaging systems, robotics, lasers, radar, consumer electronics, and fibre optics. Despite its diversity, electrical engineering can be divided into four main branches: electric power and machinery, electronic, communications and control, and computers.


Electric Power and Machinery

The field of electric power is concerned with the design and operation of system; for generating, transmitting, and distributing electric power Engineers in this field have brought about several Important developments since the late 1970s. One of these is the ability to transmit power at extremely high voltages in both the direct current (DC) and alternating current (AС) modes reducing power losses proportionately Another is the real time control of power generation, transmission, and distribution, using computers to analyze the data fed back from the power system to a central station and thereby optimizing the efficiency of the system while it is in operation.

A significant advance in the engineering of electric machinery has been the introduction of electronic controls that enable AC motors to run at variable speeds by adjusting the frequency of the current fed into them. DC motors have also been made to run more efficiently this way.


Electronics

Electronic engineering deals with the research, design, integration, and application of circuits and devices used in the transmission and processing of information. Information is now generated, transmitted, received, and stored electronically on a scale unprecedented in history, and there is every indication that the explosive rate of growth in this field will continue unabated.

Electronic engineers design circuits to perform specific tasks, such as amplifying electronic signals, adding binary numbers, and demodulating radio signals to recover the information they carry. Circuits are also used to generate waveforms useful for synchronization and timing, as in television, and for correcting errors in digital information, as in telecommunications.

Prior to the 1900s, circuits consisted of separate electronic devices resistors, capacitors, inductors, and vacuum tubes assembled on a chassis and connected by wires to form a bulky package. The electronics revolution of the 1970s and 1980s set the trend towards integraling electronic devices on a single tiny chip of silicon or some other semiconductive material. The complex task' of manufacturing these chips uses the most advanced technology, including computers, electron-beam lithography, micro-manipulators, ion-beam implantation, and ultraclean environments. Much of the research in electronics is directed towards creating even smaller chips, faster switching of components, and three-dimensional integrated circuits.


Communications and Control

Engineers work on control systems ranging from the everyday, passenger-actuated, such as those that run a lift, to the exotic, such as systems for keeping spacecraft on course. Control systems are used extensively in aircraft and ships, in military fire-control systems, in power transmission and distribution, in automated manufacturing, and in robotics.


Computers

Computer engineering is now the most rapidly growing field. The electronics of computers involve engineers in design and manufacture of memory systems, of central processing units, and of peripheral devices. The field of computer science is closely related to computer engineering; however, the task of making computers more «intelligent» (artificial intelligence), through creation of sophisticated programs or development of higher level machine languages or other means, is generally regarded as the aim of computer science.

One current trend in computer engineering is microminiaturization. Engineers try to place greater and greater numbers of circuit elements onto smaller and smaller chips. Another trend is towards increasing the speed of computer operations through the use of parallel processors and superconducting materials.


Mechanical Engineering

Engineers in this field design, test, build, and operate machinery of all types; they also work on a variety of manufactured goods and certain kinds of structures. The field is divided into (1) machinery, mechanisms, materials, hydraulics, and pneumatics; and (2) heat as applied to engines, work and energy, heating, ventilating, and air conditioning. The mechanical engineer, therefore, must be trained in mechanics, hydraulics, and thermodynamics and must know such subjects as metallurgy and machine design. Some mechanical engineers specialize in particular types of machines such as pumps or steam turbines. A mechanical engineer designs not only the machines that make products but the products themselves, and must design for both economy and efficiency. A typical example of modern mechanical engineering is the design of a car or an agricultural machine.

Приложение Г


Список сокращений,

используемыХ при переводе текста со словарем



adj = adjective прилагательное

adv = adverb наречие

С = countable исчисляемое (существительное)

elec = electrical относящийся к электротехнике

imper = imperative повелительное наклонение

intr = intransitive непереходный (о глаголе)

п = noun существительное

tr = transitive переходный (о глаголе)

vb = verb глагол


АНГЛО-РУССКИЙ СЛОВАРЬ


A

about - около, приблизительно

accelerator pedal - педаль акселератора

accident - несчастный случай

accident report - отчет о несчастном случае

add - добавлять, прибавлять

adjust - регулировать

advice - совет

aeroplane - самолет

aggregate - заполнитель, инертный материал (бетона)

air - воздух

alarm - тревога

aluminium - алюминий

angled - скошенный, снятый под углом

anti-clockwise - против часовой стрелки

apart - раздельно, порознь, врозь

apply - наносить что-л. на что-л.

apprentice - ученик

approximately - примерно, приблизительно

apron - фартук

arc - дуга (электрическая)

arm - плечо рычага

automotive - относящийся к автоделу


B

back - задняя крышка (телевизора)

backwards - назад

bar - полоса, брусок, болванка (металла)

battery - аккумулятор

beam - балка, брус, перекладина

become - становиться

bend - загибать, загнуть

bend - гнуть, сгибать

bent - согнутый

bicycle - велосипед

bit - сверло

blacktop - с асфальтовым покрытием

blade - лезвие

blocked - забитый, закупоренный, засоренный

blunt - тупой

boil - вскипеть, закипеть

bolt - болт

bottle - бутылка

bottom - нижний

box - коробка, ящик

bracket - кронштейн

brakes - тормоза

brake system тормозная система

break - ломать, разбивать

brick - кирпич

bricklayer - каменщик

brickwork - кирпичная кладка

bridge - мост

brittle - хрупкий

broad - широкий

broken - сломанный, разбитый

brush - кисть

bucket - ведро

bucketful - полное ведро

build - строить

building site - строительная площадка

bulldozer - бульдозер

burn - гореть

burnt - обгоревший, сгоревший

button - кнопка

by hand - вручную


C

cable - кабель

call for help - звать на помощь

can - канистра, бидон

cap - головка, наконечник

саг - автомобиль

саг controls - органы управления автомобилем

carefully - осторожно, аккуратно, тщательно, внимательно

carpentry - плотничье дело; деревообделочные работы

carry - нести

catch fire - загореться

cause - причина

caution - осторожность

ceiling - потолок

cement - цемент

chain - цепь

change - менять, заменять

channel - желоб, выемка, паз

cheap - дешевый

cheapness - низкая цена, дешевизна

check - проверять

chisel - долото, стамеска

chisel - работать долотом, стамеской

chuck - зажимной патрон

circuit - проводка; цепь (электрическая)

civil engineering - гражданское строительство

clean - чистый

clean - чистить, счищать

clean up - очищать, приводить в порядок

click - щелчок (в механизме)

climb - лазать, влезать

climb up - залезать, становиться на лестницу

clock - часы

clockwise - по ходу часовой стрелки

close - закрывать

close - закрываться

closed - закрытый

cloth - чехол

coarse - крупнозернистый, грубый

coil poil - свертывать, сворачиваться

coiled poild - свернутый

combustible - горючий

concrete - бетон

connect - соединять

connected - присоединенный

consist of - состоять из

contact - электрический контакт

container - емкость

cool - охлаждать

cooling system - система охлаждения

corner - угол

correct - правильный

cover - крышка

cover - закрывать

cracked - треснувший, с трещиной

cross section - поперечное сечение

cube - куб

cuff - манжета

current - (elec) ток (электрический)

cut - отключение (тока); резать, отрезать

cut away - вырубать

cutting machine - металлорежущий станок


D

damaged - испорченный

danger - опасность

decorating - декоративные работы

deep - глубокий

depth - глубина

depress - нажимать (на педаль)

diagram - схема

diameter - диаметр

die [dai] – пресс-форма

diesel engine - дизельный мотор

dig - копать

digger - землеройная машина

dipstick - стержень для измерения уровня жидкости, мерная рейка

distance - расстояние

door - дверь

downwards - вниз

drawer - ящик стола (письменного)

drill - дрель, сверло

drill - сверлить

drilling machine - сверлильный станок

drive - водить машину

drive - приводить в движение

driven - приводимый в движение

drive in - вбивать, загонять

dry - сухой


E

earth - земля (почва)

easy - 4 легкий

eighth - восьмой

electrical - относящийся к электротехнике

electrical system - электропроводка

electric arc - электрическая дуга

electrician - электрик (специалист)

electricity - электричество

electric pump - электрический насос

electrode - электрод

empty fem - пустой

empty - опустошать, опорожнять

energy - энергия

engine - мотор, двигатель

engine block - блок двигателя

equipment - оборудование

evenly - ровно, равномерно

examine - осматривать, проверять

exhaust pipe - выхлопная труба

expensive - дорогой, дорогостоящий

explode - взрываться

extension - надставка, удлинение

extinguish - потушить, погасить


F

fabrication - производство, изготовление

fall - падать, опускаться

fall down - упасть

fan - вентилятор

fan belt - шкив вентилятора

fastener - фиксатор

faster - быстрее

fault - неполадка, повреждение

fifth - пятый

fifty - пятьдесят

fig - рисунок

file - обрабатывать напильником

fill up - наполнять, заполнять

fine - тонкий, Мелкозернистый

finger - палец

finish - заканчивать, отделывать

fire - огонь, пожар

fire bucket - пожарное ведро

firmly - прочно, крепко

first - первый

first aid - первая помощь (пострадавшему)

fit onto - надевать, насаживать (на)

fix - закреплять, исправлять

flat плоский

flat (battery) севший (аккумулятор)

flexible гибкий, эластичный

flexibility гибкость, эластичность

float [flout] (n) поплавок

floor - пол

floor - дно(канавы)

flow - течь

flow into - вливаться

flow out of - вытекать

foot - нога

foot (of ladder) - ножки, нижняя часть (лестницы)

foot pump - ножной насос

forwards - вперед

foundations - фундамент

four-stroke - четырехтактный

fourth - четвертый

frame - рама (оконная)

from side to side - из стороны в сторону

fuel pipe - бензопровод

fuel warning light - лампа сигнализации о выработке топлива

full - полный, заполненный

furniture – мебель

fuse - предохранитель


G

gap - выемка, зазор

gas - газ

gauge - калибр

gear - шестерня, зубчатая передача

gently - осторожно

give a warning - предупреждать

give up - бросать, отказываться

glass - стекло

glass - стакан

gloves - перчатки

glue - клей

goggles - защитные очки

go down - опускаться

gold - золото

go on - зажигаться

go up - подниматься

gravel - гравий

great - большой

grind - шлифовать, полировать

grip - зажимать, захватывать, закреплять

ground - земля (поверхность)

guard - ограждение, защитное устройство


H

hacksaw - ножовка (для металла)

half - половина

hammer - вбивать (гвозди) молотком

hand - рука

hand pump - ручной насос

handsaw - ручная пила

hand-tight - вручную до предела

hard - с силой, сильно

hard - твердый

hardener - затвердитель

head - головка, верхняя часть

headlamp lever - тумблер передней фары

heat - теплота

heat - нагреваться

heavy - тяжелый

hi-fi - с высокой точностью воспроизведения

hit - ударять

hold - держать

hole - отверстие

hollow - яма, углубление

hook - крючок

horizontal - горизонтальный

horn - гудок, сирена автомобиля

hose - шланг

hot - горячий, жаркий

house - дом, помещение


I

ice - лед

ignition - зажигание

increase - увеличиваться

indicator lever - тумблер спидометра

insert - вставлять

inside - внутри

install - устанавливать (оборудование, машину; проводку)

instructions - инструкции, указания

insulated - изолированный

inwards - внутрь

iron - железо

J

jack - домкрат

jammed - заклиненный, защемленный

jar - сосуд, кувшин

jaws - кулачки (патрона)

job - работа; рабочее задание

join - линия соединения, стык при сварке

join together - соединить (вместе)


K

keep clean - содержать в чистоте

keep - не загромождать (доступ к чему-л.)

key - ключ

key - ключ зажимной

kilo - килограмм

knife - нож

knob - ручка, рукоятка; кнопка (управления)


L

ladder - лестница, стремянка

land vehicle - наземное транспортное средство

large - большой

last - длиться, продолжаться

layer - слой

leave - оставьте, не трогайте

left - левый

length - длина

let go - отпускать

level - горизонтальный

level - уровень

level with - на уровне, заподлицо

lever - рычаг, тумблер

light - легкий

light - зажигать

light - фара

light bulb - электрическая лампа

lightness - легкость

lime - известь

line - веревка, канат

litre - литр

live - под током

look - осмотреть; посмотреть на

long - длинный

loose - свободный, незакрепленный

loosen - ослаблять, отпускать

lower - понижать, опускать


M

machine - станок, механизм

machine shop - мастерская, цех

made of - сделанный из

main - главный, основной

mains - сеть (электрическая, водопроводная)

mains switch - сетевой выключатель

make sure - убедиться, удостовериться

malleable - ковкий

mark1.отметка, 2.намечать, обозначать место

mark out - размечать

mask - маска

masonry - кирпичная (каменная) кладка

match - спичка

material - материал

measure - измерять

mechanic - механик

metal - металл

metalwork - металлообработка

meter - счетчик

method - метод

middle - середина

mix - смешивать

mixture - смесь

mortar - строительный раствор

motor - мотор, двигатель

motorbike - мопед

motor-cycle - мотоцикл

move - двигать

move away - отогнать (машину)

mouth - горлышко (банки, кувшина), горловина


N

nail - гвоздь

narrow - узкий

neck - горлышко (бутылки)

new - новый

noisy - шумный

non-combustible – негорючий

note обратите внимание

nut - гайка

O

object - предмет

offотключен (ный), выключен (ный)

oil – 1.масло2.смазывать (маслом)

oily - покрытый маслом, скользкий

on – 1.на 2.включен (ный)

open - открытый

operate - управлять

outwards - наружу

overalls - комбинезон

overheat - перегревать

over-tighten - чрезмерно затягивать


P

paint – 1.краска 2.красить

painting - малярные работы

pair - пара; парный инструмент

pane - стекло (оконное)

panel - крыло автомобиля

paper - бумага

paper - оклеивать обоями

part - деталь

part - часть, доля

pass through - пропускать через

paste - паста

pedal - педаль

peg - колышек

per cent - процент

petrol - бензин

petrol engine - бензиновый двигатель

petrol pump - бензонасос

pick up - поднимать

pickaxe - кирка

piece - кусок; деталь, обрабатываемое изделие


S

screw - ввинчивать, завинчивать

screw - винт, шуруп

seat belts - защитные ремни (в автомобиле)

second - второй

service - В проводить техническое обслуживание (автомобиля)

seventh - седьмой

seventy-five - семьдесят пять

shake - встряхнуть

shape - форма

sharp - острый

sharpen - затачивать

sheet of paper - лист бумаги

sheet steel - листовая сталь

shelf - полка

shock - электрический удар (шок)

short - короткий

shovel - лопата

shovelful - полная лопата

side - сторона; боковая поверхность котлована

simple - простой

sink - опускаться, погружаться, тонуть

sixth - шестой

slabs - плиты

sleeves - рукава

slide - сдвигать, отодвигать

slip - поскользнуться

smooth - гладкий

snippers - ножницы для металла

socket - розетка

soft - мягкий

sound - звучать

spanner - гаечный ключ

spark - искра

spark plug - запальная свеча, свеча зажигания

spread - наносить на поверхность

sprocket - цепная звездочка (велосипеда)

square - квадратный

squeeze - сжимать; обжимать, прессовать

stack - штабель

stage - этап, стадия

start - начинать

starter motor - пусковой мотор

steadily - постоянно

steel - сталь

steering wheel - руль управления

stepladder - лестница-стремянка

stone - камень

stool - табурет

stop – 1.прекращать, останавливать 2.прекращаться, останавливаться

store room - склад, кладовая

straight - прямой

straighten - выпрямлять

strap - предохранительный хомут

strength - прочность

stretch - вытягивать, растягивать

strike an arc - зажигать дугу (электрическую)

strike a match - зажечь спичку

strong - прочный

supervisor - наставник

support - поддерживать

switch - выключатель (сетевой)

switch - переключатель, выключатель

switch off - выключать

switch on - включать


T

table – 1.таблица 2.рабочий стол (станка)

tank - бак, цистерна

take - брать, взять

take away - уносить, убирать

take off - снимать

take out - вытаскивать, извлекать

tap - крап

tape recorder - магнитофон

tarmacadam - тармакадам, дегтебетон

tenth - десятый

terminal - клемма, вывод

test - проверять, испытывать

thick - толстый

thickness - толщина

thin - тонкий

third - третий

thoroughly - тщательно

three quarters - три четверти

throw away - выбрасывать

tie - завязывать

tight - тугой, туго затянутый

tighten - закреплять

tightly - прочно, туго

tin - 1.консервная банка 2.концевая часть электрода

together - вместе

tool - инструмент

top - верх, 1.верхняя часть (чего-л.) 2 . верхний

torch - карманный фонарик

touch – 1.трогать (что-л.), дотрагиваться до (чего-л.) 2.касаться

tough - жесткий

trade - ремесло, профессия

train - поезд

transformer - трансформатор

tray - лоток

trench - котлован

trip over - споткнуться

trolley - тележка

truck - грузовик

tube - труба

turn - поворачивать

turn - поворачиваться

turn off - выключать

turn on - включать

turpentine - скипидар

TV - телевизор

twenty-five - двадцать пять

two-stroke - двухтактный

two thirds - две третьих

twist - крутить, скручивать

twisted - скрученный

type - тип, вид

tyre - шина


U

unblock - прочистить

uncoil - раскрутить

uncover - раскрыть

unsafe - опасный

upwards - вверх

use - работать (на станке)

use - употреблять, применять

used - использованный

using - при помощи


V

valve - клапан, вентиль

vehicle - средство передвижения, транспортное средство

vertical - вертикальный

vice - тиски


W

wall - стена

warn - предупреждать

wash - мыть, промывать

washer - прокладка

water supply pump - насос водоснабжения

water tap - водопроводный кран

water wheel - водяное колесо

weak - слабый

weight - вес

weld - проваренный участок шва

weld - сваривать