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Методические рекомендации по работе с газетой

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Муниципальное общеобразовательное учреждение «Школа № 21 г. Донецка»











Работа с газетой


(методические рекомендации)



Подготовила

Мартынова Н.М.

учитель высшей категории

учитель-методист

МОУ «Школа № 21 г.Донецка»








Донецк 2016











































Пояснительная записка


Газета на английском языке составляет важную часть дополнительного учебного материала. Умело организованная и систематическая работа с газетой расширяет возможности учителя в достижении комплексной реализации практических, воспитательных, образовательных и развивающих целей в обучении иностранному языку.


Чтение газеты на английском языке способствует формированию мировозрения школьников, расширяет их кругозор, знакомит учащихся со страной, язык которой изучается, учит оценивать факты и события, которые происходят, повышает познавательную активность учащихся.


Работа с газетой имеет важную практическую цель – научить учащихся читать про себя научно- популярные и общественно- политические тексты. Читая газету на английском языке учащиеся овладевают ознакомительным, обучающим и просмотровым чтением.


Учащиеся учатся извлекать информацию из оригинального текста, приобретая навыки работы с иноязычным текстом с непосредственным пониманием содержания прочитанного, что не менее важно. Кроме того, чтение газеты способствует закреплению и расширению лексического запаса учеников и формированию крепких грамматических навыков.


Эти рекомендации имеют своей целью методическую помощь учителям английского языка средних школ и педагогам-практикам.






















Содержание


1. Intro……………………………………………………………………..2


2. Types of English papers…………………………………………………3


3. Contents of a newspaper………………………………………………...4


4. Types of abbreviations in the newspapers………………………………5


5. Stages of work with newspaper…………………………………………6


5.1. Work with headlines………………………………………………..6


5.2 Work with the translation of captions………………………………7


5.3 Work with newspaper texts (articles)……………………………….7


5.4 Formation of making simple statements skills……………………...8


5.5 Creative tasks……………………………………………………….9


5.6 Using substitution tables…………………………………………...10


6. Bibliography……………………………………………………………14














1

1. Intro


A newspaper is the most important means for transmitting information in the present day life. That is why the main task facing us is to teach students to read English newspapers as their own ones. Experience shows that the best teachers

use newspapers both at the lessons and in extracurricular work as their reading promotes students’ development and bringing up. School leaver should not only read foreign newspapers, extract information he is interested in, but transfer the contents of the newspaper, assess reading and express his own opinion. It is necessary to acquaint students with the general structure of newspapers, the material published in them, list columns they have to work with. Students should be taught to look through the newspapers, paying attention to headlines of the articles. They should know the peculiarities of newspaper publications (reports,

messages, reviews, advertisements, articles, announcements,leading articles,etc.) Naturally, the texts from newspapers can be very difficult for understanding. That’s why, before reading the articles it is necessary to undertake preparatory work on vocabulary: explain the meaning of unknown words or lexical phrases.


























2


2. Types of English papers.

All newspapers in Britain, daily or Sunday ones can broadly be divided into the quality press and the popular press. The quality newspapers are also known as “heavies” and they usually deal with home and overseas news, with detailed and extensive coverage of sports and cultural events. Besides they also carry financial reports, travel news and book and film reviews.

The popular press or the “populars” are also known as tabloids as they are smaller in size being half sheet in format. Some people also call them the “gutter press” offering news for the people less interested in daily detailed news reports. They are characterized by large headlines, carry a lot of big photographs and concentrate on the personal aspects of news, with reports of the recent sensational and juicy bits of events, not excluding the Royal family. The language of a tabloid is much more colloquial, if not specific, than that of quality newspapers.

As for format, Standard papers are large papers that can have a size of up to 55 cm by 33 cm. Generally, these newspapers are more serious and present more facts than tabloids.

Tabloids are smaller papers with a size of up to 37 cm by 25 cm. They concentrate on sensational stories and often publish gossip combined with big pictures.  
Here is a possibly witty though true classification of English newspapers:

The Times” is read by the people who run the country;

The Mirror” is read by the people who think they run the country;

The Guardian” is read by the people who think about running the country;

The Mail” is read by wives of the people who run the country;

The Daily Telegraph” is read by the people who think the country ought to be run as it used to be;

The Express” is read by the people who think it is still run as it used to be;

The Sun” is read by the people who don’t care who runs the country as long as the naked girl at page three is attractive.

In Britain today there are four nationwide quality papers: “The Times”, “The Daily Telegraph”, “The Guardian” and “The Independent”. “The Daily Mail”, “The Daily Mirror”, “The Sun”, “The Daily Express” and “The Daily Star” are usually considered to be “populars”.

3

The Daily Telegraph”, founded in 1855, is a very conservative paper. However, it has a circulation twice as big as that of “The Times”, “The Guardian” or “The Independent”. It has a nickname – “The Torygraph” after the nickname “Tory” of the Conservative Party. This newspaper has rather a comprehensive news and sports coverage. Some say it has a more objective reporting of what is going on in

There are a lot of different regional daily papers in Britain as well. One can mention the following “The Scotsman” and “The Yorkshire Post”. There are also local weekly papers and many London and local papers delivered or distributed free and paid for entirely from advertising. Thus in Britain one can find newspapers of every political colour, from the far left to the far right. There are several socialist newspapers on sale each week, for example, “Socialist Worker”, and many others. Most people are satisfied that there is a free and objective press.

3. Contents of a newspaper

International news – large format papers publish more news about world affairs

than tabloid.

National news covers the main events that happen in the country.

Local news centres on what happens in the state.

Tabloids have more local stories than others.

Editorials are articles that show the opinion of the writer .

Letters to the editor come from readers and show their opinion on certain topics

or agree or disagree with an editorial.

Comic strips are a series of drawn pictures, mostly by a cartoonist, that show a

story.

Crosswords and other puzzles give the reader the chance to solve certain tasks.

Horoscopes give you a description of your character and the things that may

happen to you, based on the position of the stars and planets at the time of your

birth.

Television guides give the reader an overview of the programmes they can

watch throughout the day.

Sports are a very important part of most newspapers . That’s why they are given

a larger section at the back of a newspaper.

Weather reports and forecasts give the readers information on local as well as

travel and international weather.

Advertisements take up large parts of a newspaper and are positioned

throughout the paper. Sometimes they can be a whole page in size, in other

cases they make up only a few lines.

Advice columns offer tips for readers and answer their questions on certain

topics.

4

Movie, art, book and music reviews give the reader information on new releases

Reporters give their own opinion on how good a new film, book or a newly

released CD is.



4. Types of abbreviations in the newspapers.


A major factor in the trend toward abbreviation is that of economy. Journalistic abbreviations are often occasioned by a desire to economise head-line spacе. Аs well as computerized communications, the extra-time, space, and materials required for rendering long words and phrases is an important concern Scientific studies indicate that up to 75percent of all information in relatively long communications is redundant, and this knowledge makes abbreviation not only possible but convenient.

Usually most of the abbreviations are the names of international stocks, e-mail addresses; they depend on to one type of the abbreviations and one word repeats some times.

At first we should give the definition to abbreviation and classify it. In abbreviations, we omit most of the letters and leave only enough – usually 2 or 3 letters for the word to be recognizable. Since these shortened forms save space and effort, they are nearly always made from expressions people use a lot. There are 4 types of shortening:


Orthographical – the orthographical shortening of the word or a word phrase. The missing part can at all times be supplied by the listener, speaker, and reader. e.g. N-north, Mon – Monday.


Lexical. There are 4 types of lexical abbreviation:

1. initials e.g. BTN - Big Ten Network NY - New York State

2. acronyms e.g. BOSE - better sound through research LED - light-emitting diode

3. clippings e.g. mpg - miles per gallon Mph - mile per hour

4. blendings e.g. Cellphone - cellular telephone; Sportcaster - sport broadcaster

Contractions as: she’s, he’d, it’s and others.

Hybrid divided on to 3:

1. Acronym and initial are in one word e.g. NASA – National Aeronautics and Space

Administration;

2. A half acronym and a half initial word e.g. ABC – alphabet; television channel

Washington D.C. – Washington District of Columbia

3. Mixing of letters and numbers e.g. 1A-12D number of pages; 3yrs – three years

and graphical e.g. $ - monetary symbol of US dollar; & - and (ampersand);



5

Working with abbreviations:

-Ask students to skim throught the newspaper and find acronyms and abbreviations (a good place to look is in the classifieds), and write them down on a piece of paper.

-Right beside the acronym or abbreviation have students write down what they think the acronym or abbreviation stands for.

-After they have finished looking through their newspapers, have students get into groups of three or four and share their lists. As a group, have them find out whether their guesses for the acronyms and abbreviations were correct by comparing them with each other, looking at the guides at the beginning of the classifieds/newspapers, and/or looking through acronym/abbreviation dictionaries.

-Get together as a class and write down all of the abbreviations and acronyms and their definitions that were found on a class chart. Display for future reference.


5. Stages of work with newspaper

1.1. Work with headlines


The headline of the article is the key to the understanding of the article. Besides the general idea and content of the article the headline attracts the readers’ attention and arouses his or her interest.


It needs to be mentioned, that there are different headlines. Some headlines are quite clear and disclose the contents of the article beforehand. But there are articles which require looking through the first paragraphs of the article. Starting the work with newspapers I recommend teachers to pay teachers’ attention to the function headings fulfil and their variety. Teachers should explain the pupils that sometimes headlines do not attract readers’ attention, that’s why a great amount of different attractive things is used: using different printing types, colon, colours, famous sayings, proverbs, phrasal words and hyphens.


It needs to be said that not all headlines can be translated without knowledge of the content of the article as they are often elliptical offers and contain emotive words.

In such situation the teacher should familiarize with the article himself first and then comment it to students and propose his or her variant of translation.




6

So, what is the sequence of operation with headlines?

The teacher

- reads the article loudly himself;

- asks students to find familiar words and expressions;

- asks students to find familiar elements English proverbs they know;

- asks students to decipher familiar abbreviations in headlines;

- asks students to find familiar geographical names, proper names and realities;

- gives the translation of the most difficult words;

- asks one of the students to translate the entire title;

- asks students to give the final correct translation of the headline;

- asks students to read the article once more and tell what the article is about.



1.2 Work with the translation of captions.


As for captions, they can be different: captions below the photos, political cartoons, pictures. Such exercises for work with captions can be offered.


- find the most commonly used geographical names;

- find equivalents to the following phrases and newspaper clichés;

- find in the text the words reminding in sound and spelling the Russian ones;

- find in the text the words the meaning of which can be guessed from the content;

- say, what the meaning of the underlined words is;

- find the words and phrases which you consider to be the key ones;

- say, who is depicted on the photo (picture, cartoon).

- what event in our country or foreign one photo (picture,cartoon) is devoted to;

- read and translate the caption below the photo (picture,cartoon).


1.3 Work with newspaper texts (articles).


Newspaper texts are presented in different genres: chronicles, notes, reports, messages, articles, comments and it is necessary for students to choose those articles which are available on the content and level of language difficulty.The most convenient learning materials are: information about visits of state and public figures, correspondence informational. They are brief and laconic.


The teacher should:

- offer texts with minimum unknown words and information known from Russian

papers, radio and TV;

- ask students to pay attention to familiar abbreviations, titles, abbreviations and

typical phrases and clichés;


7

For work with the newspaper on this stage such typical exercises are offered.

- read the article and find the answers to questions raised;

- express the idea in one sentence enclosed in the first paragraph;

- look through the second paragraph and find the sentence showing that…

- look through the article and find quotes, dates, figures and symbols in it;

- arrange in chronological order the events referred to in the article;

- read the article and select the sentence which helps to understand the headline

and its figurative meaning.

- look through the article and say which facts and data you know;

- read the article and find sentences illustrating the idea about…

- read the article and find key sentences transmitting the basic idea.Explain your

choice;

- give the article another title fuller transmitting something about what it says.

Explain your point of view.



1.4 Formation of making simple statements skills.

This stage is the continuation of the previous one. But it requires the formation of skills to make simple monological statements.


The main methodological principles of work on this stage are:

- careful selection of material in view of its relevance, informational,ideological

and political significance;

- clear focus of each stage;

- taking into account individual characteristics of students;

- accounting the level of language training;

- diversity of species and methods of work.


Working with the newspaper on this stage you can use the following exercises:

- look through the newspaper and explain what the most important and actual is in

it;

- shorten the article till 2 or 3 sentences expressing the main idea of it;

- name the main articles devoted to the overview of the most important events of

international life;

- look through the newspaper and prepare oral resume based on the articles

devoted to the international events;

- name the main articles devoted to…





8

1.5 Creative tasks.

The tasks of this stage are of creative nature.The pupils prepare such works as:

reports, seminars, press-conferences, role-playing and so on.

Examples:


Role- playing

A. You are the editor- in –chief of the newspaper. Ask the members of your staff

about the subscription campaign for the next year.


B. You are a circulation manager of the newspaper. Give an account decreased of

the subscription for the next year.


Work in groups.

1.Talk about different kinds of newspapers you and your classmates read, and

decide how they are similar and how they are different.

2.Give your own ideas of the contents for a school newspaper which may be

interesting for pupils of your age. Make up an advertisement of it.


3.Talk about the importance of getting to know the news. What Ukrainian

publications keep you well-informed? Do they cover the local news or

worldwide? Where are the main events highlighted? How many subscribers do

they have?


4.Discuss the newspapers you read. What makes them attractive to you? Are

there any rubrics which you like most? Don’t like at all? Write a list of things

that can keep young readers interested in the newspaper articles?


5. You are an editor. Make up the structure of your newspaper in a certain order.

Here are some items… .


6. Create a headline for a newspaper. Your headline can be serious or humorous.

Then write a short lead story built around the headline.


7. Discuss why it is often difficult to make a choice of which newspaper to buy

or to subscribe to. Say what helps you to make this choice.





9

1.6 Using substitution tables.

Working with the article in the newspaper will be easy if you use this substitution table to prepare short information about celebration remarkable dates and anniversaries.





1.Information about celebration remarkable dates and anniversaries


Our country

The whole world

Our people

The anniversary of…

Great Britain

celebrates

celebrated

will mark

was marked

will be marked

Constitution day

its… anniversary

its national holiday

Mother’s day

Halloween

last week

some days ago

on the 5th of May

by all mankind

in our country

2.Information about the arrival of the delegation, tourists, politicians, etc.

A delegation of…

Mr. Brown

A group of…

arrived

have arrived

will arrive

in London

in our country

in our town

two days ago

Tomorrow

just now

3. Information about opening (closing) exhibitions, expositions, museums.

An exhibition of…

A flower show

A …museum

An exposition of…

opened/closed

has opened

will be closed

will be opened

in our town

in London

in Ukraine

in our district

yesterday

two days ago

tomorrow

on the 3d of May

4. Information about published and translated books, articles…

The novel…

A collection of…

A translation of…

The book…

was published

has been published

will be published

in Kiev

in our town

into French

into Ukrainian

Some days ago

Next month

Not long ago

in the future

5. Information about other events and facts

The society of…

The students from…

The protocol of …

The talks between…

organized

visited

was signed

will take part

a meeting

the…Institute

in Geneva

in the exhibition of

in London

yesterday

in a week







10

If you want to prepare full information about this or that event you can use these substitution tables. (Rendering the article)


1. Introduction.


I want to

I’m going to

I would like (I’d like) to

Let me 

 

speak about

give you some information about

tell you a couple of words about

give a talk about

render the contents of

an item

an article

a feature story

an essay

 



The item

The article

The feature story

under discussion

under consideration

 

was written by…

was contributed by…

 


 

(...) (name of the author)

 

2. Information about the author. 


The author of

 

the item

the article

the feature story

under discussions

under consideration

 

 

is (...) (name of the author)

 


3. Information about the source of publication.

 

The item

The article

under discussion

under consideration

is taken from

was found in

the newspaper (magazine) named (...)

 


4. Information about the main content of the article.

 

  

The item

The article

The feature story

The essay

 

is about

is devoted to

is concerned with

is centered around

is focused upon

tells us about

deals with

the (present day) in

the (difficult) position of ...

the (latest development) in...

 

.the relations between...

the conflict between...

 

 


11


The item

The article

The feature story

The essay

gives us a (vivid/detailed) description/account of ...

describes (very vividly)

shows us....

 

 

The opening part/passage

(The introductory part/passage)

 

The central part

(The main part)

 

The following part

 

The final part

(The conclusion)

 

is about...

is devoted to…

is centered around/centres around

is concentrated upon...

describes

is focused on/focuses on

deals with...

tells us about

touches upon...

shows us

gives a description/an account of...


  5. Conclusion.

In conclusion

By way of conclusion

By way of summing

 

I want to say

I can say

I must say

I would like to say

 

(...)

 

is fairly interesting

is very instructive

is quite informative

is most pithy in content

6. Your impressions of the article.


Generally speaking

 

On the whole

 

 

(...)

 

 

 

made on me

 

 

a great impression

a favourable impression

a good impression

an unforgettable impression

 

Generally speaking

On the whole

 

I was

 

greatly impressed by…

favourably impressed by…

pleasantly impressed by…

 

 

  12

In my opinion

From my point of view

It seems to me that

There is no doubt that

 

(....) is

 

 

very interesting

fairly informative

rich in content

highly instructive


 

From the item

From the article (essay)

From the feature

story

under discussion

under consideration

under review

 

 

I got to know

I learned


 

...a lot of interesting

information/facts about (concerning)

 

 





























13


Bibliography


1. N.Predtechnaya “Types of English papers.”

2. O.I Kozachinskaya “Everything about press”.

3. T.V.Kara-Kazarian “Article rendering”.

4. Internet resources.

5. Е.Ф.Вормсбехер «О некоторых приемах работы с газетой и использовании

речевых клише».

6. И Е Краснова «Приемы работы с газетой на уроках английского языка».

7. Н.В.Тучина “Speak English with pleasure”

8. Alla Nesvit “English”































14





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Дата добавления 21.11.2016
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Подраздел Другие методич. материалы
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