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МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ РЕКОМЕНДАЦИИ по выполнению практических работ по дисциплине «Иностранный язык» (английский) для студентов 4 курса специальности 35.02.01 «Лесное и лесопарковое хозяйство»

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Практическое занятие №1

Тема: Климат англоговорящих стран и России.

Цель: Введение и первичное закрепление ЛЕ

Прочитайте текст и выполните следующие задания:

Climate

The Climate of Russia. What is climate? Climate is the average conditions of the weather over a space of earth (the temperature, sunshine, wind, rainfall, etc.). Russia has a varied climate because of its large territory, though almost all of the Russian Federation is situated in the North Tem­perate Zone.

The very north is a cold treeless region — the tundra. For the greater part of the year the tundra is covered with snow, its rivers and lakes are frozen to a great depth. In May the temperature begins to rise and the gray greenish night is changed into continuous daylight, when the Sun doesn't go below the horizon for several months. Towards the end of August the temperature begins to fall and in less than a month winter sets in again.

The greater part of the Russian Federation has a continental climate: the summers are warm, even hot in some places; the winters are cold. In the North of the country there are no mountains to form a barrier against the cold winds from the Arctic Ocean. Cold air masses move over the land and bring strong frosts. The low winter temperature especially of north-eastern Siberia is due to these cold winds.

 

The Climate of Great Britain. Great Britain lies between the parallels on which Moscow and Kiev are situated but its climate is much milder than that of this part of Russia, because Great Britain lies on islands and the Gulf Stream flowing near them influences its climate. The January temperature in London is higher and the July temperature is lower in London than in Moscow. The British ports are icefree and the rivers are not frozen throughout the year. In the west of the country there is much rainfall and thick fogs sometimes continue for days and weeks in autumn and winter months. As the result many species of plants do not grow well here, especially green crops. But grasses grow very well all year round providing fresh fodder for cattle.

 

The Climate of the USA. The climate of the United States of America is as much varied as that of the Russia Federation. As well as Russia the USA has no mountain bar­rier in the North from the Arctic Sea and the cold Labrador Sea Current. From here masses of cold air flow over the land and lower the temperature, especially in the eastern part of the country. The warm sea current of the Atlantic Ocean — the Gulf Stream — influences the USA climate less because the winds of North America blow from the sea to the land.

Along the western coast the climate of the USA is warm because the Rocky mountains form a barrier from the cold winds of the North and the land here is open to the warm winds of the Pacific Ocean. The climate in the southern part of this coast is hot and dry, the soil arid, the rainfall low and irrigation must be used to cultivate many species of plants.

Vocabulary:

averageсредний.

conditionсос­тояние.

windветер.

temperate умерен­ный.

to be coveredбыть покрытым.

mountain— гора

mild —мягкий, умеренный.

dry сухой

islandостров.

to flowтечь.

to influenceвлиять.

icefree свободный ото льда.

fogтуман.

fodder — корм для скота.

current— течение.

to blowдуть.

coastберег

aridсухой.

 

Задание 1.1. Найдите в прочитанном тексте предложения, объясня­ющие:

1) причину сходства климата России и США; 2) различие климата США и Англии; 3) различие климата России и Англии

 

Задание 1.2. Найдите пары антонимов:

rise                             frozen

day                            weak

high                            fall

icefree                       hot

cold                           night

summer                     low

strong                       winter

 

Задание 1.3. Ответьте на вопросы к тексту:

1) Why does Russia have a varied climate?

2) What is the climate like in tundra?

3) Why is the climate of Great Britain much milder than that of this part of Russia?

4) What grows well in Great Britain?

5) What influences the USA climate most?

6)The climate of the southern part of western coast of the USA is hot and dry, is not it?

 

Задание 1.4. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих слов и выражений:

имеет разнообразный климат

расположена в...

покрытый снегом

благодаря холодным ветрам

влияет на климат

продолжается неделями


DO YOU KNOW THAT ...

Though Great Britain is considered to be a very rainy country there are some people in England who want more rain and in fact they need it badly. Two or three weeks with­out rain and they have water problems, as it was in summer of 1976. The fact is that the rain falls in the wrong place; then in England there are no good big enough reservoirs to keep water for a rainless period and partly water is used by the people much more than they need.

Most of Britain rains fall in Wales and Scotland; it isn't there but in the drier South-East England and midlands that it is needed. Of course this water is kept and sent to other parts of the country. For example, the second largest city in England, Birmingham, gets all its water from North Wales. But the reservoirs are now a hundred years and need to be much larger. Both at home and in the factories much more water than a hundred years ago is used. It takes 100,000 gallons of water to make one car.

Much water, enough for the whole of London, is lost every day uselessly. Finally, what is left in rivers is made so bad by factories and plants that it can't be used.

The answer to the problem isn't simple. First, a way of keeping the water in the rivers, lakes and seas clean must be found. Factories needn't use so much; they must learn to re-use the water. The new reservoirs need buildings. Fi­nally, new ways of using water from the sea must be studied.

Vocabulary:

reservoirs – резервуар, водохранилище

to keep - хранить

whole- целый, весь

factory – фабрика

to study – изучать


Задание 1.5.Ответьте на вопросы к тексту:

1) Is there any problem with water in Great Britain?

2) Where do most of Britain rains fall?

3) Are the reservoirs large enough?

4) What are the ways of solving the water problems?


Задание 1.6. Найдите русские эквиваленты следующих слов и выражений:

is considered to be

is used by people

need to be much larger

can’t be used

must be found


Задание 1.7. Кратко перескажите текст.


Домашнее задание: выучить ЛЕ





Практическое занятие №2

Тема: Погода

Цель: Чтение с полным пониманием содержания прочитанного

Прочитайте текст и выполните следующие задания:

WEATHER

The weather is changing. Within a twenty-four hour period we can have rain, sun, wind, snow and 20-degree change of the temperature.

Everybody needs to know what tomorrow’s weather will be. Farmers are greatly dependent on the weather changes which may destroy a whole year’s work in a few hours. Being dependent on the weather they observe things around them. They learn to notice changes. They notice what happens just before the wind blows, fog forms, rain or snow falls. They learn to know the signs of changing weather. Observa­tions of the weather have been carried on over a long period of time. Some of these observations resulted in beliefs that are true but also in some that are not.

Some of the weather knowledge men have gathered has been put in the form of sayings. Most weather sayings have two parts. The first part tells what to observe. The second part tells what will or will not happen.

For example, the proverb “When the dew is on the grass, rain will never come to pass” tells that if we can observe dew on the grass, we can be sure of a clear day.“Dark clouds in the west stay indoors and rest.” “When the sunset is clear, a cool night comes near.” Clouds are known to reflect heat. When there are no clouds in the sky, the heated air rises into the atmosphere after the sunsets and the night will be cool or cooler than if there are clouds that reflect heat to the ground.

When clouds move down and turn dark grey, a rainy day is on the way.” “A ring around the sun or moon brings rain or snow upon you soon.” The ring is caused by the fine ice crystals high in the air. They scatter the sunlight or moon­light in the form of the ring.

The proverb “A year of snow — a year of plenty” is used by people who grow wheat. Some wheat is sown in the autumn. If the winter which follows has warm weather fol­lowed by freezing winter, the grain may start to grow during the warm period and then be frozen when the ground freezes again. When the wheat plants are covered with snow for most of the winter they are not likely to thaw out. They do not start growing until real spring weather comes. As a result, there is a good crop and a “year of plenty” for the farmer.

Smoke drifting slowly, close to the ground, tells us that rain may be coming around.” Warm moist air has less pres­sure than cool, dry air. Having less pressure it is less able to raise smoke which just drifts without rising.

Of course, warm moist air doesn’t always show that rain is coming but there is a good chance that it will. That is why many people believe rising smoke to be a sign of good weather.

Sounds move faster on some days than on others. Some people say that if a train can be heard for a great distance, it is a sign of good weather. Before a rain, the air pressure is weaker, it presses less strongly against things. With less air pressure, flowers are more able to send out sweet vapours that make the air smell pleasant. The same weakened air pressure also increases less pleasant smells from decaying plants in marshes.

Through long experience, farmers know these signs. That is why they sometimes say, “It smells like rain”.

There are thousands of little sayings about the weather. Every part of the country has its own special little sayings, and so does every other part of the world.

Vocabulary:

within — в пределах.

degree градус.

to observe наблюдать.

to happen — происходить.

sign — знак, признак.

clear — ясный.

grey — серый.

ringing — кольцо.

to scatter рассеивать.

plenty изобилие.

to thaw оттаивать.

pres­sure - давление.

sound звук.

weak слабый.

smell — запах.

pleasant приятный.

to decay разлагаться.

experience опыт.


Задание 2.1. Выпишите из текста пословицы и поговорки, и переведите их.


Задание 2.2. Определите, верны ли следующие утверждения:

  1. If we can observe dew on the grass, we can be sure of a rainy day.

  2. When the wheat plants are covered with snow for most of the winter they are likely to thaw out.

  3. Warm moist air has more pressure than cool, dry air.

  4. Many people believe rising smoke to be a sign of good weather.


Задание 2.3.Ответьте на вопросы к тексту:

  1. Why does everybody need to know what tomorrow’s weather will be?

  2. Do you think that all the proverbs and sayings are true?

  3. Are they the same for all parts of the world?


Домашнее задание: пересказ текста с опорой на вопросы


Практическое занятие №3

Тема: Экологические проблемы и пути их решения.

Цель: Развитие навыков устной монологической и диалогической речи

Прочитайте текст и выполните следующие задания:

Ecological Problems

Since ancient times Nature has served Man, being the source of his life. For thousands of years people lived in harmony with environment and it seemed to them that natural riches were unlimited. But with the development of civilization man's interference in nature began to increase.

Large cities with thousands of smoky industrial enterprises appear all over the world today. The by-products of their activity pollute the air we breathe, the water we drink, the land we grow grain and vegetables on.

Every year world industry pollutes the atmosphere with about 1000 million tons of dust and other harmful substances. Many cities suffer from smog. Vast forests are cut and burn in fire. Their disappearance upsets the oxygen balance. As a result some rare species of animals, birds, fish and plants disappear forever, a number of rivers and lakes dry up.

The pollution of air and the world's ocean, destruction of the ozone layer is the result of man's careless interaction with nature, a sign of the ecological crises.

The most horrible ecological disaster befell Ukraine and its people after the Chernobyl tragedy in April 1986. About 18 percent of the territory of Belarus was also polluted with radioactive substances. A great damage has been done to the agriculture, forests and people's health. The consequences of this explosion at the atomic power-station are tragic for the Ukrainian, Byelorussian and other nations.

Environmental protection is of a universal concern. That is why serious measures to create a system of ecological security should be taken.

Some progress has been already made in this direction. As many as 159 countries — members of the UNO — have set up environmental protection agencies. Numerous conferences have been held by these agencies to discuss problems facing ecologically poor regions including the Aral Sea, the South Urals, Kuzbass, Donbass, Semipalatinsk and Chernobyl.

An international environmental research centre has been set up on Lake Baikal. The international organisation Greenpeace is also doing much to preserve the environment.

But these are only the initial steps and they must be carried onward to protect nature, to save life on the planet not only for the sake of the present but also for the future generations. 

Vocabulary:

ancient — древний 
harmony —
гармония 
environment —
окружающая среда 
riches —
богатства 
unlimited —
неограниченный 
to interfere —
вмешиваться 
to increase —
увеличиваться, возрастать 
smoky —
дымный 
enterprises —
предприятия 
by-product —
побочный продукт 
activity —
деятельность 
to pollute —
загрязнять 
substances —
вещества 
oxygen —
кислород 
rare —
редкий 
destruction —
разрушение 
ozone —
озон 
layer —
слой 
interaction —
взаимодействие 
horrible —
ужасный 
disaster —
катастрофа 
to befall —
пасть (на что-то)


Задание 3.1. Ответьте на вопросы:

1. How did people live for thousands of years? 
2. What cities appear all over the world today? 
3. What pollutes the air we breathe? 
4. What is the result of the pollution the atmosphere? 
5. Why is environmental protection of a universal concern? 
6. What are the initial steps in this direction?


Задание 3.2. Найдите в тексте и запишите английские эквиваленты следующих слов и выражений:

с древних времен

источник жизни

развитие цивилизации

страдать от дыма

исчезать навсегда

неосторожное обращение с природой

всеобщая забота

сохранить природу

будущие поколения


Задание 3.3.Кратко перескажите текст.


Домашнее задание: Заполнить таблицу

A problem

A solvation




Практическое занятие №4

Тема: Глобальное потепление. Парниковый эффект.

Цель: Развитие навыков чтения с полным пониманием содержания прочитанного

Прочитайте текст и выполните следующие задания:

Global Warming

Global warming is sometimes referred to as the greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect is the absorption of energy radiated from the Earth's surface by carbon dioxide and other gases in the atmosphere, causing the atmosphere to become warmer.

Each time we burn gasoline, oil, coal, or even natural gas, more carbon dioxide is added to the atmosphere. The greenhouse effect is what is causing the temperature on the Earth to rise, and creating many problems that will begin to take place in the coming decades.

Today, however, major changes are taking place. People are conducting an unplanned global experiment by changing the face of the entire planet. We are destroying the ozone layer, which allows life to exist on the Earth's surface.

All of these activities are unfavourably changing the composition of the biosphere and the Earth's heat balance. If we do not slow down our use of fossil fuels and stop destroying the forests, the world could become hotter than it has been in the past million years.

Average global temperatures have risen 1 degree over the last century. If carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases continue to spill into the atmosphere, global temperatures could rise five to 10 degrees by the middle of the next century. Some areas, particularly in the Northern Hemisphere, will dry out and a greater occurrence of forest fires will take place.

At the present rate of destruction, most of the rain forests will be gone by the middle of the century. This will allow man-made deserts to invade on once lush areas. Evaporation rates will also increase and water circulation patterns will change.

Decreased rainfall in some areas will result in increased rainfall in others. In some regions, river flow will be reduced or stopped all together completely. Other areas will experience sudden downpours that create massive floods.

If the present arctic ice melting continues, the sea could rise as much as 2 meters by the middle of the next century. Large areas of coastal land would disappear.

Plants and other wildlife habitats might not have enough time to adjust to the rapidly changing climate. The warming will rearrange entire biological communities and cause many species to become died out.

The greenhouse effect and global warming both correspond with each other. The green house effect is recalled as incoming solar radiation that passes through the Earth's atmosphere but prevents much of the outgoing infrared radiation from escaping into outer space. It causes the overheat of the air and as a result, we have the global warming effect. As you see, greenhouse effect and global warming correspond with each other, because without one, the other doesn't exist.

Vocabulary:

global warming — глобальное потепление
to refer —
иметь отношение, относиться; касаться
greenhouse effect —
парниковый эффект
absorption —
поглощение, абсорбция
surface —
поверхность
carbon dioxide —
углекислота, углекислый газ 
to burn (past burnt, p.p. burnt) —
сжигать 
gasoline —
бензин 
oil —
нефть 
coal —
уголь
ozone layer —
озоновый слой 
to slow down —
замедлить
fossil fuel —
ископаемое топливо
average —
нормальный, обыкновенный, обычный, средний 
to spill into —
проливать(ся), разливать(ся)
the Northern Hemisphere —
Северное полушарие 
destruction —
разрушение, уничтожение 
evaporation rate —
скорость/уровень испарения 
to increase —
возрастать, увеличивать(ся); расти 
water circulation pattern —
сложившийся круговорот воды в природе
rainfall —
количество дождей, дождевые осадки
river flow —
уровень воды в реках
downpour —
ливень
massive flood —
крупное наводнение
to melt —
таять
coastal land —
прибрежные земли
to adjust —
приспосабливаться, привыкать
entire —
весь, целый
biological communities —
биологические сообщества
to die out —
вымереть, исчезнуть
outer space —
открытый космос
overheat —
перегрев
to correspond —
согласовывать, соотноситься

 

Задание 4.1. Ответьте на вопросы:

1. What is global warming?
2. What is greenhouse effect?
3. What activities are unfavorable and change the composition of the biosphere and the Earth's heat balance?
4. What can prevent the developing of greenhouse effect?
5. Why are water circulation patterns changing?
6. What might cause disappearing of large areas of coastal land?
7. Does the warming affect biological communities?
8. Is there a correspondence between greenhouse effect and global warming?


Задание 4.2. Выпишите из текста определения следующих терминов:

Greenhouse effect

Global warming


Задание 4.3. Подберите к каждому слову в колонке А соответствующее значение из колонки В.
1) absorption a.
сообщество
2) surface b.
разрушение
3) composition
с. радиация
4) century d.
испарение
5) destruction e.
поверхность
6) evaporation f.
состав
7) experience g.
поглощение
8) community h.
опыт

9) radiation i.столетие


Домашнее задание: повторить ЛЕ




Практическое занятие №5

Тема: Экологические проблемы и пути их решения.

Цель: Активизация лексико-грамматического материала в устной речи

Прочитайте текст и выполните следующие задания:

Environment Protection Must Be Global


That the problem of pollution and ecology has become the most important one for mankind is evident to all. The more civilization is developing, the greater the ecological problems are becoming. Air and water pollution by industry is now reaching tremendous proportions. In our era it is changing from a national to an interna­tional problem, especially in territories where rivers cross several countries. The seas and oceans are also becoming seriously polluted. A similar situation is developing in the atmosphere. It is known that many cities throughout the world suffer from air pollution.

However, our scientific knowledge and technological advance­ment make it possible to eliminate it if people use good will1 and make considerable investments for that purpose. The develop­ment of natural resources on a global scale is already possible from a scientific and technical standpoint. Large-scale experimental work in this area is successfully being carried out.

At present scientists in industrially developed countries are working on the theory of interaction of all the atmospheric and oceanic global processes that determine the climate and weather of the world. Increasing growth of population, industrialization and the use of resources are slowly but surely changing the global climate and water balance. This can be described as a great experi­ment, one that may bring about changes in the environment more serious than ever before.

The essential feature in the environment protection is that many problems can be solved only on the level of world community3. Therefore, the planning of protection against pollu­tion by human society as a whole4 is imperative today and in the near future. It is necessary to develop an international program to study data on land, forest, atmospheric and oceanic resources, both renewable and non-renewable. It is the joint efforts of many scien­tists and special public organizations that can deal with the prob­lem and take necessary measures to protect the environment.

It is still a big job and much remains to be done. However, sci­entists are confident that planned actions of all countries can elimi­nate pollution and achieve successes in purifying air, water and soil and in safeguarding natural resources. At the same time one must realize that social and political circumstances may stand in the way of further progress in this field.

Vocabulary:

good will — добрая воля

standpoint — точка зрения

community — сообщество

as a whole — в целом

much remains to be done — еще многое предстоит (оста­ется) сделать

Задание 5.1.Ответьте на вопросы:

1. What is this text about?

2. What is ecology?

3. How does wa­ter (air) become polluted?

4. Why is the problem of water pollution becoming a global problem?


Задание 5.2. Подберите к каждому слову в колонке А соответствующее значение из колонки В.

1. pollution a) ресурс

2. knowledge b) развитие

3. investment c) окружающая среда

4. development d) защита

5. population e) знания

6. protection f) загрязнение

7. environment g) население

8. resource h) вложения


Задание 5.3. Найдите в тексте и запишите английские эквиваленты следующих слов и выражений:

Очевидно для всех

Достигать ужасающих размеров

Страдать от загрязнения воздуха

С научной и технической точки зрения

На уровне мирового сообщества

Совместные усилия

Ecological Problems of Big Cities
There are over 150 supercities in the world with population from one to 15 million and more. Tokyo, New York, London, Mexico City, Rio de Janeiro and Moscow are just a few of the cities which have become

supercities.

People in the supercities suffer from polluted environment: bad water, bad air and noise. A new term, urban (городской) climate, is used now for such cities. It means high temperature, oppressive atmosphere and intensive smog.

Some experts consider that it is practically impossible to pro­tect the big cities from pollution. The World Health Organization (WHO) studied air pollution around the world for over eight years.
It measured two things: the level of sulphur dioxide (S02) in the air and the level of smoke. Sulphur dioxide and smoke pollute water and have serious effect on forest, buildings and health of people.
In the WHO report it is shown that the cities with the most con­siderable level of C02 in the air are Milan, Teheran, Prague, Santi­ago and Sao Paulo. However, some cities with clean air get worse in winter. Helsinki, for example, becomes one of the cities with the largest proportion of it in the air in winter. This must be connected with the heating of houses. One can also mention (упоминать) Glasgow and Warsaw which suffer in the same way.

 

Задание 5.4. Ответьте на вопросы:

1) How many supercities are there in the world?

2) What ecological problems do the citizens suffer from?

3) What are the results of WHO research?


Задание 5.5. Прочитайте следующие словосочетания из текста и постарайтесь догадаться о значении выделенных слов.

to protect the environment
become seriously polluted
suffer from pollution
interaction of all processes
the essential feature
protection is imperative today
public organizations
safeguarding natural resources


Задание 5.6. Подберите к каждому слову в колонке А соответствующее значение из колонки В.
protect a. do not feel well
serious b. for all people
suffer
с keep safe from smth.
interaction d. protection
essential e. needing attention
imperative f. important
public g. necessary, most important, fundamental
safeguarding h. action on each other


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. Практическое занятие №6

Тема: Что такое лес?

Цель: Введение и первичное закрепление ЛЕ


Прочитайте текст и выполните следующие задания:

WHAT A FOREST IS?

Forests to a non-specialist seem to be nothing but a col­lection of trees. The closer they are examined, the more they differ. Furthermore, their difference may be expressed in a great number of ways. Some scientists write "A plant association mainly of trees or other woody vegetation occu­pying an area of land is a forest”. Others say that a collection of trees becomes a forest only when it has sufficient density and covers a large enough area to develop local climatic and ecological conditions that are different from those outside. There must be some changes in temperature, moisture, light and wind as well as in the character of upper soil layer. With these changes comes different vegetation under the trees and different animal life in the forest.

In technical lan­guage a specialist: says that a forest "biocenoze" (life com­munity) has been set up. Originally "forest" meant simply wild or uncultivated land. Today the term "forest" is some­times applied to an economic unit of operating area. A for­est of trees of similar age and composition is called a "stand". Every stand has more or less regular upper layer of green crowns, called "the forest canopy" under which there may be an open space except for the stems of the forest trees or more or less occupied with lower canopies. They are called understories3 and are typical of tropical forests but may be in the forests of the temperature zone too.

Very often a single understorey consists of saplings which are coming in to replace the falling stand of veterans above. Where the forest is open or thin there may be ground cover of grass. The nature of this cover is very different. In dense forests the ground under the trees — the forest floor — may have no living vegetation and be covered with dead leaves and branches.

The species composition of the forest is one of the most important features. The stand may be composed of a single species making a pure forest or several species are associated to form a mixed forest.

Perfectly pure forests over large areas occur not often however. It was observed that species do not do well when planted in pure stands, especially upon usual forest soils. The reason is that they make very heavy demands upon soil plant food (nutrients). Such pure stands may do well in youth, but as they become older, their growth becomes very slow and the trees die.

Stands are classified according to age classes of which they are composed. Even-aged stand is one in which all the trees are of one age. Uneven-aged stand, on the other hand, theoretically has trees of every age, from seedlings to old veterans.

Vocabulary

stand — лесонасаждение.

forest canopy— лесной полог.

understorey— второй ярус насаждения.


Задание 6.1.Ответьте на вопросы.

  1. Is forest a collection of trees?

  2. How do the scientists define a forest?

  3. What a stand is?

  4. What is a pure forest?

  5. What is called a mixed forest?

  6. How are stands classified?


Задание 6.2. Выпишите из текста определения следующих понятий

A forest

A biocenoze

A stand

A forest floor

A forest canopy


Задание 6.3.Определите, верны ли следующие утверждения

  1. Even-aged stand has trees of every age, from seedlings to old veterans.

  2. Originally “forest” meant simply cultivated land.

  3. Perfectly pure forests over large areas occur very often.

  4. A forest of trees of similar age and composition is called “biocenoze”.

  5. Stands are classified according to age classes of which they are composed.


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Практическое занятие №7

Тема: «Хвойные и лиственные леса»

Цель: Развитие навыков чтения с полным пониманием содержания прочитанного

Прочитайте текст и выполните следующие задания:

Types of forests

Forests are invaluable for many different reasons. Forests provide a home for countless animals and birds and forest products are important to the economy of the country. The forest industry is a big business and the forest ecosystem provides products such as plastics, paper, wood for furniture and homes, dyes, medicines, oils, flavorings, chewing gum, and numerous other items. There are several different types of forest ecosystems.

Coniferous or cone bearing forests are found in colder climates and consist of softwoods.

Deciduous forests that provide eye candy in the fall with their beautiful display of colors are generally hard woods such as oak, maple and poplars.

Tropical rainforests can be found where it is very humid and rainy. There are thousands of plant and animal species living in the ecosystem of a tropical rainforest that would not be able to survive anywhere else.

The ecosystem of the forest includes a wide variety of animals and plants ranging from tiny micro organism to giant redwoods and sequoias. Each part of the ecosystem that makes up the forest is vital to the survival of the forest. Insects re-pollinate trees and squirrel carry nuts throughout the forest hiding them in secret stashes. Some of those nuts will be buried and germinate to produce a new generation of tree for the forest. Every living thing in the forest ecosystem is important to the balance and structure of the forest.

Forests have been classified according to their economic importance. The first group includes special purpose and protective forests - green belts around cities and enterprises, forest in reserve areas, the protective avenues for roads and railways, forests beside rivers, laces and others water, trees that protect the soil and forests in natural preserves.

In the second group we find the trees of which there are limited reserves. These are important from the point of view of timber supply and also as protective forests. The third group covers all other forests suitable for exploitation. These are mainly concentrated in the Russian Federation and Kazakh Republic.

Vocabulary:

importance – значение,

purpose - цель, назначение,

belt- пояс,

enterprise – предприятие,

resort- отдых,

avenue- дорога,

soil- почва,

preserve- заповедник,

area- площадь,

enterprise – завод,

from the point of view - с точки зрения,

timber- лесоматериал,

supply – снабжать,

suitable- подходящий,

mainly - главным образом,

according to-согласно,

includeвключать


Задание 7. 1. Ответьте на вопросы:

  1. Why are forests invaluable?

  2. What types of forest ecosystems are there?

  3. What trees are typical of deciduous forests?

  4. What does the ecosystem of the forest include?

  5. In what way have forests been classified according to their economic importance?


Задание 7.2.Подберите к каждому слову из колонки А соответствие из колонки B

1) invaluable a) различный

2) important b)влажный

3) different c) бесценный

4) numerous d)красивый

5) countless e)бессчетный

6) vital f)жизненно важный

7) beautiful g)многочисленный

8) humid h)важный


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Практическое занятие №8

Тема: Леса Европы и Азии

Цель: Тренировка навыков чтения с применением различных стратегий

Прочитайте текст и выполните следующие задания:

FORESTS OF ASIA

Asia, excluding Russia, should be discussed in two sections: one covering the region of East Asia including China, Korea and Japan; the other covering South Asia and including the Philippines, Indonesia and India. The forest of East Asia, though the sub-regions vary widely in type, are mainly situated in temperate or cool zones and hence do not differ in principle from the American or European forests. The forests of South Asia, on the other hand, are mainly of tropical type, more similar to those of Africa and South America.

China, once covered well with forests, has now five or six thousand years of destructive action of man, a forested area covering only 9 percent of the country. This still constitutes a considerable forest area, of which three quarters is productive forest land. Half of this is covered by coniferous forests, mainly concentrated in the North-Eastern part of the country. The South, South-West and Central regions contain considerable part of hardwoods. There are three forest zones in China, namely subtropical, warm-temperate and cool-temperate.

In the subtropical zone evergreen broadleaf trees, such as several species of oak, occur together with palms, tree ferns and bamboos. The warm-temperate zone includes the area along the Yangtze River. Its forests contain deciduous broadleaved species such as oak, maple, poplar as well as some conifers such as pine. The cool-temperate zone to the north of the country is the most important one. It comprises forests of pine, spruce, hemlock, fir, larch, birch, and maple etc.

Korea, a much smaller country than China is well forested, that is to about 80 percent. However, heavy demand and lack of control resulted in great devastation and the remaining forests are thin. The rate of cutting in South Korea is twice as that of growth and the volume of standing timber is rapidly decreasing. In North Korea a cool temperate zone contains spruce, fir, larch and pines.

Japan, a highly industrialized country, has a growing pulp and paper industry of considerable capacity. About two-thirds of the land area is covered with forests, but as a result of demand of heavy population only 25% of the forests are capable of yielding industrial wood, and only 15% are accessible coniferous forests. The climatic zones of Japan are similar to those of China.

Vocabulary:

demand – спрос,

control- контроль,

lack- недостаток,

result- приводить,

devastation – опустошение,

thin- редкий,

rate- нормы,

cutting- рубка,

remain- оставаться,

...is twice as... - в два раза больше,

volume- объем,

standing timber - лес на корню,

decrease – уменьшаться,

contain – содержать,

spruce – ель,

fir – пихта,

larch- лиственница,

pine – сосна,

considerable – значительный,

capacity – размер ,

pulp and paper industry - целлюлозно-бумажная промышленность,

accessible coniferous forests - доступные хвойные леса,

yield - давать

Задание 8.1. Подберите к каждому слову из колонки А соответствие из колонки B

1) oak a)сосна

2) maple b)береза

3) poplar c)лиственница

4) pine d)клен

5) spruce e)дуб

6) hemlock f)тополь

7) fur g)ель

8)larch h)болиголов

9) birch i)пихта


Задание 8.2 Ответьте на вопросы.

  1. What is the difference between the region of East Asia and South Asia?

  2. What is special about China forests?

  3. What species grow in subtropical zone?

  4. Is Korea a well- forested country?

  5. Are climatic zones of Japan similar to those of China?


Задание 8.3 Верны ли следующие утверждения (Ttue/ False)

  1. China has a forested area covering 9 per cent of the country.

  2. The warm-temperate zone includes the area along the Potomac River in China.

  3. In North Korea a cool-temperate zone contains a birch, an oak, a maple and a poplar.

  4. About two-thirds of Japan area is covered with forests.

  5. There are two forest zones in China, warm-temperate and cool-temperate.


Forests of Africa and Australia

Africa, apart from its equatorial tropical forests, is poorly forested. Vast deserts steppes and savannas extend north and south of that forest belt, leaving fairly narrow coastal districts to the extreme north and south with limited forest areas. The forests in the regions, bordering on the deserts have to combat hot and dry climate, and, once removed, they find it difficult to recover. The biological composition of African forests is extremely complex and various by regions. Only comparatively few species have so far proved to be of commercial interest, making general exploitation of African forests difficult and expensive. Altogether about forty species are exported. African eucalyptus and pines may become of interest for pulp and paper industry.

The Australian forest flora consists predominantly of evergreen hardwoods, mainly eucalyptus. Conifers are also found there, mainly cypress pine. The wild eucalyptus forests form the base of an important timber and are widely used in pulping industry. They are mostly old and rather slow-growing forests. On good sites, however, many of eucalyptus species are capable of very high production.

Vocabulary:

apart from - не считая,

various – различный,

equatorial – экваториальный,

species – порода,

poorly – бедный,

so far - до сих пор,

vast – широкий,

prove – оказывать,

extend – тянуться,

commercial – промышленный,

fairly – довольно,

expensive – дорогой,

narrow – узкий,

pine – сосна,

coastal – прибрежный,

pulp and paper industry - бумажная промышленное,

extreme – крайний,

predominantly - в основном,

area – площадь,

evergreen – вечнозеленый,

border- граничить,

hardwood - лиственная порода,

desert - пустыня,

conifers - хвойная порода,

combat - преодолевать,

timber - пиломатериал,

remove - удалять,

pulping industry - целлюлозная промышленность,

recover - восстанавливать,

site - участок,

composition - состав


Задание 8.4. Ответьте на вопросы:

  1. Is Africa well-forested?

  2. What is the biological composition of African forests?

  3. Are all the species of commercial interest?

  4. What species does the Australian forest consist of?

  5. Are eucalyptus capable of high production?


Задание 8.5.Подберите к каждому слову из колонки А соответствие из колонки B

1) evergreen a)ограниченный

2) expensive b)важный

3) extreme c)разнообразный

4) vast d)крайний

5)coastal e)узкий

6)various f)обширный

7) narrow g)вечнозеленый

8)important h)способный

9) capable i) прибрежный

10) limited j) дорогой


Задание 8.6. Верны ли следующие утверждения (Ttue/ False)

  1. Africa is poorly forested.

  2. The biological composition of African forests is very simple.

  3. Many species have so far proved to be of commercial interest.

  4. General exploitation of African forests is difficult and expensive.

  5. The wild eucalyptus forests are widely used in pulping industry.


Домашнее задание: пересказ текста


Практическое занятие №9

Тема: Леса на Земле.

Цель: Активизация лексико-грамматического материала в устной речи.

Прочитайте текст и выполните следующие задания:

Forests of the world

Wood is unique among the world's important raw materials. Most people on the planet Earth live in wooden houses, sit on wooden chairs, eat at wooden tables, and up to the present day, many people are warmed by wooden-stocked fires.

The wood possessing countries of the world are, perhaps, most wealthy, because, under condition of wise management, wood is universal, abundant, and essentially inexhaustible source of national well-being.

There is something like eight billion acres of timber covering earth as a whole. In Europe, not counting the Russian, today timber exporters are: Norway, Finland and Sweden.

In Norway forests cover one quarter of the total surface of the country. Once the country exported its forests in the form of logs, later on as sawn goods and planed timbers, now mainly as pulp and paper. The principal tree species in Norway are spruce, pine and birch. In the southern most parts of Norway we also find, in small quantities, several valuable species such as oak, beech, ash, alder, maple and others. More than 70 per cent of the Norwegian productive area belongs to private owners, and a major part of this area is utilized in combination with farming.

Vocabulary:

wood - лес,

древесина,

unique – уникальный,

raw materials - сырье,

the present day - в настоящее время,

wooden-stocked – древесный,

warm - греть,

possess- иметь,

wealthy - богатый,

wise- мудрый ,

management -управление,

abundant - обильный,

inexhaustible - неисчерпаемый,

well-being - благосостояние,

acre - акр,

cover-покрывать,

count - считать,

log - бревно,

sawn-goods –пиломатериалы,

planed timber - строганный пиломатериал,

pulp - целлюлоза,

paper – бумага,

principal – основной,

spruce - сосна, ель,

pine – сосна,

birch- береза,

quantity- количество,

valuable - ценный,

oak – дуб,

ash – осина,

alder- ольха,

private owner - частный собственник,

farming - сельское хозяйство


Задание 9.1.Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих слов и выражений

До настоящего времени

При условии мудрого управления

Источник национального богатства

В целом

Четверть общей площади страны

В малых количествах

Принадлежит частным лицам


Задание 9.2.Подберите к каждому слову из колонки А соответствие из колонки B

1) universal a)ценный

2)abundant b)неисчерпаемый

3)inexhaustible c)важный

4) important d)продуктивный

5) wealthy e)универсальный

6)valuable f)обильный

7) productive g)богатый

8)principle h)основной


Задание 9.3. Ответьте на вопросы

  1. Why is wood unique among the world’s important raw materials?

  2. Are the wood possessing countries of the world most wealthy? Why?

  3. How much timber is there on the Earth?

  4. What does Norway export now?

  5. What species can you find in Norway?


The uses of wood

Wood is processed in a thousand ways to produce a nearly and less variety kinds of goods. It is essential, in some form, to every major industry. It serves our agriculture and fishery. It provides the bed of ties that carries our railway traffic across the continent. It timbers our mines, and wooden poles support power and communication lines. By mechanical means we give wood size and shape, and by chemical process we turn it to paper and rayon, or recover extractives for many uses. So varied are the uses of wood, and so numerous the methods of its conversion that wood is one of the world's most versatile material.

We have progressive and developing economy, producing new materials and products. We see around us the fantastic growth of the plastics industries. Yet, with all these new materials and all these developments, wood continues to play a dominant role in the world economy, and the global demand for the products of wood continues to increase. Wood is now serving in many new forms and for many new purposes. It is used in the form of veneers and plywood’s and wallboards of various types; wood is still an important fuel and is used to heat our homes. It is wood that continues to provide most of the furniture for our homes.

Vocabulary:

process - перерабатывать,

way - способ,

produce - производить,

essential – важно,

goods - товары,

major – главный,

serve – служить,

fishery - рыболовство,

provide - обеспечивать,

ties - шпалы,

carry – нести,

railway traffic - железнодорожное сообщение,

timber - строительный лес,

wooden pole - деревянный столб,

power - электроэнергия,

means - средство,

size – размер,

shape – форма,

furniture- мебель


Задание 9.4.Подберите к каждому слову из колонки А соответствие из колонки B

1) continue a) увеличить

2) process b) производить

3) produce c)перерабатывать

4) serve d)развивать

5) provide e)продолжать

6) develop f)служить

7) support g)обеспечивать

8) increase h)поддерживать


Задание 9.5. Ответьте на вопросы

  1. Is wood essential to industry? Why?

  2. What are the uses of wood?

  3. How do you use wood at home?


Задание 9.6. Закончите предложения.

  1. Wood is one of the world's …

  2. Wood serves …

  3. Wood continues to play…

  4. Wood continues to provide…

  5. Wood is essential to …


Домашнее задание: Повторить ЛЕ


Практическое занятие №10

Тема: Леса России

Цель: Введение и первичное закрепление ЛЕ

Прочитайте текст и выполните следующие задания:

Russian forests

Being an ecological frame of the Earth’s biosphere, the Russian Forests oc­cupy 69 per cent from the total land area of the Russian Federation account for more that 20 per cent from the global for­est resources. That is why ensuring sus­tainable and sound forest use, protection and restoration of Russian forests represents not only a national but also a global task of vital importance for the en­tire mankind.

As regards the amount and diversity of their ecological functions, forests are of special value as compared with other natural complexes. They provide for regulation and cleaning of water flows, soil conservancy and improvement in natural fertility, the most complete conservation of genetic diversity, and enrichment of atmosphere with oxygen, prevention of air pollution and formation of a cli­mate.

Forests are a source of many ecologically; clean food resources for satisfying di­verse needs of people, they represent a human environment conducive to maintaining people’s spiritual and physical health.

Therefore, forests serve as a central link in nature conservancy and natural regula­tion of overwhelming majority of environmental processes. It is the forests that are a natu­ral base contributing to human survival. Maintenance and enhancement of national forest resources, as the principal goal of efforts of the Federal Forest Service of Russia, can be attained by means of implementation of sustainable forest management. This means that forestry should ensure sound use of forest resources, functions and benefits which are of value for present and future needs of human civilization. Of special value is the balance of interests of different population groups, industries and forest administration bodies, with respect to forest utilization within specific areas, available timber and non-wood resources, their processing, development of relevant economic structures, providing for the employ­ment of all population groups, without causing any damage to environmental quality and biodiversity of forest.

Vocabulary:

sustainable - обеспечивающий

vital importance - жизненная важность

natural complexes - природные комплексы

water flows - водные потоки

soil conservancy - охрана почвенных ресурсов

fertility - изобилие, плодородие

overwhelming - огромный, несметный

biodiversity of forest - биологическое разнообразие леса

Задание 10.1. Дополните предложения прилагательными, используя текст:

The land area is TOC \o "1-5" \h \z ....

The forest resources are …

The frame is…

The task is .

The fertility is .

The link is

The environment is .

The health is

The regulation is

The Service is

The processes are

The importance is



Задание 10.2. Составьте предложения с предлогом of:

The principal goal


... special value

The prevention


... vital importance

The quality


... efforts of the Forest Service

Forests are

of

... people

The task


... overwhelming majority

The diverse needs


... forests

The regulations


... air pollution


Задание 10.3. Выпишите из текста словосочетания, соответствующие данным:

  1. Именно поэтому.

  2. Они обеспечивают.

  3. Это означает.

  4. Что касается.

  5. Всё человечество .

  6. Могут быть достигнуты.

  7. Именно лес.

  8. Посредством.


Задание 10.4. Ответьте на вопросы по тексту:

What area do the Russian forests occupy?

What are the national task and the global task of the entire mankind?

Why is the forest as a central link of the conservancy and regulation of national processes?

What is of special value in forestry for human civilization?

Домашнее задание: выучить ЛЕ


Практическое занятие №11

Тема: «Леса Великобритании»

Цель: Тренировка навыков чтения с полным пониманием содержания прочитанного


Прочитайте текст и выполните следующие задания:

Britain’s forests

In prehistoric times, Britain was well-covered with trees. But as the population changed and grew, as agriculture developed and the need for timber increased, the forest areas gradually disappeared. The grazing of cattle and sheep prevented much natural rege­neration of trees. However, some woodland areas enjoyed a royal protection because of the facilities they offered for game, hunting. Similar control was exercised by landowners. Some of these woodland areas as New Forest, Forest of Dean and Epping Forest, still ex­ist with many of the old customs and laws still surviving.

Some landowners manager their estates well and responded to emergency calls, such as that made by John Evelyn in the 17th cen­tury and it is thanks to them that we have these trees we do possess, and were able to face up to some of the demands for timber during the two great world wars.

So much home-grown timber was used in the First World War, that is was quite ob­vious that the growing of trees should no longer be left to individuals. There had to be a national policy. Accordingly, the Forestry Commission was set up in 1919. The Second World War once again made great demand for timber reserves because the effective blockade of the posts made the import of this bulky item a great problem.

But in spite of the two wars the Forestry Commission has now planted 1, 5 million acres of trees in the 500 forests of the country. The annual programme in recent years has been 100 million new trees planted each year. Of these, 90 per cent are conifer trees be­cause they are quick growing. The softwood they proved represents practically 90 per cent of out timber needs. The Forestry Commission, with their scientific and financial resources advises and assists private landowners who have between them 2, 5 million acres of wood­land.

There are a number of forest schools which train the men who look after Britain’s forests. A number of universities have specialist courses which provide a steady flow of men who will occupy various positions both in State and private woodlands.

The target in the 1970s was to have 5 million acres of trees providing about one third of a national need of timber.

Vocabulary

prehistoric - доисторический

timber - лесоматериалы, строевой лес

grazing of cattle - пасти скот

regeneration - восстановление

hunting - охота

Dean - Епископ

survive - выживать

landowner - землевладелец

estate - поместье

Forestry Commission - Комиссия Лесного Хозяйства

assist - помогать

target - цель


Задание 11.1 Подберите эквиваленты к словам, обозначенным цифрами.

1. agriculture a. охота

2. regeneration b. хвойный

3 survive c. защита

4. population d. сельское хозяйство

5. hunting e. землевладелец

6. protection f. восстановление

7. landowner g. выживать

8. conifer h. население


Задание 11.2. Составьте все виды вопросов к данному предложению:

As the population changed and grew, as agriculture developed and the need for timber in­creased, the forest areas gradually disappeared.


Задание 11.3. Ответьте на вопросы:

  1. In what times was the country well-covered with trees?

  2. Why did some woodland areas enjoy a royal protection?

  3. When was the Forestry Commission set up in?

  4. Has the annual programme been 10 million new trees planted each year in recent years?

  5. The conifer trees are quick growing, aren’t they?


Задание 11.4. Перескажите текст.


Домашнее задание: Подготовить сообщение


Практическое занятие №12

Тема: «США и Канады»

Цель: Развитие навыков устной речи

Прочитайте текст и выполните следующие задания:


Forests of the USA and Canada

Two English-speaking countries across the ocean possess large forest resources. They are Canada and the USA. The amount of timber resources of the USA is second only to Russia. Forest land occupies one third part of the United States area.

There are over one thousand species of trees in the USA. In Europe (without Rus­sia) there are less than one hundred. England has about thirty and France thirty five. Out of the one thousand kinds of trees in America only about one hundred have much commercial value as lumber. Of these about sixty are hardwoods and about forty are softwoods, but only fifteen hardwoods and fourteen softwoods are extensively used for lumber, plywood and construction timber.

The softwoods are the oldest family of trees in the United States. The commercial softwoods of importance are: southern yellow pine, Douglas fir, hemlock, Sitka spruce, larch, and white fir. Hardwoods which are broad-leaved and usually shed leaves in autumn furnish about 20 per cent of US commercial wood products. They are oak, maple, birch, beech and others.

Most part of the forest land is private­ly owned and consist of small parks and farms under 5,000 acres. The care of these forests lies on the small owner. There are 146 national forests furnishing 159 million acres in the United States. The national fo­rests are administrated by the United States Forest Service. The forest resources of Canada amount to 11,6 billion cubic meters.

The most important forest trees in Canada are the spruces. About one third of Cana­da’s timber is spruce. Its wood is used for pulpwood, lumber and plywood.

Second only to the spruces are two-needled pines. These pines furnish 11 per cent of Canada’s standing timber volume.

Third in importance are the true firs, of which the most distributed is the balsam fir. Its wood is commonly cut as pulpwood and to a lesser ex­tent, as sawn goods. Next is a family of broad-leaved deciduous trees - aspen and poplar.

Fifth among Canada’s forest trees is the Hemlock. Western hemlock is a main commercial source of tannin, while the wood is used for railroad ties, lumber and pulp.

The tree, responsible, more than any other, for British Columbia’s world-wide repu­tation for timber is the coastal form of Douglas fir. Douglas fir is used extensively for lumber, plywood and construction timber. Next in order are the cedars. Their wood is light and resistant to decay. In virgin forests they reach heights of 150-200 feet and diameters of 8 to 103 feet. Their wood is used for lumber, poles and posts.

Finally there are the birches. Most distributed is the white birch which grows widely throughout Canada. The most important hardwood tree in eastern Canada is the yellow birch. Its wood is much in demand for flooring, furniture veneer and railroads ties. Canada is indeed fortunate to possess such a variety of useful tree species. The pine and spruce in the east, and Douglas fir, cedar and hemlock in British Columbia have won for Canada its position as the world’s leading nation in forest products trade.

Vocabulary

lumber пиломатериалы

plywood - фанера

construction timber - материал для строительных конструкций

pulpwood - баланс

Douglas fir - пихта Дугласа

hemlock - тсуга канадская

Sitka spruce - ель серебристая

larch - лиственница

aspen - осина

poplar - тополь

beech - бук

shed leaves - сбрасывать листья

small owner - мелкий собственник

balsam fir - пихта канадская

a lesser extent - наименьший размер

sawn goods - распиленная продукция

deciduous - с опадающими листьями

tannin - дубильное вещество, танин

railroad ties - железнодорожные шпалы

pulp - целлюлоза

cedar - кедр

pole - свая, шест

post - столб, подпорка

flooring - половой настил

veneer - шпон


Задание 12.1 Подберите эквиваленты к словам, обозначенными цифрами.

  1. Softwood а. Древесина

  2. Maple б. Широколиственные

  3. Lumber в. Клён

  4. Decay г. Гниение

  5. Broad-leaved д. Хвойные породы


Задание 12.2. Выпишите все числительные из текста и напишите их словами.


Задание 12.3. Вставьте предлоги, где необходимо и переведите предложения:

  1. The wood is used rail road’s ties, lumber and pulp.

  2. There are one thousand species trees the USA.

  3. The care these forests lies the small owner.

  4. Douglas fir’s wood is used lumber, poles and posts.

  5. It is wood is much demand flooring, furniture veneer and rail roads ties.


Задание 12.4.Составьте словосочетания и переведите их:

1.the eldest family


a. the USA area

2.a variety


b. trees in the USA

3.one third part

of

c. timber resources

4.the amount


d. tanin

5.a commercial source


e. useful tree species








Задание 12.5. Ответьте на вопросы:

  1. How many species of trees are in the USA?

  2. The spruces are four-needled pines, aren’t they?

  3. What height has Douglas fir?

  4. What trees are the commercial softwoods of importance?

  5. What part does forest land occupy of the USA?

  6. Are the national forest administrated by the land owners or by the United States Forest Service?

  7. Has England about 50 species of trees?

Домашнее задание: Ответить на вопросы


Практическое занятие №13

Тема: «Леса»

Цель: Тренировка навыков чтения с полным пониманием содержания прочитанного

Прочитайте текст и выполните следующие задания:


Botanical classification of wood

Trees, being plants, fall into the botanical classification system of taxonomic groups - divisions, classes, orders, families, genera, and species. Hardwoods are included in the class called angiosperms, while softwoods fall in the class called gymnosperms.

The gymnosperms are divided into seven orders, one of which is conifers which in­cludes all commercially useful softwoods. The angiosperms are further classified into two sub-classes of Monocotyledonous and Dicotyledonous.

Hardwoods of commercial importance belong to the Dicotyledonous subclass.

Trees, as well as other plants, are referred to most pre­cisely by scientific names, which are composed of their genus and species: black walnut, for exam­ple, is JUGLANS NIGRA L. However, the common name (black walnut) is sufficient for most practical purposes. The ini­tial following the scientific name denotes the scientist who named the plant, in this case Linnaeus, a Swedish botanist.

Vocabulary:

plant - растение

fall (into) - попадать

taxonomy - таксономия, систематика

division - тип

order - отряд

genus (genera) - род

species - виды

hardwoods - лиственные породы

softwoods - хвойные породы

conifers - хвойные деревья

as well as - а также

refer (to) - называть

precisely - точно

scientific - научный

compose - состоять, составлять

black walnut - чёрный орех

common name - обычное имя

sufficient - достаточный

initial - инициал

denote - обозначать

angiosperm - широколиственны

gymnosperm - голосемянной

monocotyledonous - однодольный

dicotyledonous - двусемянодольный


Задание 13.1. Ответьте на вопросы:

  1. What taxonomic groups of botanical classification do you know?

  2. What Swedish botanist do you know?

  3. Are the angiosperms classified into three sub-classes?


Задание 13.2. Вставьте предлоги:

  1. The gymnosperms are divided seven orders.

  2. Hardwoods are included the class called angiosperms.

  3. Trees are referred most precisely scientific names.


Задание 13.3. Используя суффиксы образуйте новые слова:

botany, classify, divide, commerce, taxonomy.


Задание 13.4. Подберите эквиваленты к словам, обозначенным цифрами.

  1. plan a) род

  2. denote б) инициал

  3. commercial в) растение

  4. initial г) промышленный

  5. genus д) обозначать


Задание 13.5. Перескажите текст.


Домашнее задание: повторить ЛЕ


Практическое занятие №14

Тема: «Разнообразие животного и растительного мира России»

Цель: Введение и первичное закрепление ЛЕ


Прочитайте текст и выполните следующие задания:

Задание 14.1. Вставьте в пропуски подходящие по смыслу слова:

stands, timber, coniferous, insignifi­cant, including, hard leaved

In the Russian forests three groups of main __________ species are presented. A predo­minant coniferous is Larch (Larix), the area covered with it exceeding that occupied by stands composed predominantly of birch (Betula) are mainly stands of European birch (B.Pendula) and white birch (B. Pubescenes).

Despite taking the second place among soft leaved species, aspen (Populus tremula) forests cover the area being 4.5 times less as compared with birch forests.

Oak dominates in the group of __________ species. About 55% of oak stands composed mainly of common oak (Quercus robur) are concentrated in the European part of Russia, and the rest- in the Far East where oak stands are composed almost completely of Mongolian oak (Q. Mongolica). Stone birch also belongs to hard leaved species. Such a collective name comprises several genera of birch with dark- coloured bark and very hard wood to be met with in Ear East. As re­gards areas covered, ­­__________ of stone birch take the second place (after oak forests) in the group of hard leaved species.

Other hard leaved species are hornbeam (Carpinus), ash (Fraxinus), maple (Acer), elm (Ulmus), and they cover, as compared with the entire Russian territory, a rather _____________ area.

Three groups of main timber species (coniferous, hard- and soft leaved) cover, on the whole, 638 million ha (90.4% of the entire stocked area), _____________ 508 million ha (71.9%) of coniferous, 113 million ha (16%) of soft leaved and 17 million hard leaved.

Three main timber species groups account for 98.3% (71.7 billion m3) of the total standing volume, including 79.1% (55.7 billion m3) of _____________, 16.6% (12.1 billion m3) of soft leaved and 2.6% (1.9 billion m3) of hard leaved.

Vocabulary

timber - строевой лес

compare - сравнивать

stand - лесонасаждение

to be composed of - состоять из

belong - принадлежать

insignifi­cant - незначительный

volume - объем


Задание 14.2. Выпишите из текста названия пород деревьев, распределив их по двум колонкам, лиственные и хвойные.


Задание 14.3. Ответьте на вопросы:

1) What are the main timber species of Russian forests?

2) What species predominate among coniferous?

3) What species predominate among deciduous?


Домашнее задание: Выучить ЛЕ



Практическое занятие №15

Тема: «Животные России»

Цель: Развитие навыков чтения с полным пониманием содержания прочитанного


Прочитайте текст и выполните следующие задания:

Animals of Russia

Russia houses a great number of various animal species. Mammals of more than 300 species, birds of more than 700 species, amphibians of about 30 species and reptiles of 80 species inhabit vast territories of Arctic tun­dra, hot southern deserts, deciduous and coniferous forests, mountain countries, and seacoasts.

The first animals are Hares. First of all, both Mountain and Eu­ropean Hares are remarkable for their large eyes placed on the sides of the head, allowing animals to look in the opposite directions and ex­panding their visual angle to 360°C. It means, that motionless hare is able to see both its nose and tail without turning its head. That is why it is very difficult to approach a hare undetected because hares are able not only to run very fast, but also to confuse chasers crossing their own tracks in var­ious directions. Hare is not an easy prey for many predators.

One more resident of Russia is the Great Eagle Owl. These largest nocturnal raptors prey in the dusk and at night. They are ex­cellent predators owing to a number of peculiar traits. Soft plumage makes their flight quiet; acute eyesight allows them to see both in the dark and in bright sunlight; sensitive audition helps to locate prey not seeing it. In the wild these nocturnal raptors prefer to construct their nests in tree holes.

Common squirrels are lovely animals were formerly common not only to the fo­rests, but also to the city parks, where they are rather rare now. In summer, squirrels wear bright red coats and change them for more fluffy silver-grey coats in winter. Change of the seasons is marked not only with disguise; in late autumn squirrels store nuts, berries, and mushrooms in their winter nests, constructed in tree holes or in the branches and look­ing like a round ball. To dry mushrooms, animals pin them on thin tree branches.

Various small passerines (chaffinches, bullfinches, greenfinches, starlings, waxwings, siskins, goldfinches, etc.) are most common to the European Russia.

Sables and Marten are small and very mobile animals active almost all day round with short breaks for sleep. Both of them are predators with a wide range of prey. Their diets consist primarily of small rodents and birds with great amounts of fruits and berries added to them in summer. Sables readily feed on cedar nuts devastating food stores of its taiga neighbors. Unlike sables, martens spend more time on the trees, moving fast from branch to branch.

Foxes usually prey for small rodents abundant in the woods, fields, and at the forest edges. In summer they readi­ly take also insects and berries. In winter, one can see foxes wondering in the fields and listening to mouse rustle under the snow. Hearing familiar piping sounds, a fox bounces as a ball and flaps snow with its paws to get the prey, or begins to dig snow fast.

Ravens have been always believed to be evil birds attracting death. The reason for such negative account was the fact that these birds were often seen feeding on carrion. When their chicks hatch, which happens ear­ly in spring after snowmelt, the parents feed them with dead ani­mals. So the ravens should be called health officers of the forest rather than death messengers. These large black birds prefer to breed far from human set­tlements, building their nests on the highest trees deep in the woods.

Due to their extraordinary talents, Beavers are called constructors and architects. These animals common to the forest rivers and springs are one of the largest rodents. Beavers' incisors are very strong; they grow constantly and remain as sharp as razor blades. Tooth enamel is durable on the exterior side of the animal's upper teeth and soft on their interior side. The structure of the lower incisors is just the opposite. It allows beaver's teeth to sharpen constantly. The beavers use tree trunks and large branches cut with their wonderful teeth to construct dams across streams and rivers. Their huts are built at such dams. Although construction of hut seems to be very simple, the hosts are safe in their roomy quarters. Entrance to the hut is under water, and unwelcome terrestrial visi­tors are not able to get inside.

Wolf is a well-known predator. It is well-known fact that the wolves prey on large ungulates, though they readily catch mice prevailing in their spring and summer diet. Some time ago, farmers considered wolves detrimental animals prey­ing on cattle and other valuable domestic animals. Elimina­tion of the predators was encouraged. However, after the number of wolves had declined dramatically in some regions of Russia and the animals had become extinct in certain areas, the faultiness of such concept became evident. Like any other predators, the wolves prey mostly on weak, injured, and sick animals, thus favouring natural selection. In winter preying becomes difficult, and the wolves gather in packs. The pack, usually comprising close kins, is led either by old female, or by two old males. Cooperative preying enhances wolves' chances to get large animals, such as deer or moose. In summer, the pack disinte­grates and the animals lead individual or pair life.

Vocabulary


Задание 15.1.Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих слов и выражений

санитары леса

благодаря необычному таланту

уничтожение хищников

собираться в стаи

близкие родственники


Задание 15.2.Подберите к каждому слову из колонки А соответствие из колонки B

1) remarkable a) незаметный

2)motionless b)ночной

3)undetected c)сухопутный, земной

4)nocturnal d)очевидный

5)fluffy e)неподвижный

6)abundant f)изобильный, достаточный

7)terrestrial g)примечательный

8)evident h)пушистый


Задание 15.3.Заполните таблицу

predators

herbivorous




Домашнее задание: Пересказ текста


Практическое занятие №16

Тема: «Флора и фауна России и англо-говорящих стран»

Цель: Закрепление лексико-грамматического материала


Прочитайте текст и выполните следующие задания:


FORESTS ARE HELPED BY ANIMALS

Animals depend on the forest but sometimes the forests are helped by animals. Once beavers caused trouble to Arizona fruit growers. The beavers made dams on the irriga­tion ditches. This kept water from flowing to the fruit trees where it was needed. But worst of all was that the beavers were building their dams out of fruit trees logs.

The farm­ers trapped some five hundred beavers and let them free near mountain streams far up in the forest. There the beavers went to work building dams again. But this time the dams slowed up fast moving mountain streams, held the water for forests and cut down erosion. Beavers have been parachuted down into wild country where they have helped control streams which men have visited only from the air.

Many people believe that beavers are intelligent animals. Their dams are fine examples of engineering. A pair of beav­ers constructs a dam across a river. The water held back by the dam overflows the bank on either side of the river, form­ing a pondin this pond the beavers build home. It is built of branches and sticks held together with mud and stone.

From the point of view of engineering their small house can hardly be improved. It contains a central room just above the water level, it has one or more entrances under the water, strong walls and even a vertical chimney which regulates the tempera­ture inside and provides air-conditioning. A beaver family — father, mother and several young ones — live together in their house.

The engineering skill of beavers is to a large extent a result of their ability to use their front paws as hands. Trees are essential to beavers. They eat the bark on the upper branches and in order to reach these they must fell the trees. Tree-felling is a skilled job but a pair of beavers can fell a tree four inches in diameter in 15 minutes.

hello_html_7b1522a0.gifIt is easy, therefore, to see why people talk about the beaver's skill and intelligence. However, the structure of beaver's brain gives no indication that the animal is more intelligent than some others. Many of his actions which seem to be the result of thinking are due to instinct.


Vocabulary

beavers - бобры.

trouble - беспокойство, неприятность.

logs — бревна.

to trap— поймать в ловушку.

pond— пруд.

sticks— палки.

from the point of view - с точки зрения.

chimney— труба

skill - мастерство.

paws— лапы.

brain— мозг.


Задание 16.1. Подберите к каждому слову из колонки А соответствие из колонки B

1) make a)улучшать

2)depend b)строить

3)keep c)делать

4)build d)казаться

5)go e)кушать

6)improve f)идти, ходить

7)contain g)видеть

8)eat h)содержать

9) see i)говорить

10)talk j)держать

11) seem k)зависеть


Задание 16.2.Ответьте на вопросы

1) Who caused trouble to Arizona fruit growers?

2) What did the animals make?

3) What did the farmers decide to do?

4) How did the beavers behave in new surroundings?

5) Are beavers intelligent animals?

6) How do the beavers build their houses?


Задание 16.3. Закончите предложения и переведите их.

1) The beavers made dams on…

2) Many people believe that beavers are…

3) A pair of beavers constructs…

4) Trees are…

5) Many of beaver's actions which seem to be the result of thinking are…


Домашнее задание: Подготовить сообщение


Практическое занятие №17

Тема: «Деревья, которые предсказывают погоду»

Цель: Тренировка навыков чтения с полным пониманием содержания прочитанного текста


Прочитайте текст и выполните следующие задания:

Задание 17.1. Вставьте в пропуски подходящие по смыслу слова:

indicates, woodman, time­keepers, conditions, weather, habits, method

TREES THAT TELL TIME AND PREDICT THE WEATHER

Watching the leaves of a tree maybe is not a modern _________ of predicting the weather, but every American farm­er knows that it is going to rain when maple leaves curl and turn bottom up in a cold wind. A ___________says he can tell by the thickness of lichens on the pine trees just how cold the winter is going to be. The maple sugar farmer can tell what month of a year it is just by looking at the trees; the turpentine gatherer tells time by the pines.

People who live with trees learn really to know their ___________. Cowan, a botanist, observed in India that the leaves of the rain-tree have the wonderful power of changing their position in accordance with atmospheric___________. He writes: "In full sunshine they are horizontally spread, allowing no single beam of light to go through the dense crown; at night, in cold __________ or during rain the pairs of leaves fold together. The tamarind folds its leaves at night and in rainy weather with the result that in Burma the peo­ple of a village think that the tamarind is the home of rain.

In west tropical Africa trees prove to be unusual __________, and they are known as dependable alarm-clocks. For example, griffonia has 2-inch pods which open with a loud noise. This noise is the signal to the farmers that the time has come to plant their crops. Another tropical tree flowers in February and again in August. The flowering of this tree ____________ that the time of the second planting of corn, just before the second rains, has come. The native pear tree in the eastern part of Nigeria is a clock, for the planting of field crops begins when the tree shows buds. The fruit of one more tropical tree in Sierra Leone ripens by the time when the raining season is over.

Vocabulary

hello_html_3e79945d.gifto predict — предсказывать.

to curl — сво­рачиваться

to turn bottom up — переворачи­ваться нижней стороной вверх.

lichen —лишай.

turpen­tine gatherer —сборщик живицы,

habit — привычка.

to allow —позволять.

beam — луч.

pair —пара

to fold—складываться

alarm-clock — будильник

pod— стручок

noise — шум

pear — груша.


Задание 17.2. Какие из следующих утверждений соответствуют со­держанию прочитанного текста:

1. It is difficult to tell the season of the year looking at a broad-leaved tree in our region. 2. People who work all their life with one and the same tree species know their ha­bits well. 3. Many tree species in tropical countries show that the time of gathering crops has not come. 4. Not a single tree species folds its leaves in rainy weather in India. 5. Bot­anists do not study and do not know tree habits.


Задание 17.3. Ответьте на вопросы:

1) How does every American farm­er know that it is going to rain?

2) Why do the farmers need to know the habits of trees?

3) What dependable alarm-clocks do you know?


Домашнее задание: Пересказ текста


Практическое занятие №18

Тема: «Леса сохраняют воду»

Цель: Активизация лексико-грамматического материала в устной речи.


Прочитайте текст и выполните следующие задания:

Задание 18.1. В соответствии с содержанием прочитанного текста разделите его на части. Озаглавьте каждую часть.

Задание 18.2. Вставьте в пропуски необходимые по смыслу слова

soil and min­erals, bare, conserve, absorbs, hold back, surface, cut down


FORESTS SAVE WATER

When we __________ trees or plow under grass, the land is left with nothing on it to ____________ the water. Every time it rains, the water flows over the land and is carried out to sea where we can't use it. Such water carries ________________ with it. Often, the amount of water is so great that rivers flood. The water is wasted.

We can ____________ water by seeing to it that trees, grass or other types of vegetation are planted to absorb or slow down the run-off of waters. Hillsides that are too steepto be farmed should be covered with forests.

The "floor" of a forest is spongy and ___________ water from rain and snow. The soil of grasslands also stores water this way. A bare soil lets rain and melting snow run over its __________ without soaking in. This may cause floods in riv­ers in the spring but in the summer the streams and rivers dry up because the bare soil did not store enough water. The water table drops very low in these areas. This means that springs will stop running and wells will dry up.

Millions of hectares are made ____________ each year by forest fires. Fire prevention is, therefore, a most important part of water conservation.

Vocabulary

to wasteтерять (впустую).

hillside склон холма.

steepкрутой.

floor зд. подстилка.

spongy — губчатый.

to store — запасать

bare —голый, лишенный растительности.

to soak in —впи­тываться.


Задание 18.3.Ответьте на вопросы:

  1. Why should hillsides that are too steepto be farmed be covered with forests?

  2. What may cause floods in riv­ers in the spring?

  3. Why is fire control an important part of water conser­vation?


Домашнее задание: Повторить ЛЕ








































ГБПОУ ВО «Хреновской лесной колледж им. Г.Ф. Морозова»










МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ РЕКОМЕНДАЦИИ

по выполнению практических работ

по дисциплине «Иностранный язык» (английский)

для студентов 4 курса специальности

35.02.01 «Лесное и лесопарковое хозяйство»




































с. Слобода, 2015



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Дата добавления 24.11.2015
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Подраздел Другие методич. материалы
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