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  • Иностранные языки

Методические пособие по английскому языку






Методическое пособие

по английскому языку

по теме:


Георгиевск, 2014

Составитель: M. В. Ахумян / Методическое пособие по английскому языку


Рассмотрено на заседании ПЦК филологии и педагогики

Протокол №8 от 10. 04.2014

Предназначено для студентов I курса

всех специальностей, изучающих английский язык.


Доцент кафедры ГиСД КМВИ

ЮРГТУ (НПИ) к. ф. н Э.Х. Алиева

Зав. политехническим отделением H.A.Гармаш

ГБОУ СПО ГРК «Интеграл», 2014


Данное методическое пособие предназначено для учащихся 1 курса колледжа при изучении темы «Англия - страна традиций»

Целью данной разработки является развитие иноязычной коммуникативной компетенции (речевой, языковой, социокультурной. учебно-познавательной) и организация проектно - ориентированной деятельности учащихся в рамках учебной темы.

Тексты подобраны из оригинальной литературы и адаптированы в той мере, в какой это возможно без нарушения языковых норм. Учебный материал имеет коммуникативно-речевую направленность и организует выход в ситуативно-обусловленную речь.

Данная разработка имеет актуальное значение, так как развивает страноведческий интерес, формирует информационную культуру, способствует воспитанию толерантности и уважение к духовным ценностям разных стран и народов.

В пособии представлены темы «Обычаи и традиции», « Английский характер»,

« Англичане глазами иностранцев», «Праздники и отдых», «Еда».



Text № 1.1 The British and tea

Text №1.2 «Unwritten rules» of Great Britain

Text № 1.3 Socialising in Britain.

Тема №2 Some views on the English character

Text №2.1 English character

Text №2.2 Some views on the English character

Text №2.3 How to be an Alien . After George Mikes

Тема № 3 Holidays and leisure

Text №3.1 British traditional holidays


Тема 4 English Meals

Тема №1


Every nation and every country has its own customs and traditions. In Great Britain, people attach greater importance to traditions and customs than in other European countries. Almost everything you come across in Britain is a result of a long history.

The British are proud of their traditions and carefully keep them up. There are many customs and some of them are very old. Foreigners watch with disbelief the ceremony of the keys at the Tower of London. This strange ceremony takes place every night and is 700 years old! Locking a door or a gate seems to be a simple thing. Not, however, if 21.53 the Chief Warder of the Tower, caring a lantern and the keys, meets the Escort of the Key. They march to the various gates and lock them ceremonially. But at the Bloody Tower the party is stopped by a sentry with the words: 'Halt! Who comes there?'

(as if he wouldn't know after 700 years.)

‘The Keys.’

‘Whose Keys.’

‘Queen Elizabeth’s Keys.’

‘All’s well.’

‘God preserve Queen Elizabeth.’


And the keys are carried to the Governor of the Tower for the night

British nation is considered the most conservative in Europe the best examples are their queen, money system, their weights and measures

In 1985, modern ones replaced the famous red telephone boxes. The public protested so much that the old ones were put back in the main tourist areas. In the early 1990s London's red double – deckers were privatized and the different companies wanted to paint their buses in their company colors. The government ruled that all buses had to stay red because that was what the people of London wanted. It is very difficult to imagine that the British will ever agree to change from driving on the left-hand side of the road to driving on the right. Why should they change just to be like everyone else?

Text №1.1 The British and tea

The British population drinks about 2,000,000,000 cup of tea a day! That is an average of nearly 1,040 cups of tea a year for each person.

English people say jokingly: “Seven cups of tea will make you up in the morning; nine cups will make put you to sleep at night. If you are hot, tea will cool you off, and if you are cold, it will warm you up. If you are depressed, it will cheer you up; if you are excited, it will calm you down. ”

If you’ve just suffered a misfortune in England and you call on a friend, you're likely to told, “Oh well, just sit down and I'll make you a nice cup of tea”

Tea came to Britain from China in the late 1500s, but it was only for the very rich. A pound of the cheapest tea cost about one third of a skilled worker's weekly wage! It became cheaper about three centuries later, when it was planted in India and later in Ceylon (Sri Lanka). People from all classes started drinking it. But some people thought that too much tea was bad for your health. So they started putting milk in it healthier!

Afternoon tea in England is a small meal, not a drink! Now families in Britain don’t have time for afternoon tea, but in the past, it was a tradition. It is said that the fashion of afternoon tea was introduced in the early 1800s by the Duchess of Bedford. It quickly became popular, and rich ladies started inviting their friends to their houses for a five-o'clock cup of tea. The guests were offered sandwiches (without crusts!), cakes, biscuit and sometimes fruit. Soon everybody was enjoying this exciting new meal.

But the British working population did not have afternoon tea. They had a meal at about midday, and a meal after work, between five and seven o'clock. This meal was called ''high tea'', or just ''tea''. Some families in the north of England (and in Scotland, too!) still have ''high tea''. It's a big meal with a main dish – meat or fish – followed by bread and butter and cakes. And, of course, you drink lots of cups of tea! Today, most people have a meal between 12 and 2 p.m. In the past, this meal was called ' dinner' in working families. But now most people call it 'lunch'. 'Dinner' has become a bigger meal in the evenings.

Most people today use teabags to make tea, but some serious drinkers make tea in the traditional way. First the water is boiled. Then some of the boiled water is used to warm the teapot. Then the tealeaves are put in the teapot. Then the boiling water is added. Then the pot is left for5 minutes under a ‘‘tea cozy’’. Finally, the tea is served in delicate cups with saucers.

Would you like a cuppa?

If someone asks you if you would like a cuppa, they are asking if you would a cup of tea.

If someone says 'let me be mother' or 'shall I be mother', they are offering to pour out the tea from

Text №1.2 «Unwritten rules» of Great Britain

Good and bad manners make up the social rules of a country. They are not always easy to learn because they are often not written down in books. For example, British women didn't go into pubs at the beginning of this century because it was not considered respectable behaviour for a woman. Now both women and men drink freely is pubs and women are fully into grated into public life. Visitors to Britain are often surprised by the strange behaviour of the inhabitants. One of the worst mistakes is to get on a bus without waiting your turn in the queue. The other people in the queue will probably complain loudly! Queuing is a national habit and it is considered polite or good manners to wait for your turn.

In some countries, it is considered bad manners to eat in the street, whereas in Britain it is common to see people having a snack whilst walking down the road, especially at lunchtime. Britons may be surprised to see young children in restaurants the evening because children are not usually taken out to restaurants late at night. And if they make a noise in public or in a restaurant, it is considered very rube. In recent years, children are playing a more active role and they are now accepted in many pubs restaurants.

In recent years smoking has received a lot of bad publicity, and fewer British people now smoke. Many companies have banned smoking in their offices and canteens. Smoking is now banned on the London Underground, in cinemas and theaters and most buses. It's becoming less and less acceptable to smoke in a public place. It is considered rude or bad manners to smoke in someone's house without permission.

Social rules are an important part of our culture as they passed down through history. The British have an expression for following these “unwritten rules”: “When in Rome, do as the Romans do”.


  1. What make the social rules of a country?

  2. What was respectable behaviour for a woman in 20th century?

  3. What do you know about queuing?

  4. What do you think about smoking?

  5. What is the important part of our culture?


society – общество

queue – очередь

to complain – ругаться, жаловаться

to ban — запрещать

Text №1.3 Socialising in Britain.

British people don't like to be embarrassed. They worry that they may not be able to make conversation with you, or understand what you say to them. They probably don't know much about your country (if they can guess where you are from) or your culture, and fear they might say something that offends you. They think you won't understand their jokes (and you won't!). It's actually easy to avoid this awkward encounter since they probably won't come up and start speaking to you anyway.

British people like to have a lot of their own person space. They want their own privacy. Some British people may worry that if they make friends with you, you may not understand their social customs. They may also worry about interfering with your own personal space. If you are a woman, a British man may be concerned that you will feel threatened if he starts speaking to you.

If there are several spare seats in a public place, most British people will sit away from other people. They also don’t touch each other very much, and will usually apologies if they touch someone accidentally. It is rare for people to go to someone's house without having arranged it beforehand.


Text №2.1 English character

One of the most striking features of English life is the self-discipline and courtesy of all classes. There is little noisy behaviour, and practically no loud disputing in the street. People do not rush excitedly for seats in buses or trains, but take their seats in queues at bus stops in a quiet and orderly manner.

Englishmen are naturally polite and are never tired in saying “Thank you”, “I’m sorry”, “Beg your pardon”. If you follow anyone who is entering a building or a room, he will hold a door open for you. Many foreigners have commented on a remarkable politeness of the English people.

English people don't like displaying their emotions even in dangerous and tragic situations, and ordinary people seem to remain good-tempered and cheerful under difficulties.

The Englishman does not like any boasting or showing off in manners, dress or speech. Sometimes he conceals his knowledge: a linguist, for example, may not mention his understanding of a foreigner’s language.

The Englishman prefers his own house to an apartment in a block of flats, because he doesn't wish his doing to be overlooked by his neighbours. “An Englishman’s house is his castle”.

Many Englishmen help their wives at home in many ways. They clean the windows on Saturday afternoon; they often wash up the dishes after supper in the evening.

Sunday is a very quiet day in London. All the shops are closed, and so are the theaters and most of the cinemas.

Londoners like to get out of town on Sundays. The sea is not far – only fifty or sixty miles away and people like to go down to the sea in summer or somewhere to the country for skiing in winter.

Text №2.2 Some views on the English character

Foreigners have many ideas about what the English are like. For example, some people say the English are always cold and reserved, some believe the English eat porridge for breakfast and read The Times every day. Many Australian believe that the English always whine and call them 'whining poms' .The welsh, Scottish and Irish also have a thing or two to say about what they think the English are like with reference to the British Empire. And, of course, the English themselves have plenty of ideas about what they are, such as being proud of having one of the oldest parliaments in the world.

We asked some English people and some people from other countries who live in England to name three things that they most closely associate with the English.

Here's what they say:

'Undoubtedly, the cuppa (an affectionate name for a cup of tea), beer and queuing.'

Sandie, 24 (English)

'Pubs, class snobbery and football.'

John, 21 (English)

'Red double – deckers, the Royal Family and the BBC.'

Clair, 15 (English)

'I'd say that the English are very cold, the food is horrible and the weather is too cold and wet.'

Annalisa, 19 (Italian student)

'Sherlock Homes, good manner and politeness.'

Tanya, 13 (German student)

'Sense of humour, cricket. Stiff upper lip'

(Marina, 16 Russian student)

'Eccentricity, sense of superiority towards foreigners, fish and chips, reserve.'

(Jessica, 17, American student)

So, is all this true? Yes and no. Like many things, the truth lies somewhere in the middle. So don't be surprised if you meet an Englishman who hates gardening, adores home cooking and greets his friends with a big hug.


reserved - сдержанный

to whine - хныкать, ныть

pom [pom] - англичанин (австралийский и новозеландский сленг)

with reference - относительно, в отношении, применительно к

empire - империя

affectionate - ласковый

to queue - стоять в очереди

class snobbery - классовый снобизм

cricket – крикет

stiff upper lip - твердость характера, присутствие духа

eccentricity – эксцентричность

superiority – превосходство

adore- обожать

undoubtedly - несомненно

Text №2.3 How to be an Alien

After George Mikes

George Mikes is the author of the funniest book ever written about the English. He was born is Hungary but made England his home. He wrote ‘‘How to be an Alien '' to tell the English what he thought about them.

“I wrote this book to tell the English what I thought about them, or where ' to get off ' as they say. I thought I was brave. I thought,' this book is going to make the English angry!' But no storm came! The English only said that my book was ' quite amusing '. ''

George Mikes describes the strange things English people do and say — the things that make them different from other Europeans....

A Warning to Beginners

In England, everything is different. You must understand that when people say 'England', they sometimes mean 'Great Britain'(England, Scotland and Wales), sometimes 'the United Kingdom'(England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland), sometimes the 'British Isles' (England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland)-but never just England.

On Sundays in Europe, the poorest person wears his best clothes and the life of the country becomes happy, bright and colourful; on Sundays in England, the richest people wear their oldest clothes and the country becomes dark and sad. In Europe nobody talks about the weather; in England, you have to say 'Nice day, isn’t it?' about two hundred times every day, or people think you are a bit boring. In Europe get Sunday newspapers on Monday in England; you get Sunday newspapers on Sunday.

In Europe people like their cats but in England they love their cats more than their family. In Europe, people eat good foot. In England, people think that good manners at the table are more important than the food you get to eat. The English eat bad food but they say it tastes good.

In Europe, important people speak loudly and clearly; in England they learn to speak slowly and quietly so you cannot understand them. In Europe, clever people show that they are clever by talking about Aristotle, Horace and Montaigne; in England only stupid people try to show how clever they are. The only people who talk about Latin and Greek writers are those who have not read them.

In Europe, almost every country, big or small, fights warts to show they are the best; the English fight wars against those people who think they are the best. The English already know country is really the best. Europeans cry and quickly get angry; instead of this the English just laugh quietly at their problems. In Europe, people are either honest, with you or they lie to you; in England people almost never lie, but they are almost never quite honest with you either. Many Europeans think that life is a game; the English think cricket is a game.

Introducing people

Most importantly, when you introduce strangers, do not say their name so that the other person is able to hear it. Usually this is not a problem because nobody can understand your accent.

If somebody introduces you to a stranger, there are two important rules to follow.

  1. If he puts out his hand to shake yours, do not take it. Smile and wait. When he stops trying to shake your hand, try to shake his. Repeat this game all afternoon or evening. Quite possible this will be the most amusing part of your afternoon or evening.

  2. The introductions are finished and your new friend asks if you are well: “How do you do?” But do not forget: he does not really want to know. To him it does not matter if you are well or if you are dying of terrible illness. Do not answer. Your conversation will be like this:

He: “How do you do?”

You: “Quite good health. Not sleeping very well. Left foot hurts a bit. One or two stomach problems.”

A conversation like this is un-English, and unforgivable. When you meet somebody, never say, “Please to meet you.” English people think this is very rude.

The Weather

This is the most important subject in the land. In Europe, people say, ` He is the type of person who talks about the weather, ` to show that somebody is very boring. In England, the weather is always an interesting, exciting subject and you must be good at talking about it.

Examples for Conversation

For Good Weather

`Nice day, isn ` t it? `

`lsn`t it beautiful!!!

`The sun…

`Isn `t it wonderful? `

`Yes, wonderful, isn`t it?

` it`s so nice and hot.

`l think it so nice when it`s hot, lt `s

` Really love it, don `ist `t?

`I really love it, don’t you? `

For Bad Weather

`Terrible day, isn`t it? `

`Isn`t it unpleasant?

`The rain … I don`t like the rain.`

`Just think- a day like this in July. It rains in the morning; then a bit of sun and then rain, rain, rain all day. `

I remember the same July day in 1980…’

‘Yes, I remember too.’

Or was it 1982?’

‘Yes, it was.’

‘Yes, that’s right’

How look at the last few sentences of this conversation. You can see a very important rule: you must always agree with other people when you talk about the weather. If it is raining and snowing and the wind is knocking down trees, and someone says, nice day isn’t?’ answer immediately, ‘isn’t it wonderful?’

Learn these conversations by heart. You can use them again. If you repeat these conversations every day for the rest of your life, it is possible that people will think you are clever, polite and amusing.


Holidays and leisure

Text №3.1 British traditional holidays

Great Britain is famous for its old traditions. Some of them existed in ancient times and survived through centuries. Some of them appeared when Christianity came to British Isles. Speaking about religious holidays one can’t but mention Easter, Pancake Day and Mother’s Day. The dates of these holidays are not strict; they depend on the date of Easter that varies every year.

Pancake Day is the popular name for the Shrove Tuesday, the day before the first day of Lent. In the middle ages, people on that day made merry and ate pancakes. Church forbids all the ingredients of pancakes during Lent that is why they have to be used the day before. The most common form of celebrating this day in the old times was the all town ball game or tug-of-war, in which everyone was tearing here and there, trying to get the ball or rope into their part of the city. Today the only custom that is observed throughout Britain is pancaking eating.

For the English people the best-known name for the fourth in Lent Sunday is Mothering Sunday or Mother’s Day. For 3 centuries, this day has been a day of small family gatherings when absent sons and daughters return to their homes. Gifts are made to mothers by children of all ages. Flowers and cakes are still traditional gifts. Violets and primroses are most popular flowers. Sometimes the whole family goes to church and then there is a special dinner at which roast lamb, rice pudding and homemade wines and served.

Easter is one of the most important holidays in Christianity. In England, it is a time for giving and receiving presents, mostly Easter eggs. We can say that the egg is the most popular emblem of Easter, but springtime flowers are also used to stress the nature’s awakening. Nowadays there are a lot of chocolate Easter eggs, having some small gifts inside. But a real hard-boiled egg, decorated and painted in bright colours, still appears on breakfast tables on Ester Day, or it’s hidden in the house or garden for children to finny. In egg that is boiled hard will last for years. Egg rolling is a traditional Easter pastime. You roll the eggs down a clop until they are cracked and broken, after they are eaten up.


Gardening is a well-known favorite. As the weather in Britain is relatively mild, British people manage to do gardening almost all the year round. Sometimes this can be just doing a bit of weeding and sometimes, serious vegetable and fruit growing. In fact, regardless of the size of the garden, the British can always find plenty to do in it. Mowing grass is also very important. Every Sunday morning (except for winter), they come out to mow their lawns. To outsiders, it almost seems like an obsession but to a British person it is an important social duty. The British see an unsown lawn, not only as a sigh of laziness, but also as disrespect to other (and you can get fined for it as well).

Walking is also very popular. Ask any British person if they have a pair of walking boots and the answer will probably be yes. Except for dry summer days, the beautiful British countryside is pretty muddy, so you need a good pair of walking boots or ' wellies ' to enjoy your walk. Walking as a leisure activity has a long tradition in England. You can buy a variety of maps and guide to walking routes. Organized walking is also popular and is a good way to discover local sights of interest with a group of like-minded people and a good guide.

Тема №4

English Meals

The English proverb says: every cook praises his own broth. One cannot say English cookery is bad, but there is not a lot of variety in it in comparison with European cuisine .The English

are very particular about their meals. The usual meals in England are breakfast, lunch, tea and dinner. Breakfast time is between seven and nine a.m. A traditional English breakfast is a very big meal. It consists of juice, porridge, a rasher or two of bacon and eggs, toast, batter, jam or marmalade, tea or coffee. Marmalade is made from oranges and jam is made from other fruit. Many people like to begin with porridge with milk or cream and sugar, but no good Scotsman ever puts sugar on it, because Scotland is the home of porridge. For a change, you can have sausages, tomatoes, mushrooms, cold ham or perhaps fish. But nowadays in spite of the fact that the English strictly keep to their meals many people just have cereal with milk and sugar or toast with jam or honey. The two substantial meals of the day are lunch and dinner. Lunch is usually taken at one o clock. For many people lunch is a quick meal. Office workers usually go to a cafe at this time. They take fish, poultry or cold meat (beef, mutton, veal and ham), boiled or fried potatoes and all sorts of salad. They may have a mutton chop or steak and chips, followed by biscuits and a cup of coffee. Some people like a glass of light beer with lunch . Pubs also serve good, cheap food. Schoolchildren can have a hot meal at school. Some of them just bring a snack from home.

Tea is very popular between the English; it may almost be called their national drink. Tea is welcome in the morning, in the afternoon and in the evening. The English like it strong and fresh made. The English put one teaspoonful of tea for each person. Tea means two things. It is a drink and a meal. Some people have afternoon tea, so called “high tea” with sandwiches, tomatoes and salad, a tin of apricots, pears or pineapples and cakes, and, of course a cup of tea. That is what they call good tea. It is substantial meal.

Cream teas are also popular. Many visitors, who come to Britain, find English instant coffee disgusting!

Dinnertime is generally between six and eight p.m. The evening meal is the biggest and the main meal of the day. Very often, the whole family eats together. They begin with soup, followed by fish, roast chicken, potatoes and vegetables, fruit and coffee.

On Sundays, many families have a traditional lunch consisting of roast chicken, lamb or beef with salads, vegetables and gravy.

The British enjoy tasting delicious food from other countries, for example, French, Italian and Chinese food. Modern people are so busy that they do not have a lot of time for cooking themselves. So, the British buy the food at the restaurant and bring it home already prepared to eat. So we can conclude that take-away meals are rather popular among the population. Eating has become rather international in British lately.


  1. What are the usual meals in English?

  2. What time do they have breakfast?

  3. What is a traditional English breakfast?

  4. What are the two substantial meals of the day?

  5. When is lunch usually taken?

  6. What does lunch include?

  7. Is tea popular among the English?

  8. When do they usually have dinner?

  9. Do the British enjoy tasting delicious food from other countries?


proverb – пословица, поговорка

Every cook praises his own broth – Каждый кулик хвалит свое болото

cookery – кулинария; стряпня

variety -многообразие, разнообразие

cuisine – кухня, стол (питание; поваренное искусство)

particular - редкий, особенный; особый, специфический

lunch – обед (обычно в полдень в середине рабочего дня), ланч

porridge – (овсяная) каша

rasher – тонкий ломтик бекона/ветчины (для поджаривания)

sausage – колбаса; сосиски; колбасный фарш

mushroom - гриб

in spite of – несмотря на

strictly – бдительно, внимательно, неусыпно

cereal – обыкн.мн. злак; крупа, крупяной продукт (полученные из зерновых культур)

honey - мед

substantial – питательный (о пище);существенный, большой

poultry – домашняя птица

beef - говядина

mutton - баранина

veal - телятина

ham – ветчина, окорок

boiled – кипяченный, вареный

fried - жареный

chop – небольшой кусок мяса, отбивная (котлета)

streak – бифштекс,кусок мяса/рыба (для жаренья)

cheap – дешевый, недорогой

snack – легкая закуска

tea-spoonful – целая чайная ложка

tin – жестяная консервная банка;жестянка

apricot - абрикос

pear - груша

pineapples - ананас

instant coffee – растворимый кофе

disgusting – отвратительный, плохой, противный

roast – жаркое; жареный

lamb – мясо молодого барашка

gravy – подливка (из сока жаркого), соус

delicious – восхитительный, прелестный; очень вкусный

to conclude – сделать вывод, подвести итог

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       Данное методическое пособие предназначено для  учащихся 1 курса колледжа  при  изучении темы «Англия - страна традиций»


   Целью данной разработки является развитие иноязычной  коммуникативной компетенции  (речевой, языковой, социокультурной. учебно-познавательной)  и организация  проектно - ориентированной деятельности учащихся  в рамках учебной темы.

       Тексты подобраны из оригинальной литературы и адаптированы в той мере, в какой это возможно без нарушения  языковых норм. Учебный материал имеет коммуникативно-речевую направленность и организует выход в ситуативно-обусловленную речь.

     Данная  разработка  имеет актуальное значение, так как развивает страноведческий интерес, формирует  информационную культуру, способствует воспитанию толерантности и уважение к духовным ценностям разных стран и народов.

    В пособии представлены темы  «Обычаи и традиции», « Английский характер», « Англичане глазами иностранцев», «Праздники и отдых», «Еда».




Дата добавления 26.06.2015
Раздел Иностранные языки
Подраздел Другие методич. материалы
Номер материала 576452
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