Государственное автономное профессиональное образовательное учреждение
«Самарский колледж сервиса производственного оборудования имени Героя Российской Федерации Е.В. Золотухина»
Методическое пособие для самостоятельной работы студентов 1 курса всех специальностей очной и заочной форм обучения.
Самара, 2016 г
__ /Стряпунина Н.В./
« » _____2016 г.
Рекомендовано к изданию
зам. директора по УМР
______________ /Дудникова Ю.И /
« » _____2016 г.
Разработала: Морозова Т.Е.
Рецензент: Русяйкина Г.Н.
Данное методическое пособие предназначено для студентов первых курсов всех специальностей очной и заочной форм, обучающихся в Самарском колледже сервиса производственного оборудования. Пособие включает темы, с которыми в процессе изучения английского языка сталкиваются студенты всех специальностей.
Структура тематического материала проста и эффективна, так как содержит не только тексты, но и задания к ним, что способствует их продуктивному усвоению. Задания к текстам направлены на активное использование лексико-грамматической информации и на закрепление данной темы. В текстах предлагается материал общей лексической ориентации, который позволяет учащимся ознакомиться с основными сведениями по лексике и грамматике английского языка.
Методика преподавания иностранного языка предполагает как работу с преподавателем, так и самостоятельную работу студентов как во время занятия так и в свободное время дома. Структура данного методического пособия позволяет успешно выполнять эти задачи.
Пособие может быть рекомендовано к использованию в образовательном процессе.
Theme: My Family
EXEPCISE 1 Read, translate, and study the use of the new words to read and discuss the texts and dialogues (Прочитайте, переведите и выучите новые слова, которые будут необходимы для чтения и обсуждения текстов и диалогов):
2) to consist of.
4) foreign, a foreign language.
5) to cook.
6) to sew
7) to knit (knit, knit)
10) to take(took, taken)
11) favourite, favourite subjects
13) slim and slender
14) fair , fair hair
15) to look like
16) to be fond of
17) North Caucasus
18) entire, entire South
19) a block
20) to go shopping
21) to get along with
22) to take care of
23) each other
24) to go down to the country
25) a pity
26) the same, the same colour
27) to share
28) to invite
31) a day off
32) a library
33) a report
35) fashion, to be in fashion
36) satisfaction, job satisfaction
37) conditions, good conditions
EXEPCISE 2 Translate the fallowing word combinations. Pay attention to the prepositions(Переведите следующие словосочетание. Обратите внимание на предлоги):
1)With dark short hair-
2) at the firm-
3) a lot of time-
4) at the secondary school-
5) a student of the college-
6) from our house-
7) by bus-
8) in a modern style-
9) at the disco-
10) to go to the swimming pool-
11) in the North Caucasus-
12) in the entire South of Russia-
13) on the right high bank of the river-
14) near our house-
15) on weekend –
16) to go to the theatre-
17) on the fifth floor-
18) in the corner-
19) on the wall above the beds-
20) near the window-
21) at the desk-
22) into our room-
23) for us-
24) for our parents
25) the hall of our flat-
26) about you-
27) for today-
28) in our country-
29) between an American and a Russian student-
30) with you
EXEPCISE 3 Fill in the gaps with the proper prepositions (Заполните пропуски правильными предлогами):
1.I was a pupil … a secondary school, now I am a student … a college.
2. I go … my college … bus because it is far … our house.
3.My mother is a slim and slender woman … blue eyes and fair hair.
4.There is a picture … the table … the wall.
5.There are two chairs … the desk.
EXERCISE 4. Read and give a summary of the text (Прочитайте и перескажите)
Text My family and me
Our family nether big nor small. It consists of my father, my mother, my brother , and me. My father, a tall man with dark short hair, is 40 years old. He works as a manager at the firm. He likes his work and spends a lot of time there. My mother, a tall and thin woman with big blue eyes and fair hair, is younger than my father, she is 38. My mother is a teacher at the secondary school. She teaches her students foreign languages: German and English. She also spends much time at school, but she finds time to cook, sew, knit, and even to help my brother and me with our homework. My brother is only 10, and he is a schoolboy.
I an 14. I am a student of the college. My college is far from our house, and it takes me half an hour to get there by bus. We are studying different subjects there, but my favourite ones are History and English. As to my appearance, I’m slim and slender. My hair is fair, my eyes are blue. I look like my mother. I like to dress in a modern style. Music is my hobby. I am fond of dancing at the disco. I like to buy and read English books too. Twice a week, I go to the swimming pool.
We live in Rostov-on-Don, the biggest city not only in the North Caucasus, but in the entire South of Russia. It is located on the right high bank of the Don river. We have a three-room flat in a new block of houses. There is a nice green park near our house, where we spend a lot of our free time. There are many different shops not far from our house. My brother and I often go shopping.
Our family is nice, and everybody is easy to get along with. We take care of each other. We spend much time together. Recently we have bought a car, and now we often go down to the country to have a rest on weekends. In the evening, all members of our family watch TV, discuss everyday problems. Sometimes we go to the theatre or to the concert.
EXERCISE 5. Read and give a summary of the text (Прочитайте и перескажите)
Text The place we live in
We live a comfortable flat in a new house. It is on the fifth floor. It is neither large nor small. There are three rooms in it: a living room, two bedrooms. We have also a kitchen, a bathroom, and a hall. It is a great pity that we have no balcony.
Our living room is large and light because there are two wide windows in it. The walls of the room are blue, the curtains on the windows, and the carpet on the floor are of the same colour. There is no much furniture there: a sofa, a table with four chairs, two armchairs, and a TVset in the corner. All the members of our family spend a lot of time there
Our parents occupy one bedroom which is not large but very cosy. There are two beds, a wardrobe, two armchairs, and a TV set in it. There is a large thick carpet on the floor, and a nice picture on the wall above the beds.
My brother and I share another bedroom. There you can see two beds, a small desk near the window, two chairs at the desk; for me and my brother. The bookcase is near the door. There are many books in it. Besides, we have many shelves on the walls. There is a musical centre on one of them. We have a lot of friends. And when they come to see us, we invite them into our room. We usually listen to music or play different games.
Our kitchen is big enough. As a rule, we have breakfast and dinner in the kitchen together. Our mother is cooking for us, but sometimes we prepare some tasty things with my brother for our parents.
The hall of our flat is not narrow. There is a big wardrobe there. And besides, there is a telephone on a small round table.
We like our flat very much. We are happy when our relatives and friends visit us.
EXERCISE 5. Quite the sentences in which these words and word combinations are used in the texts (Процитируйте предложения, в которых эти слова и словосочетания используются в текстах)
1) neither big nor small,
2) is younger than,
3) far from our house,
4) it takes me half an hour,
5) as to my appearance,
6) in a modern style,
7) twice a week,
8) not only… but,
9) go shopping,
10) easy to get along with,
11) take care of,
12) go down to the country,
13) it is a great pity,
14) of the same colour,
16) listen to music,
17) play games,
18) is big enough
EXERCISE 7 .Find in the texts English equivalents for these words and word combinations ( Найдите в текстах английские эквиваленты следующим словам в словосочетаниям):
ни большая, ни маленькая; она состоит из; работает менеджером; много времени; светлые волосы; моложе, чем; иностранные языки; находит время готовить, шить, вязать; мне требуется полчаса; на автобусе; любимые предметы; что касается моей внешности; изящная; похожа на маму; люблю танцевать; дважды в неделю; Северный Кавказ; весь юг России; квартал домов; ходить за покупками; легко ладят; ездим за город; очень жаль; этого же цвета; в углу; кроме того; достаточно большая.
EXERCISE 8. Film in the gaps with the missing words in the following sentences, the first letter of each word has been given to help you (Заполните пропуски необходимыми словами, первая буква каждого слова поможет вам сделать это):
1) Our family is n… big nor small.
2) He works a…a manager at the firm.
3) My mother is a tall woman w… blue eyes and f… hair.
4) She is y… than he.
5) She finds time e… to help me with my homework.
6) It takes me h…an hour to get the college.
7) I look l… my mother.
8) I am f… of dancing.
9) I go to the swimming pool t... a week.
10) Everybody is easy to get a… with.
Theme: How We Spend Our Free Time
EXERCISE 1. Read, translate, and study the use of the new words to read and discuss the texts and dialogues.
to be divided into-
to offer a choice-
to engage in-
to climb the mountains-
an application program-
EXERCISE 2. Translate the following world combinations
1) any type of activity-
2) during their leisure time-
3) for relaxation-
4) for development of new interests-
5) after periods of hard work-
6) are divided into-
7) for example-
8) with their hands-
9) many of them-
10) are engaged in needlework activity-
11) to be popular with many hobbyists-
12) thousands of hobbyists-
13) take part in sports-
14) the nucleus-
15) of the library-
16) have presented to the universities-
17) may be used for study-
17) many types of book collections-
18) concentrate on the works-
19) the autograph of the author-
20) books on a particular subject-
21) books about sports-
22) with thousands of volumes-
23) are translated into different languages-
24) with unique illustrations-
25) for their collections-
26) in rare-book shops-
27) at jumble-sales-
EXERCISE 3. Read the text ,try to focus on its essential аacts, and choose the most suitable heading below for each paragraph. 1) Collecting 2) Sports and Games 3) Hobbies and Hobbyists 4) Handicrafts 5) Arts
DIFFERENT KINDS OF HOBBIES
Hobby can be any type of activity, which people do during their leisure time. Most people choose a hobby for relaxation, pleasure, or for development of new interests. People of almost any age can enjoy hobbies. A hobby offers a way to relax after periods of hard work. Almost any kind of leisure activity can become a hobby. Most hobbies are divided into four general categories, which may overlap. They are the arts, collecting, handicrafts, games and sports.
There are such art forms, as dancing, drama, painting, graphic arts, and music. Each art form has many possibilities for a hobby. For example, music may include singing, playing an instrument, collecting records and tapes, learning ballet, or attending concerts or operas. Painting offers the hobbyist a wide choice of materials, such as oil paints or watercolours.
Collecting is probably the most widespread kind of hobby, because almost any thing can be collected. Stamps and coins are the most popular items. Hobbyists also collect such things as autographs, books, dolls, buttons, etc.
Handicrafts attract hobbyists who can work skillfully with their hands. Many of them are engaged in needlework activities, crocheting, knitting, and sewing. Some use kits to make model aeroplanes, boats, and trains. Other handicrafts include ceramics, metalworking, jewellery making, etc.
Games and sports are popular with many hobbyists who enjoy competition, physical activity, and exercise. Thousands of hobbyists take part in sports, such as bowling, fishing, mountain climbing, skiing, and tennis. Popular indoor games include card games, chess. Nowadays, electronics-related hobbies are becoming increasingly popular. Many people, especially children, play computer games.
EXERCISE 4. Read and give a summary of the text.
DIFFEREND TYPES OF BOOK COLLECTIONS
Book collecting is a popular hobby, Many people collect books because they enjoy reading and like to collect things. Private book collections have formed the nucleus of some of the world’s most important libraries. Some people have also presented their collections to universities, where the books may be used for study and research. There are many types of books collections, such as author collections, subject collections, title collections, unique or ancient book collections.
Author collections concentrate on the works of a single author. Book collectors especially value editions with the autograph of the author.
Subject collections include books on a particular subject, such as science fiction, or books about sports or sportsmen. Some subject collections are vast with thousands of volumes, but most are much smaller.
Title collections consist of as many as possible editions of a Single title. The editions, which are translated into different Languages, are also included. Unique or ancient book collections focus on books that are unusually beautiful, rare, very old, or of an unusual shape and size. These collections may contain books with unique illustrations, with rare printing styles.
Collectors find books for their collections in rare-book shops, antiquarian bookshops, secondhand bookshops, and at jumble-sales.
EXERCISE 5. Quote the sentences in which these words and word combinations are used in the texts:
1) any type of activity-
2) are divided into-
3) may overlap-
4) such art forms as-
5) a wide choiсe of materials-
7) the most widespeard-
8) can be collected-
9) the most popular items-
10) attract a hobbyist-
11) can work skillfully-
12) are engaged in needlework activity-
13) some use kits-
14) take part in sports-
15) electronics-related hobbies-
16) have formed the nucleus-
17) the world’s most important libraries-
18) a single author-
19) on a particular subject-
20) as many as possible editions-
21) of an unusual-
22) of an unusual shape-
23) at jumble-sales-
EXERCISE 6. Fill in the gaps with the missing words in the following sentences, the first letter of each word has been given to help you.
1) Most people choose a hobby for p… .
2) People of a… any age can enjoy hobbies.
3) Almost any kind of l… activity can become a hobby.
4) Hobbies of different categories may o… each other.
5) Hobbyists have many p… in each art form.
6) The most w… kind of hobby is collecting.
7) Some hobbyists can work s… with their hands.
8) Some people are engaged in n… activities.
9) Hobbyist may use k… to make model aeroplanes.
10) J… making is a kind of handicrafts.
EXERCISE 7. Fill in the blanks with the articles a, an, the where necessary
I have a hobby. I like to cook. During my leisure time I make… cakes and pies. It is not difficult to make … pie. Sometimes my brother helps me. He is a good boy, and we get along well with … each other. My brother usually goes … shopping and buys … different things, which are necessary for … cooking. My cakes are tasty but I like … pies … best of all.
EXERCISE 8. Read and state the function of the verbs be, have.
Hobby is a kind of activity. Hobbies are chosen by most people for relaxation. When a person has chosen a hobby his Life becomes more interesting. There are different kinds of hobbies, and they are divided into four categories: the arts, collecting, handicrafts, games and sports. Each art form has many possibilities for a hobby
EXERCISE 9. Fill in the blanks with the proper auxiliary verb.
1. She … attending courses for studуing the English language.
2. He .. just made a model aeroplane.
3. They … singing songs now.
4. She … playing the piano all the evening yesterday.
5. He… presented his collection to the museum.
6. My Friend … bought this rare book at the jumble-sale.
7. The unique Collection of ancient books … presented to him by his father.
8. The books … found by the collectors in rare-book shops.
9. Books on a particular subject … included in subject collections.
10. Some books … translated into different languages.
EXERCISE 10. Mind the word order: a) Extend the following sentences with the words given in brackets.
1.People choose a hobby (most, for, relaxation, and, pleasure ).
2. Hobbies are divided into for categories (general, most ).
3. The widespread hobby is collecting (most, probably ).
4. Games are popular (sports, and, very, many, hobbyists, with).
5. Hobbyists take part in sports (of, thousands).
EXERCISE 11. Put the words in the following sentences in order, the first word in each sentence in is italics.
1. because, reading, people, Many, collect, enjoy, books, they.
2 .presented, hove, collections, their, Some, people, universities, to.
3 .concentrate, collections, Author, of, a single author, the works, on.
4.a particular subject, include, books, Subject, collections, on.
5. find, Collectors, their, for, shops, rare-book, books, collections, in.
EXERCISE 12. Give possible beginnings of the sentences.
1 …any type of activity .2. … for relaxation .3. … after periods of hard work .
4. …may overlap .5. …oil paints and water coolers.
EXERCISE 13. Complete the following sentences in a logical way .
1. Hobby can be any type of activity which …
2. Most people choose a hobby for …
3. Most hobbies are divided into four…
4. There are such divided into four …
5. Each art form has many possibilities for …
6. Music may include singing, playing an instrument, …
7. The most widespread kind of hobby is collecting because…
8. Hobbyists collect such things ,as autographs,…
9. There are many types of book collections ….
10. Collectors find books for their collections in…
11. Handicrafts include a hobbyist who …
12. Handicrafts include needlework activities ,…
13. Games and sports are popular with hobbyist who …
14. They take part in sports ,such as …
15. Popular indoor games include…
EXERCISE 14 .Translate the following sentences from Russian into English. You will have a story on the topic as a pattern.
Большинство людей выбирают хобби для того, чтобы расслабиться после тяжёлой работы.
Люди почти любого возраста могут иметь увлечения.
Большинство увлечений могут быть разделены на четыре общие категории: различные виды искусства, коллекционирование, ручной труд, игры и спорт.
Существуют различные виды искусства, и каждый из них имеет массу возможностей для хобби.
Например, музыка может включать пение, игру на музыкальном инструменте, коллекционирование пластинок, посещение концертов и т.д.
Самый Распространенный вид увлечений – это, вероятно, коллекционирование.
Люди собирают марки, монеты, книги, автографы, куклы, пуговицы и т.д.
Очень популярное увлечение- коллекционирование книг.
Многие люди коллекционируют книги, потому что они любят читать.
Некоторые коллекционеры собирают редкие или старинные книги, другие- красивые или необычные.
Для своих коллекций коллекционеры обычно находят книги в антикварных магазинах, на ярмарках-распродажах.
Некоторые люди дарят свои коллекции книг музеям, библиотекам.
В нашей семье есть уникальная коллекция книг.
Они очень красивые, с замечательными иллюстрациями о различных видах искусства.
В свободное время мы часто читаем их.
EXERCISE 15. Compare different kinds of hobbies. Answer the questions and complete the grid.
Theme Different Types of Education
EXERCISE 1. a) Read, translate, and study the use of the new words to read and discuss the texts and dialogues;
1. experience, learning experiences.
2.a sense, in the broadest sense
3.a skill, to learn skills
4. to gain, to gain knowledge
7.daily, daily life
8.manner, with good manners
9.to ride, to ride a horse, to ride a bicycle
10.to pass, to pass an exam
11.to be in charge of
13.both…. and ….
15.gifted, physically or mentally handicapped
17.an aim, to aim
21.a heritage, a cultural heritage
24.further, further education
EXERCISE 2. Translate the following word combinations. Pay attention to the prepositions.
1.about the world
2 about themselves
3 for discussing
4 to divide into
5 during their daily life
6 for example
7 by hearing
8 by trying
9 in the same formal manner
10 with good manners
11 on their own initiative
12 without a teacher
13 look at a videotape
14 listen to a radio
15 at different kinds school
16 in most countries
17 a system of formal education
18 during their early childhood
19 in this type of education
20 in charge of education
21 with the teachers at the head
22 to come to school
23 in their learning
24 at the end of their learning
25 the school systems of all modern nations
26 for gifted children
27 after leaving school
28 a large amount of time
29 aims at producing
30 in secondary schools
31 the aim of vocational education
32 for a job
33 between the ages of 5 and 16
34 agree with you
35 at producing
36 in secondary school
37 the aim of vocational education
38 by public funds
39 by correspondence
40 in their own homes
41 about it
42 is responsible for
43 at all stages
44 by name
EXERCISE 3. Fill in the gaps with the proper prepositions:
1 I study… the college
2 It is rather far… my house and I go there … bus
3 I finish classes … 15.00
4…. leaving the college I have a large amount… time.
5. I go shopping together… my brother.
6. My brother is a pupil, he goes… school
7. His school is …our house.
8…. shopping we do our homework.
9.Then …the evening, we watch TV, listen…radio.
EXERCISE 4 Fill in the gaps with the proper prepositions.
I study…the college. It is rather far … my house and I go there … bus. I finish classes … 15.00. … leaving the college I have a large amount … time. I go shopping together … my brother. My brother is a pupil, he does … school. His school is … our house. … shopping we do our homework. Then … the evening, TV, listen … radio.
EXERCISE 5. Read the text, try to focus on its essential facts, and choose the most suitable heading below for each paragraph.
What is Education 2)Formal Education 3)Informal Education 4)Different of Formal Education
Text INFORMAL AND FORMAL EDUCATION
Education includes different kinds of learning experiences. In its broadest sense, we consider to be the ways in which people iearn skills, gain knowledge and understanding about the world and about themselves. One useful scheme for discussing education is to divide these ways learning into two types: informal and formal
Informal education involves people in learning during their daily life. For example , children learn their language simply by hearing and by trying to speak themselves. In the same informal manner, they learn to speak themselves, to eat with good manners, to ride a bicycle, or to make a telephone call. Education is also informal when people try to get information or to learn skills on their own initiative without a teacher. To do so, they may visit a book shop, library or museum . They may watch a television show, look at a videotape, or listen to a radio programme. They do not have to pass tests or exams.
We consider formal education to be the instruction given at different kinds of schools, colleges, universities. In most countries, people enter a system of formal education during their early childhood. In this type of education, the people, who are in charge of education, decide what to teach. Then learners study those things with the teachers at the head. Teachers expect learners to came speed as their classmates, and to pass tests and exams. Learners have to pass the exams to show how well they have progressed in their learning. At the end of their learning, learners may earn a diploma, a certificate, or a degree as a mark of their success over the years
The school systems of all modern nations provide both general and vocational educational. Most counties also offer special education programs for gifted or for physically or mentally handicapped children. Adult education programmes are provide for people who wish to take up their education after leaving school. Most countries spend a large amount of time and money for formal education of their citizens
EXERCISE 6. Read and give a summary of the text
Text GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION. .
General education aims at producing intelligent, responsible, well- informed citizens. It is designed to transmit a common cultural heritage rather than to develop trained specialists.
Almost all elementary education is general education. In every country, primary school pupils are taught skills they will use throughout their life, such as reading, writing, and arithmetic. They also receive instruction in different subjects, including geography, history, etc. In most countries almost all young people continue their general education in secondary schools.
The aim of vocational education is primarily to prepare the students for a job. Some secondary schools specialize in vocational programmes. Technical school are vocational secondary schools, where students are taught more technical subjects, such as carpentry, metalwork, and electronics. technical school students are required to take some general education courses and vocational training. Universities and separate professional school prepare students for careers in such fields as agriculture, architecture, business, rngineering, law, medicine, music, teaching, ets.
EXERCISE 7 Quote the sentences in which these words and word combinations are used in the text:
1) in the broadest sense-
2) about themselves-
3) to ride a bicycle-
4) on their own initiative-
5) are in charge of-
6) at the head-
7) on time-
8) at the end-
9) both … and …-
10) to take up-
11) an amount-
EXERCISE 8. Find in the texts English equivalents for these words and world combinations:
1. в широком смысле
2. обучаются навыкам
3. получают знания
4. о себе
5. полезная схема
6. пути(способы) обучения
13. с хорошими манерами
14. ездить на велосипеде
15. звонить по телефону
16. по их собственной инициативе
17. книжный магазин
18. сдавать экзамены
19. в большинстве стран
20. раннее детство
21. кто отвечает( в ответственности)
22. во главе
24. с приблизительно одинаковой скоростью
26. должны сдавать экзамены
28. оценка их успеха
29. одаренные дети
30. дети с физическими или умственными недостатками
31. обучение для взрослых
32. продолжить после окончания школы
33. большое количество денег
35. общее образование.
36. профессиональное образование
37. ставит целью
40. хорошо информированный
41. передавать общее культурное наследство
42. больше чем
43. подготовленные специалисты
44. начальное образование
45. на протяжении всей жизни
46. средние школы
47. профессиональные программы
48. плотничное дело
49. слесарное дело
50. профессиональная подготовка
EXERCISE 9. Fill in the gaps with the missing words the following sentences, the first letter of each word has been given to help you.
1) T… their life people are learning different kinds of skills.
2) They g… knowledge about the word.
3) We’ll discuss the education using one useful s…
4) Children learn to r… a bicycle.
5) On their own i…, people may visit a museum.
6) The students have to p… exams.
7) They are in c… of education.
8) The students are working at about the same s…
9) Learners may e… a degree.
10) His certificate is a m… of his success over the years.
EXERCISE 10.Mind the word order: a) Extend the following sentences with the words given in brackets.
1. People gain knowledge (understanding, about, the world, and).
2. People get information (own, initiative, their, on , a teacher, without).
3. Most countries offer programs (for, children , also, difted , education , special).
4. People continue their education (school , after, leaving, to, want).
5. They receive instruction (in, also, different, subjects).
EXERCISE 11 Put the words in the following sentences in order , the first word in each sentence is in itakics.
1.are, into, two, These, types, divided, ways, of, learning.
2.are, in, learning, People, involved, their, daily, life, during.
3.formal, informal, are, There, two, of, types, education, a system, of, their.
4.early, childhood, during, enter, People, formal, education, a system, of their.
5.Learners, to, school, regularly, have, come, to.
EXERCISE 12 Give possible beginnings of the sentences.
…without a teacher.
…to pass tests or exams.
…during their early childhood.
…what to teach.
EXERCISE 13. Complete the following sentences in a logical way:
Education includes different kinds of …
People gain knowledge and understanding about…
There are two types of …
Informal education involves people in …
Children lean their language simple by …
People get information or learn skills on …
Formal education is the instruction given at..
People enter a system of formal education during…
Teachers expect learners to come to school…
Learners have to pass the exams to snow…
General education aims at producing intelligent…
Primary school pupils are taught skills they will…
Almost all young people continue their general education in …
Vocational education prepares the students for…
Learner may earn a diploma, a certificate, or..
EXERCISE 14 .Translate the following sentences from Russian into English. You will have a story on the topic as a pattern.
1. В широком смысле образование – это способы, при помощи которых люди обучаются различным навыкам, получают знания о себе и об окружающем мире.
2.Образование можно разделить на два типа: неофициальное образование и официальное.
3. Люди вовлекаются в неофициальное образование в течение их повседневной жизни.
4. Например, дети учатся говорить, просто слушая и стараясь говорить.
5. Иногда люди по своей собственной инициативе учатся различными навыками или получают информацию о чем-нибудь.
6. Они могут пойти в библиотеку, в музей для получения информации , но при этом они не должны сдавать экзамены.
7. Можно так же получить официальное образование в различных школах, колледжах, университетах.
8. В большинстве стран люди поступают в систему официального образования в раннем детстве.
9. Учащиеся должны регулярно посещать школу, приходить вовремя.
10. Они также должны сдавать экзамены, чтобы показать, чему они научились.
11. В большинстве стран система образования включает как общее, так и профессиональное образование.
12. Общее образование ставит своей целью передачу культурного наследия нации.
13. В большинстве стран общее образование можно получить в начальных и средних школах.
14. Целью профессионального образования является подготовка обучаемых к получению профессии.
15. Профессиональное образование можно получить на среднем уровне- в средних специальных школах; на высоком уровне- в различных институтах, университетах.
EXERCISE 1. Read and translate the text
SCLENCE AND SCLENTISTS
The word “science” comes from the Latin word “scientia”, which means “knowledge” Science covers the broad field of knowledge that deals with facts and the relationship among these facts.
Scientists study a wide variety of subjects. Some scientists search for clues to the origin of the universe and examine the structure of the cells of living plants and animals. Other researchers investigate why we act the way we do, or try to solve complicated mathematical problems.
Scientists use systematic methods of study to make observations and collect facts. They develop theories that help them order and unify facts. Scientific theories consist of general principles or laws that attempt to explain how and why something happens or has happened. A theory is considered to become a part of scientific knowledge if it has been tested experimentally and proved to be true.
Scientific study can be divided into three major groups: the natural, social, and technical sciences. As scientific knowledge has grown and become more complicated, many new fields of science have appeared. At the same time , the boundaries between scientific fields have become less and less clear. Numerous areas of science overlap each other and it is often hard to tell where one science ends and another begins. All sciences are closely interconnected.
Science has great influence on our lives. It provides the basis of modern technology - the tools and machines that make our life easier. The discoveries and inventions of scientists also help shape our view about ourselves and our place in the universe.
8) to explain
9) to prove
EXERCISE 2 . Answer the questions to the text:
1. What is science?
2. Are all sciences closely interconnected?
EXERCISE 3. Give Russian equivalents to the English words and word combinations:
1. comes from
2. the field of knowledge
3. deals with facts
4. a wide variety of subjects
5. search for clues to the origin of the universe
6. consist of general principles
7. principles and laws
8. how and why
9. a part of scientific knowledge
10. to be true
11. at the same time
12. can be divided into
13. new fields of science
14. less and less clear
15. numerous areas of science
16. overlap each other
17. are closely interconnected
18. influence on our lives
19.the basis of modern technology
20. inventions of scientists
21. our view about
22. in the universe
EXERCISE . Find in the text English equivalents to the Russian words and word combinations:
4. широкое разнообразие
5. ищут разгадки
6. происхождение Вселенной
7. структура клеток
9. собирать факты
10.упорядочить и обобщить
13.как и почему
18.в то же самое время
19.все менее и менее четкие
EXERCISE. Fill in the gaps with the missing words:
1. Science d… with a variety of subjects.
2. Scientists s… for the answers to the different questions.
3. The structure of the cells is e… by the scientists.
4. Different theories u… the facts.
5. The b… of some scientific fields are not clear.
6. The natural, social and technical sciences are closely i… .
EXERCISE . Mind the word order .Extend the following sentence with the words given in brackets.
1. Scientists solve problems (complicated, some, mathematical, to, try)
2. Researchers make observations (facts, and, collect)
3. The boundaries have become clear (fields, scientific, between, less)
4. Science has influence on lives (our, great)
5. Technology makes life easier (our, and, work, modern)
EXERCISE. Translate the sentences, pay attention to the use of different conjunctions.
1. Scientists are investigating different problems because they want to find the clues to the origin of the universe.
2. If you investigate this problem, you will find the clue to this problem.
3. After you investigate this problem, you will find the clue to this problem.
4. It is known, that he is a good researcher .
5. When we came, they were solving the problem.
EXERCISE . Retell the summary of the text.
The word “science” comes from the Latin word “scientia”, which means “knowledge”. Scientists study a wide variety of subjects. Some scientists search for clues to the origin of the universe and examine the structure of the cells. Other researchers investigate why we act the way we do.
Scientists use systematic methods of study to make observations and collect facts. Scientific study can be divided into three major groups: the natural, social, and technical sciences.
The boundaries between scientific fields have become less and less clear. All sciences are closely interconnected. Science has great influence on our lives. It provides the basis of modern technology.
EXERCISE 1. Read and translate the text
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
Technology means the use of people’s inventions and discoveries to satisfy their needs. Since people have appeared on the earth, they have had to get food, clothes and shelter. Through the ages, people have invented tools, machines and materials to make work easier.
Nowadays, when people speak of technology, they generally mean industrial technology. Industrial technology began about 200 years ago with the development of the steam engine, the growth of factories, and the mass production of goods. It influenced different aspects of people’s lives. The development of the car influenced where people lived and worked. Radio and television changed their leisure time. The telephone revolutionized communication.
Science has contributed much to modern technology. Science attempts to explain how and why things happen. Technology makes things happen. But not all technology is based on science. For example, people had made different objects from iron for centuries before they learnt the structure of the metal. But some modern technologies, such as nuclear power production and space travel, depend heavily on science.
1) to satisfy
3) steam engine
7) nuclear power
8) depend on
EXERCISE 2 . Answer the questions to the text:
1. What is technology?
2. Is all technology based on science?
3. What modern technologies depend heavily on science?
4. When did industrial technology begin?
5. When was a steam engine invented?
EXERCISE 3. Give Russian equivalents to the English words and word combinations:
2. on the earth
3. through the ages
4. speak of technology
5. about 200 years ago
6. with the development of the steam engine
7. the growth of factories
8. production of goods
9. aspect s of people’s lives
10.the development of the car
11.contributed much to modern technology
15.the structure of the metal
EXERCISE . Find in the text English equivalents to the Russian words and word combinations
3. формировать наши взгляды
4. о себе
5. удовлетворять собственные нужды
6. они должны были
8. на протяжении веков
11. в настоящее время
12. тому назад
13. паровой двигатель
15. массовое производство товаров
16. время досуга
17. произвел революцию
18. сделала большой вклад
20. из железа
21. в течении веков
22. очень сильно
EXERCISE. Fill in the gaps with the missing words:
1. T… the ages, people have invented tools, machines, and materials to make work easier.
2. Science c… much to modern technology.
3. Some modern technologies d… on science.
4. During our l… time we watch TV.
EXERCISE. Put the words in the following sentences in order, the first word in each sentence is in italics.
1. interconnected, sciences, All, closely, are.
2. provides, Science, of, technology, modern, the, basis.
3. people, the, ages, Through, tools, invented, have, machines, materials, and.
4.influenced, aspects, people’s, of, different, Industrial, technology, lives.
5. our, time, Radio, television, and, leisure, changed.
EXERCISE . Fill in the blanks with the proper conjunctions.
1. I am happy, … I have bought a computer.
2. … the theory has been tested experimentally, it becomes a part of scientific knowledge.
3. … scientific knowledge has grown and become more complicated, many new fields of science have appeared.
4. It is known, … the telephone revolutionized communication.
5. … people speak of modern technology, they generally mean industrial technology.
EXERCISE 4. Retell the summary of the text
Nowadays, when people speak of technology, they generally mean industrial technology. Industrial technology began about 200 years ago with the development of the steam engine, the growth of factories, and the mass production of goods
Radio and television changed their leisure time. The telephone revolutionized communication. Science attempts to explain how and why things happen.
Technology makes things happen. some modern technologies, such as nuclear power production and space travel, depend heavily on science.
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5) Миловидов В. А 10 консультаций по английскому языку: - 2-е изд., испр. – М.: Рольф, 2001. – 320 с. – (Домашний репетитор).
6) Рогова Г. В. Английский язык за два года: учеб. для 10-11 кл. общеобразоват. учреждений/ Г. В. Рогова, Ф. М. Рожкова. – 13-е изд.- М.: Просвещение, 2004.-384 с.
7) Английский язык: учеб. для 10-11 кл. общеобразоват. учреждений / [В. П. Кузовлев, Н. М. Лапа, Э. Ш. Перегудова и др.].
8) Англо-русский словарь 20 000 слов/ Сост. Г. И. Бункин, О. В. Буренкова, Т. П. Горбунова и др.; Под ред. О. С. Ахмановой, Е. А. М. Уилсон. – 32 изд., стереотип. – М.: Рус. яз., 1987. – 656 с.
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