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Инфоурок / Иностранные языки / Другие методич. материалы / Методическое пособие для студентов бухгалтерского отделения

Методическое пособие для студентов бухгалтерского отделения

  • Иностранные языки

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ГБПОУ КК «Армавирский аграрно – технологический техникум»

Система менеджмента качества

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УТВЕРЖДАЮ

Зам.директора по УНИР

_________ Л.М. Штефанова

«___» _________ 2015г



Учебно- методическое пособие

по английскому языку

для студентов 3 курса отделения

«Экономика и бухучёт (по отраслям)

http://tvoiomsk.ru/data/item/2699/Large.jpg



Рассмотрено на заседании ПЦК

общих гуманитарных и

социально-экономических дисциплин

Председатель ПЦК - И.А. Кондалова

Разработал преподаватель - И.С. Агафонова



Армавир, 2015

Содержание

Введение

  1. Что изучает экономическая наука. Экономика края

  2. Маркетинг

  3. Менеджмент

  4. Банки и бизнес

  5. Функции денег

  6. Кредитные операции

  7. Торговля

  8. Цены. Цены в крае.

  9. Денежные средства

Заключение

Литература

Приложение (экономические термины)








































Введение

Данное учебное пособие предназначено для студентов третьего курса отделения «Экономика и бухучёт (по отраслям)» Оно представляет собой пособие по профессионально-ориентированному английскому (English for Specific Purposes) для данной специальности.

Пособие состоит из девяти специальных текстов, различных видов упражнений, нацеленных на развитие всех речевых умений в рамках коммуникативной компетенции. Все тексты для чтения и лексические упражнения основаны на современных аутентичных британских или американских материалах по соответствующей тематике.

В заключение, на основе представленных в пособии текстов составлен англо-русский словарь экономических терминов, поясняющий все термины, которые могут быть непонятны студентам.




































Text 1. What is economics?


Economics, social science concerned with the production, distribution, exchange, and consumption of goods and services. Economists focus on the way in which individuals, groups, business enterprises, and governments seek to achieve efficiently any economic objective they select. Other fields of study also contribute to this knowledge: Psychology and ethics try to explain how objectives are formed; history records changes in human objectives; sociology interprets human behavior in social contexts.

Standard economics can be divided into two major fields. The first, price theory or microeconomics, explains how the interplay of supply and demand in competitive markets creates a multitude of individual prices, wage rates, profit ;line-height: 100%; widows: 0; orphans: 0"> The second field, macroeconomics, deals with modern explanations of national income and employment. Macroeconomics dates from the book, The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money (1935), by the British economist John Maynard Keynes. His explanation of prosperity and depression centers on the total or aggregate demand for goods and services by consumers, business investors, and governments. Because, according to Keynes, inadequate aggregate demand increases unemployment, the indicated cure is either more investment by businesses or more spending and consequently larger budget deficits by government.

Listen to the speaker; read and memorize the following words and phrases:

  1. to be concerned with - заниматься изучением чего-то

  2. exchange - обмен

  3. consumption - потребление

  4. goods and services - товары и услуги

  5. business enterprises - деловое предприятие

  6. objective - цель

  7. psychology [sai`kli] - психология

  8. sociology - [ sousi`li] - социология

  9. behavior - [ bi`heivj] - поведение

  10. microeconomics - [maikroui:k`nmiks] - микроэкономика

  11. interplay - взаимодействие

  12. supply and demand - спрос и предложение

  13. a competitive market - рынок конкурирующих продавцов

  14. wage rates - ставки заработной платы

  15. profit ;line-height: 100%; widows: 0; orphans: 0"> rental changes - изменения арендной платы

  16. consumer - потребитель

  17. income - доход

  18. entrepreneur - фр. [antrpr`n:(r)] - предприниматель

  19. to deal with - заниматься чем-либо

  20. employment - занятость

  21. to increase - увеличивать

  22. interest - процент

  23. John Maynard Keynes - Джон Мейнард Кейнс



II. Exercises on the Text:

3. Give Russian equivalents to:

social science; distribution of goods and services; to try to explain; sociology interprets human behavior; to create a multitude of individual prices; to spend their income; as much pleasure as possible; they maximize utility; for their part; to deal with modern explanation; prosperity and depression; demand for goods and services; business investors; according to Keynes; larger budget deficits.

4. Answer the following questions:

  1. What is economics?

  2. On what problems do economists focus their attention?

  3. What do psychology and ethics try to explain?

  4. What does sociology interpret in social contexts?

  5. Into what fields can be standard economics divided?

  6. What does microeconomics explain?

  7. How do consumers try to spend their income?

  8. Do they maximize utility?

  9. What questions does the second field study?

  10. Who is the author of the book «The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money»?

  11. How does he explain prosperity and depression?

III. Grammar Exercises

5. Write these phrases in the possessive form, i.e. with ‘s or

  1. the corporations of the nation.

  2. the activities of the people.

  3. the desires of consumers.

  4. the image of a product.

  5. the reputation of a seller.

  6. the work of a day.

  7. the economy of a country.

  8. the problems of the economists.

  9. the play of the government.

  10. the works of Keynes.

  11. the dollar of a consumer.

6. Give the comparative and superlative of the following:

Example: high -higher - the highest;

professional - more professional - the most professional.

efficient, rational, modern, total, large, rich, poor, little, good, traditional, important.

7. Translate the following into Russian:

1. There are, however, no «pure» market economies in the world today.

2. Economists note that there is no limit to the amount or kinds of things that people want.

3. There is, however, a limit to the resources.

4. In addition to buyers and sellers, there are several other essential elements in a market economy.

5. There are many buyers and sellers so that no individual or group can control prices.

6. There are two ways to earn income: from your work and from the use of your wealth.

8. Chose the right word to the words given in the first column:

many

goods


much

economists


a lot of

enterprises


little

knowledge


few

markets



governments



explanations



time



activities



work




9. Translate into Russian:

  1. Economists have two ways of looking at economics and economy.

  2. Macroeconomics is the study of the economy as a whole, microeconomics is the study of individual consumers and the business firm.

  3. Each factor of production has a place in our economic system, and each has a particular function.

  4. Price stability refers to times during which prices remain constant.

  5. A budget is a financial plan that summarizes income and expenditures over a period of time.

  6. Saving is one of the most important things that people do with their incomes.

  7. Economic forces also affect decisions in the world of business.

  8. The United States government also employs economists to study economic problems and to suggest ways to solve them.

  9. Consumers are people who use goods and services to satisfy their wants.

  10. Efficiency is a measure of how much we get for what we use.

  11. Demand is a consumer’s willingness and ability to buy a product or service at a particular time and place.

10. Translate English jokes.

A.: Our math professor talks to himself, does yours?

B.: Yes, but he doesn’t realize it. He thinks we’re listening.

Text 2. Marketing


Marketing, activities involved in getting goods from the producer to the consumer. The producer is responsible for the design and manufacture of goods. Early marketing techniques followed production and were responsible only for moving goods from the manufacturer to the point of final sale. Now, however, marketing is much more pervasive. In large corporations the marketing functions precede the manufacture of a product. They involve market research and product development, design, and testing.

Marketing concentrates primarily on the buyers, or consumers, determining their needs and desires, educating them with regard to the availability of products and to important product features, developing strategies to persuade them to buy, and, finally, enhancing their satisfaction with a purchase. Marketing management includes planning, organizing, directing, and controlling decision making regarding product lines, pricing, promotion, and servicing. In most of these areas marketing has complete control; in others, as in product-line development, its function is primarily advisory. In addition, the marketing department of a business firm is responsible for the physical distribution of the products, determining the channels of distribution that will be used and supervising the profitable flow of goods from the factory or warehouse.

Listen to the speaker; read and memorize the following words and phrases:

  1. to involve - вовлекать

  2. producer - производитель

  3. to be responsible for - быть ответственным за

  4. consumer - потребитель

  5. manufacturer - производитель, изготовитель

  6. pervasive - обширный

  7. to determine - определять

  8. needs and desires - нужды и желания

  9. with regard to - относительно, что касается

  10. to persuade - убеждать

  11. purchase - покупка

  12. product line - ассортимент изделий

  13. promotion - стимулирование, продвижение товара

  14. in addition - в дополнение

  15. to supervise - наблюдать за чем-либо

  16. warehouse - товарный склад, оптовый магазин

II. Exercises on the Text:

3. Give Russian equivalents to:

Activities involved in getting goods; is responsible for the design; early marketing techniques; to the point of final stage; is much more pervasive; in large corporations; precede the manufacture of a product; testing; with regard to the availability of product; enhancing their satisfaction with a purchase; marketing management; regarding product lines; promotion; its function is primarily advisory; the marketing department; physical distribution; the profitable flow of goods.

4. Compose the questions using the following words:

1. is, marketing, what?

2. the producer, is, for what, responsible?

3. early marketing technique, did, what, follow?

4. the manufacture of a profit, where, precede, the marketing functions, do?

5. they, what, do, involve?

6. does, on, what, concentrate, marketing?

7. what, marketing management, does, include?

8. marketing, complete control, has, when?

9. the marketing department of a business firm, responsible for the physical distribution of the products, is?



III. Grammar Exercises

5. Form the Past Indefinite Tense of the following verbs:

to involve, to be, to precede, to concentrate, to buy, to get, to make, to have, to select, to contribute, to try, to assume, to spend, to give, to increase.

6. Put the verbs in brackets in the Past Indefinite Tense and translate the sentences:

1. Aristotle and Plato in ancient Greece (to write) about problems of wealth, property, and trade.

2. The Romans (to borrow) their economic ideas from the Greeks and (to show) the same contempt for trade.

3. In ancient and medieval times dire scarcity of resources (to be) common and (to affect) the lives of most human beings.

4. In England, Parliament (to pass) a Statute of Monopolies (1624).

5. The Second development (to be) the expansion of production that (to follow) the Industrial Revolution.

6. Cartels (to originate) in Germany during the 1870s.

7. As business (to become) more competitive, new and more complex corporate combinations (to come) on the scene.

7. Put all possible questions to the sentence:

1. During World War II the government of Germany utilized domestic cartels to produce armaments.

8. Translate into Russian paying attention to the emphatic construction «it is ... that ...»:

2. It is the planners who decide what goods and services will be produced.

3. It is the planners, too, with guidance from the country’s political leadership, who decide who will receive the goods and services produced.

4. It was at this time (1936) that Keynes’ work was published.

5. Indeed, it is from the early 1970s, when détente began to take shape.

9. Write in words these numbers:

11, 12, 13, 15, 17, 20, 30, 40.

10. Use hundred, thousand, million with the words in brackets:

300 (dollar); 400 (pound); 10,000 (rouble); 500,000 (woman); 2,000,000 (man); 6,700 (child); 1,000 (computer).

11. Read the dates:

March 8, 1991; June 22, 1941; May 9, 1945; April 12,1961; January 1, 2000.

12. Translate English jokes:

A: Did the play have a happy ending?

B: Yes, everybody was happy when it ended.

A: A telegram from George, dear.

B: Well, did he pass the examination this time?

A: No, but he is almost at the top of the list of those who failed.





















































Text 3. Management

  1. technique - [tek`ni:k] - техника (исполнения)

  2. an organization chart - организационная схема

  3. to designate [`dezineit] - определять

  4. executives [i`zekjutivz] - директора

  5. execution [eksi`kju:n] - выполнение

  6. foreperson - мастер

  7. department head - начальник (цеха)

  8. with respect to - что касается

  9. supply - поставка, снабжение

  10. accounting - учет

  11. supervision - наблюдение

  12. guidance [`aidns] - руководство

  13. records and reports - учетные документы и отчеты

  14. wage incentive program - программа финансово-материального стимулирования


Industrial Management, in business, term used to describe the techniques and expertise of efficient organization, planning, direction, and control of the operations of a business.

In the theory of industrial management, organization has two principal aspects. One relates to the establishment of so-called lines of responsibility, drawn usually in the form of an organization chart that designates the executives of the business, from the president to the foreperson or department head, and specifies the functions for which they are responsible. The other principal aspect relates to the development of a staff of qualified executives.

Planning in industrial management has three principal aspects. One is the establishment of broad basic policies with respect to production; sales; the purchase of equipment, materials, and supplies; and accounting. The second aspect relates to the implementation of these policies by departments. The third relates to the establishment of standards of work in all departments. Direction is concerned primarily with supervision and guidance by the executive in authority; in this connection a distinction is generally made between top management, which is essentially administrative in nature, and operative management, which is concerned with the direct execution of policy. Control involves the use of records and reports to compare performance with the established standards for work.

Industrial management as just defined dates from the latter part of the 19th century. A notable impetus to its evolution was provided by the American engineer Frederick Taylor, who developed techniques for analyzing the operations involved in production and for setting standards for a day’s work. The techniques originally devised by Taylor were adopted by industrialists to other phases of business, including the employment of qualified workers, and wage incentive programs either to replace or to supplement the piecework system that had previously prevailed. Industrial management experts who succeeded Taylor have applied his techniques to a wider range of business problems. Among the leading successors are the Austrian-American management consultant and educator Peter Drucker and the American economist, writer, and diplomat John Kenneth Galbraith.



II. Exercises on the Text:

3. Give English equivalents to:

термин, используемый для описания; два главных аспекта; так называемый; которые определяют директоров предприятия; штат квалифицированных исполнителей; установление политики; закупка оборудования; уровни работы во всех отделах; в этой связи; высшее руководство; действующее руководство; управление; использование учетных документов и отчетов; заметный толчок; техника для анализа действий; была применена промышленниками; программы финансово-материального стимулирования; система сдельного труда; среди ведущих преемников; педагог.

4. Ask questions to these answers (work in pairs).

  1. Organization has two principal aspects.

  2. One relates to the establishment of so-called lines of responsibility.

  3. An organization chart designates the executives of the business.

  4. Yes, it does.

  5. Planning has.

  6. The third aspect relates to the establishment of standards of work in all departments.

  7. Yes, it is.

  8. A distinction is made between top management and operative management.

  9. Control involves the use of records and reports.

  10. The American engineer Frederick Taylor.

  11. It was adopted to the employment of qualified workers, and wage incentive programs.

5. Translate the following into Russian:


Characteristics of Economic Markets


Perfect Competition

Monopolistic Competition

Oligopoly

Monopoly

Numbers of Firms

Many independent firms. None able to control the market.

Many firms providing similar goods and services.

A few large firms providing similar goods and services.

A single large firm.

Control Over Price

None. Market determines price.

Influence limited by the availability of substitutes.

Often influenced by «price leader».

Much control.


Product Differentiation

None. Products uniform and equal quality.

Products and services differentiated to meet the needs of specific markets.

Significant for some products like automobiles. Little for standardized products like gasoline.

None.

Ease of Entry

Relatively easy to enter or leave the market

Relatively easy to enter or leave the market

Difficult. Often requires large capital investment.

Very difficult.



III. Grammar Exercises

6. Write down the following verbs in the form of Participle II:

to go, to increase, to begin, to buy, to sell, to make, to play, to write, to bring, to specialize, to operate, to understand, to expand.

7. Put the words in brackets in the Passive Voice:

1. Every society (to face) with the identical problem, the problem of scarcity.

2. The need to chose (to impose) on us all by our income, wealth and ability to borrow.

3. Individuals and families (to limit) by the size of their personal income, savings and ability to borrow.

4. In a free market economy, prices (to determine) by the interaction of the forces of supply and demand.

5. When two goods satisfy similar needs, they (to describe) as substitutes.

8. Turn the following from Active Voice into Passive Voice:

1. Profits, savings and borrowing power limit business firms.

2. Frederick Taylor provided a notable impetus to industrial management.

3. Keynes wrote many books.

4. The competitive system will determine business ethics.

5. Great complexity of organization and administration characterize the operation of large business firms.

6. Two or more persons own a business organization.

7. Sir Joseph Binks gives Tom a small cheque.

8. They gave Uncle Tom a cheque and a railway carriage.

9. Translate the following sentences into Russian paying attention to the functions of Participle II:

1. Salaries refer to earnings paid on a weekly or monthly basis.

2. The term «wage» typically refers to the earnings of workers paid by the hour or unit of production.

3. Used in certain ways, wealth can earn income.

4. Natural resources are the things provided by nature that go into the creation of goods and services.

5. Nearly 90 percent of goods and services produced in the U.S. each year come from privately owned firms.

6. Shares are traded in organized markets such as the New York Stock Exchange.

10. Express the following in Russian:

1. The more you know about the subject, the better career decisions you will be able to make.

2. For their part, entrepreneurs seek as much profit as they can extract from their operations.

3. As a rule, the more scarce something is the higher its price will be, and the fewer people will want to buy it.

4. The higher the price, the greater the incentive to produce and sell the product.

11. Form adjectives with the help of suffixes:

-al: economic, nation, production, education, profession.

-able: to change, to exchange, to read, fashion, mistake.

12. Form adverbs with the help of the suffix «-ly»:

economical, political, different, rapid, definite, historical, complete, formal, practical, particular.


































Text 4. Banks and business.

Banks and business.

Banks are different in different countries. Let’s speak about the banks in the United States of America. There, commercial banks are classified into two main groups. First, there are national banks. They are charted are supervised by the Federal Government. Secondly, there are state banks. They are charted and supervised by the state in which they are operated. All commercial banks can make loans to borrowers.

Major commercial banks in such cities as Tokyo, Paris, Rio cooperate with each other. In this way they finance imports and exports between countries.

An importer buys merchandise from another country using the currency of that country. For that purpose he buys this currency from the foreign exchange department of his bank. And in the same way if an exporter receives foreign money from sales to other countries, he sells this currency to his bank. By this method the currency of any country can usually be exchanged.

 

commercial bank коммерческий банк

national bank национальный банк

to charter учреждать, создавать

to supervise заведовать, контролировать

state bank государственный банк

merchandise товары

currency валюта, деньги

foreign exchange department отдел обмена валюты

to exchange currency обменивать валюту

 

Comprehension questions.

1.     What do all commercial banks do?

2.     What kinds of commercial banks in the USA do you know? What are they called?

3.     Who supervises the operations of national banks?

4.     What kind of currency does an importer generally use when he buys goods from another country?

5.     What do you know about the “international exchange”?

6.     What is the currency of this country called?

7.     What is the exchange rate between your currency and the currency of the USA and Germany? How can you find it out if you don’t know it?

 

Vocabulary practice

Choose the necessary word and put it in the sentence.

1. Federal government … and … all national banks. | 1. merchandise 2. currency

2. International cooperation between banks makes it possible … imports and exports. | 3. commercial

3. It is possible to convert American dollars to Swiss francs in … department. | 4. foreign exchange

4. The … of Germany is the mark. | 5. to finance

5. All … banks make loans to borrowers. | 6. to supervise

6. If the importer buys … from another country he will pay for it in the currency of this country. | 7. to charter

 

banking банковское дело

to make a career in smth. сделать карьеру в чем-либо

bank services банковские услуги

checking account чековый счет

savings account сберегательный счет с установленным процентом

safety deposit box сейф для депозитов, предоставляемый частным лицам в банке

insurance страхование

to make a loan to smb. давать заем кому-либо

to be eligible for a loan подходящий для займа (т.е. признаваемый платежеспособным)

long-term loan долгосрочный заем

short-term loan краткосрочный заем

prime-rate наименьший процент со ссуды, установленный в определенное время и в определенном месте

preferred customer привилегированный клиент

to be available наличный, имеющийся в распоряжении

line of credit кредитный лимит

to borrow занимать

letter of credit кредитное письмо, аккредитив

credit reference letter рекомендательное кредитное письмо

 

Exercise 3. Answer the questions.

1.     Is there a difference between banking systems in the USSR and western countries? What is the difference?

2.     What bank services are you familiar with?

3.     Do the banks in this country have safety deposit boxes?

4.     Whom do the banks make loans to in this country?

5.     What kind of loan would you prefer, long-term loan or short-term loan?

6.     What prime-rates are available in this country?

7.     What does the line of credit of the enterprise depend on?

8.     What is a credit letter written for?

9.     What can one do with credit reference letter?

 

Exercise 4. Translate into English.

1.     Государство учреждает коммерческие банки.

2.     Если ты хочешь купить товары за границей, ты должен поменять деньги в отделе обмена валюты.

3.     Я бы хотел сделать карьеру в банковском деле.

4.     Все банки устанавливают проценты на ссуду.

5.     Наш банк намерен предоставить краткосрочную ссуду этому предприятию.

6.     Наименьший процент со ссуды предоставляется привилегированным клиентам.

7.     Банки могут выпускать аккредитивы и рекомендательные письма.

8.     Я намерен занять крупную сумму денег.

9.     Банк считает, что это предприятие платежеспособно и ему можно предоставить заем.

 













Text 5. Function of money.


The Functions of Money
1. A medium of
exchange.
The use of money as a medium of exchange makes possible a great
extenuation of the principle of specialization. In an advanced society the use of money allows us to exchange hours of labour for an amazing variety of goods and services. We can exchange, for example, two weeks" labour for a holiday abroad just as easily as we can exchange it for a piece of furniture or a year´s rent on a television set. Such exchanges are taken for granted yet they would be inconvenient without the use of money.
2. A
measure of value.
The first step in the use of money was probably the adoption of some commodity as a unit of account or measure of value. Money, most likely, came into use within the barter system as a means whereby the values of different goods could be compared. The direct exchange of goods for goods would raise all sorts of problems regarding valuation. The problem of exchange rates is easily solved when all other commodities are valued in terms of a single commodity which then acts as a standard of value.
Money now serves as such a standard and when all economic goods are given money values (i.e. prices), we know, immediately, the value of one commodity in terms of any other commodity.

exchange- обмен

extenuation- ослабление, истощение

advanced society- продвинутое общество

furniture- мебель

measure of value- мера цены

commodity- предмет потребления

raise- поднимать
rate- величина


II. Письменно ответьте на вопросы:
1. What are the main functions of money?
2. When did money come to use?
3. When can money be served as a standard of value?

III.
Поставьте вопросы к выделенным словам:
1. The use of money makes possible a great extension of the principle of specialization.
2. The use of money allows us to exchange hours of labour for an amazing variety of goods and services.
Использование денег позволяет нам обменивать рабочее время на
3. The problem of exchange rates is easily solved when all other commodities are valued in terms of a single commodity.
4. It is a great convenience to hold wealth in the form of money.

IV. Переведите предложения письменно на русский язык, подчеркните модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты:
1. All invoices must be paid not later than 30 days from the date of issue.
2. We needn´t finish this meeting before 12 o´clock.
3. Changes in the quality of money may or may not have an influence on prices.
4. They sent the goods two weeks ago: so, they could have arrived by now.
5. These figures can´t be right. There must be a mistake somewhere.

V. Переведите предложения на английский язык, используя Present, Past, Future Continuous Tenses:
1. Что вы делали в это время в прошлом месяце?
2. Она будет работать над своим отчетом завтра в 10.
3. В настоящий момент распродажи не увеличиваются.
4. Они работали с менеджером, когда зазвонил телефон.
5. Он пойдет завтра в Университет в 11.
6. Завтра приезжает директор компании.
VI. Перепишите предложения, укажите Participle I, Participle II, переведите предложения:
1. The information obtained is very valuable.
2. The house restored by the Johnson is quite unusual.
3. The quantity of labour derived from a given stock of population depends upon several factors.
4. In advanced capitalist societies, advertising is a powerful instrument affecting demand in many markets.
5. The persons forming a company are required to submit several documents to the Registrar of Companies.
6. Industries producing steel, paper and chemicals require very large quantities of water and tend to be found near rivers.
VII. Выпишите из текста предложения, содержащие страдательный залог, укажите время.



































Text 6. Credit

Credit is borrowed money that you can use to purchase things you need when you need them and then repay the funds back at an agreed on time. Services can also be paid for this way, such as cable and telephone services. For example, if you use telephone or cable services for a month or two and then pay for them at the end of that period, you are receiving services on credit. Common types include mortgages or home loans as well as personal loans or lines of credit.

A personal line of credit allows you to have money available when you need it. This often has a low interest rate, and the borrower can choose to use the entire limit at once or use it in smaller increments. This can be perfect for meeting ongoing money needs such as renovating your home. A personal line of credit for an approved amount means that you do not have to keep going back to the back for approval for each small amount you want to borrow.

borrowed money- деньги взаймы

purchase- покупка

repay- оплата

funds- запас, источник

mortgages- заклад, ипотека

personal line of credit- личный кредит

borrower- заёмщик

increments- разрастание, увеличение

renovating- обновление


Answer the questions

  1. What is credit?

  2. What services can be paid by credit?

  3. What has low interest rate?

  4. What does a personal line of credit mean?


Make plural of singular and translate

Credit, loan, mortgage, borrower, type, period, fund, amount, telephone, service, month





















Text 7 Trade

Trade is the buying and selling of goods and services. The products that are exchanged are things that people grow or make, like food to eat, machines to work with or clothes to wear. Services are things that people do for others, like working in bank, caring for old people or teaching pupils.

Why do we trade?

Trade happens because people need or want things that they don't have. We also trade for work that we cannot do ourselves. Trade between countries happens for the same reason. Some countries, for example, have natural resources, like coal, oil or wood which other countries might want to buy. They try to sell the goods, products or services that they have too much of to other countries. They earn money from these sales and then can buy the things that they themselves need and cannot produce on their own.

Both producers and consumers profit from international trade. If countries can produce goods more cheaply than others because they specialize on them why not let them. They make more money on one side and consumers in other countries can buy goods that are cheaper.

Even though many nations have a lot of different goods to export there are countries that depend only on one or two products to get money. Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and other countries of the Middle East depend on oil exports, because it is pretty much the only thing that they can sell. Poor countries in Africa depend largely on the export of tropical farm products to get money.

Each year goods and services worth about 11 trillion dollars ($ 11 000 000 000 000) are traded all over the world. The biggest exporting nations are The United States, France, Germany, the United Kingdom, Canada and Japan.

The difference between what a country exports and what it imports is called the balance of trade. If a country exports more than it imports we call this a trade surplus. And if a country pays more for its imports than it gets for its exports it has a trade deficit.

Trade- торговля

Buying- покупка

Selling- продажа

Goods- товары

Exchange- обмен

Want- хотеть

Coal- уголь

Consumer- потребитель

trade surplus- активный торговый баланс


Answer the questions

  1. What is trade?

  2. Why is there a trade between countries?

  3. What do we sell?

  4. What are the biggest exporting nations?

  5. What is the balance of trade?

  6. What is the trade surplus?


Make three degrees of adjectives. Translate them

Simple, difficult, easy, tall, small, big, convenient, narrow, wide, comfortable, little, bad, good, far


















































Text 8

PRICES AND MARKETS

1. Прочтите и выучите следующие слова и выражения.

Determinant-определить,

valuable-ценный,

commodity-товар,

, transaction- сделка,

arrangement- договоренность,

requirement- требование,

foodstuff's- пищевые продукты,

the basic determinants of price-базовое определение цены,

subjective value- субъективная ценность,

the economic worth of value-экономически обоснованная цена,

under market conditions-под действием рыночных условий.

2. К каждому термину из левой колонки подберите русский перевод. Запишите получившиеся пары и выучите слова и выражения.

ad.

легкость

buyer

потребительские товары

commodity

товар

concern

предложение

consumer goods

покупатель

dealing

участник

ease

вид

imply

заключать в себе, значить; подразумевать

kind

Рекламный

meaning

забота; интерес; дело; отношение; касательство

participant

сделка, операция

particularly

особенно

transaction

продавец

reveal

значение

seller

сделка

separate

отдельный

supply

раскрывать



3. Внимательно прочитайте текст № 1, переведите его устно.

Price and Value

. Price is not the same thing as value. Things are 'valuable' because people think they are, and for no other reason. The 'value' which an individual places on a commodity can not be measured; its value will be different for different people. This kind of subjective value is not the concern of the economist who is interested only in 'value in exchange'. The economic worth of value of a good can only be measured in some kind of market transaction which reveals the value of the good in terms of what is offered in exchange for it. If 5 Ib of potatoes will exchange for 5 Ib of sugar, then the 'price' of 1 Ib of sugar is 5 Ib of potatoes. Nowadays practically all exchanges represent an exchange of goods and services for money, and prices in terms of money are the market value of the things they buy.

Markets

Prices arise in exchange transactions and this implies some kind of market. This need not, necessarily, be a fixed location - a building, or a market place. We are all familiar with the open and covered markets in the centres of our towns, but in the modem world the word 'market' has a much wider meaning. Any effective arrangement for bringing buyers and sellers into contact with one another is defined as a market. The small ad. columns of the local newspaper provide a very efficient market for second-hand cars. Face to face contact between buyers and sellers is not a requirement for a market to be able to operate efficiently. In the foreign exchange market, buyers and sellers are separated by thousands of miles, but the knowledge of what is happening in the market is just as complete, and the ease of dealing is just as effective as if the participants were in the same room.

For some commodities, notably fresh fruit and vegetables, the traditional market is still the normal arrangement, but for most goods the market is a national one. Most consumer goods, in developed countries, are bought, and sold on a countrywide basis. For other commodities the market is world-wide. This is particularly true of the more important primary products such as rubber, tin, copper, and oil, and of the basic foodstuff's such as meat, wheat, sugar, tea, and coffee. Most of the products of advanced technology also have world markets, for example, computers, aeroplanes, ships, and motor cars.

The price of any economic good, under market conditions such as we find in the capitalist world, is determined by the forces of supply acting through the sellers and the forces of demand acting through the buyers, determine the market price.

4. Найдите в тексте слова из задания № 2. Выпишите предложения с ними и переведите их письменно на русский язык.

5. Запишите предложения, заполнив пропуски данными словами. Подчеркните вставленные слова и переведите предложения письменно на русский язык.

Supply, transaction, determinants, concern, arise, advanced, value, meaning, markets, conditions, worth, demand.

1. In this chapter we discuss the basic ______of price.

2. Price is not the same thing as _____.

3. This kind of subjective value is not the _______ of the economist.

4. The economic _____ of value of a good can only be measured in some kind of market ______.

5. Prices _____ in exchange transactions.

6. In the modem world the word 'market' has a much wider _____.

7. Most of the products of _______ technologies also have world _______.

8. The price of any economic good under market _______ is determined by the forces of _____ and ________.

6. Выберите из слов, данных ниже, антонимы и запишите их парами.

same, different, knowledge, false, foreign, Ignorance, narrow, true, domestic, second-hand, new - wide

































Text 9.

Money

Money doesn’t buy happiness but it helps.
Money has become one of the main things in our modern life. Some people live their lives to earn money. They work hard, trying to earn as much money as they can. Some of them become crazy about it and lose their dignity hunting money. They don’t appreciate such important things as family, friendship, love and other feelings. Such people become greedy, they spend their lives in loneliness.
I don’t deny that money influences our life a lot. As W.S. Maugham said “ Money is like the sixth feeling without which you cannot make a complete use of the other five.” I quite agree. A person can’t be happy if he has no money to satisfy his natural needs. But I think that money should have a limit. A person shouldn’t have too much money. It begins destroying him and becomes his curse.
It is said in the Bible that “The love of money is the root of all evil.” Yes, big sums of money really bring different problems because people feel very envious and jealous of other’s fortune. The majority of all the crimes are made because of money.
I’m among the people who consider that money is not all-powerful. Humanity, dignity, intelligence, kindness and other good qualities of a person can’t be bought for money. We’ll never be able to buy pure love, real friendship and loving and caring family. But life isn’t worth living without these things. It’s not worth living if money has become the point of it either.

Answer the questions

  1. How do many people live?

  2. What did Maugham say about money?

  3. When does money begin to destroy people?

  4. What are made because of money?

  5. Is money necessary things? Why?

Английский язык

Перевод с английского языка

dosh, dough

разг. деньги

а fiver

разг. пятерка (банкнота достоинством 5 фунтов)

a tenner

разг. десятка (банкнота достоинством 10 фунтов)

a quid

разг. фунт стерлингов

a ton

разг. сотня фунтов

A grand

разг. 1000 фунтов

loose change

мелочь, разменная монета

coppers

медяки, медные монеты достоинством 1 и 2 пенса

plastic

разг. дебитовая (кредитная) карта

 

 

Если у кого много денег, говорят так:

She's loaded

У нее куча денег

He's stinking rich

Он купается в деньгах

 

 

Если же человек испытывает недостаток в денежных средствах, в Англии можно услышать следующее:

Английский язык

Перевод с английского языка

I'm skint

шутл. разг. У меня нет ни гроша

I can't afford it!

Я не могу себе этого позволить

They get paid peanuts!

Им платят гроши!

He lost his job

Он потерял работу

I'm broke

Я разорен

to go on the dole

получать пособие по безработице

They don't have two pennies to rub together

Они не могут свести концы с концами

Inert necessary modal verb

. Complete the following sentences using the most appropriate forms of the verbs.

1. Jack has got a headache. He … sleep well recently.
a) can’t
b) couldn’t have
c) hasn’t been able to

2. I … sleep for hours when I was a little girls.
a) could
b) am able to
c) can

3. Tom … play tennis well but he … play a game yesterday because he was ill.
a) couldn’t, could
b) can, was able
c) can, couldn’t

4. I didn’t want to be late for the meeting. We … meet at 5 sharp.
a) were to
b) had to
c) could

5. Where are my gloves? — I … put them on because it’s cold today.
a) can’t
b) have to
c) needn’t

6. You … take an umbrella today. The Sun is shining.
a) needn’t
b) mustn’t
c) can’t

7. I’m sorry, you didn’t invite me to your birthday party. You … invite me next time.
a) must
b) should
c) need to

8. Well, it’s 10 o’clock. I … go now.
a) can
b) has to
c) must

9. You … smoke so much.
a) would
b) can’t
c) shouldn’t

10. We have got plenty of time. We … hurry.
a) must
b) needn’t
c) should


Подробнее на сайте:
http://study-english.info/exercises-modal.php#ixzz33SZC1qQA
http://study-english.info/


































Заключение


В пособии представлены специализированные тексты для студентов 3 курса специальности «Экономика и бух учёт (по отраслям)». Тексты сопровождаются введением новой лексики и различными видами упражнений. Главная цель пособия - развить у учащихся навыки перевода профессиональных текстов, извлечения и обработки информации, правильного построения предложений на английском языке.

Пособие можно использовать для аудиторных и внеаудиторных занятий по английскому языку.











































Литература


Аванесян Ж.Г. «Английский для экономистов», М. 2009

Шевчук Д. «Английский для экономистов» М., 2009

Малюга Е.Н. «Английский для экономистов» СПб, 2010

http://www.booksshare.net/index.php?id1=4&category=lunguistics&author=maluga-en&book=2005&page=10

http://www.cataloxy.ru/books/4856458_angliyskiy-yazyk-dlya-ekonomistov.htm













































Приложение

Экономические термины

assets

активы

foreign-trade deal

внешнеторговая сделка

bill of credit

аккредитив, вексель

assurance 

страхование, гарантия

excise tax

акциз

debtor 

дебитор

safety stock

акции

dumping

демпинг

amortisation

амортизация

deposit

депозит

association

аннулирование

depositor 

вкладчик, депозитор, депонент

unified tax on imputed income (UTII)

единый налог на вмененный доход

deficiency/ scarcity / shortage 

дефицит

personal income

Доходы физических лиц

deflation

дефляция

historical [original] cost of capital assets [fixed assets]

Первоначальная стоимость основных средств

offeror 

дилер

VAT to be paid to supplier

НДС к уплате поставщику

dividend

дивиденд

leasehold

аренда, пользование на правах аренды

loan

заем

bank transfer/ bank remittance 

банковский перевод

bail / pawn

залог

barter deal 

бартерная сделка

mortgage

ипотека

exchange prices

биржевой курс

joint venture zone

зона совместного предпринимательства

market-rate/ stock prices 

биржевой курс

index

числовой показатель

broker

брокер, маклер

 collection of payment 

инкассо, инкассирование

balance sheet 

бухгалтерский баланс

inflation 

инфляция

business accounting

бухгалтерский учет

cadastre

кадастр

gross receipt

валовой доход

exchequer

казна

currency

валюта

fund

капитал, фонд

И еще несколько полезных терминов…

capital investment

капиталовложения

world price

мировая цена

combine

картель, синдикат

world market

мировой рынок

quota

квота

monopoly 

монополия

clearing 

 клиринг, безналичные расчеты между банками

cash payment 

наличный расчет

commercial classified information

коммерческая тайна

tax statement / tax return 

 налоговая декларация

compensation agreement 

компенсационное соглашение

unmarketable

неликвиды

competitive ability 

конкурентоспособность

forfeit

неустойка, штраф, конфискация

borrowing power

borrowing power 

obligation

облигация

bill of lading

коносамент, транспортная накладная

circulating capital/ floating capital / trading capital 

оборотный капитал

controlling interest 

контрольный пакет акций

wholesale trade

 оптовая торговля

control packet of shares/ majority ownership

контрольный пакет акций

parity rate 

паритет

concern

 концерн

mulct

пеня, штраф, наказание

concession 

концессия, уступка

dues

пошлины

market opportunities / sales opportunities

конъюнктура рынка

prolongation 

пролонгация, отсрочка

quotation

котировка, курс, расценка

payment by installments

рассрочка, рассрочка платежа

accommodation/ credit

кредит, ссуда

settlement account

расчетный счет

creditor / debtee 

кредитор, заимодавец

raw material market

рынок сырья

leasing

лизинг

stagnation 

стагнация, застой

liquidity

ликвидность

subvention

субсидия

personal account

лицевой счет

customs declaration

таможенная декларация

self-accounting 

самоокупаемость

beat

убытки

sequester 

 секвестр, наложение ареста, конфискация

accounting operations

учетные операции

abatement 

скидка

discount rate

учетный процент

gamble / speculation 

спекуляция, сделка, биржевая игра

commercial credit company

финансовая компания


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