ГБПОУ КК «Армавирский аграрно – технологический техникум»
Система менеджмента качества
стр. 1 из 1
Зам.директора по УНИР
_________ Л.М. Штефанова
«___» _________ 2015г
Учебно- методическое пособие
по английскому языку
для студентов 3 курса отделения
«Экономика и бухучёт (по отраслям)
Рассмотрено на заседании ПЦК
общих гуманитарных и
Председатель ПЦК - И.А. Кондалова
Разработал преподаватель - И.С. Агафонова
Что изучает экономическая наука. Экономика края
Банки и бизнес
Цены. Цены в крае.
Приложение (экономические термины)
Данное учебное пособие предназначено для студентов третьего курса отделения «Экономика и бухучёт (по отраслям)» Оно представляет собой пособие по профессионально-ориентированному английскому (English for Specific Purposes) для данной специальности.
Пособие состоит из девяти специальных текстов, различных видов упражнений, нацеленных на развитие всех речевых умений в рамках коммуникативной компетенции. Все тексты для чтения и лексические упражнения основаны на современных аутентичных британских или американских материалах по соответствующей тематике.
В заключение, на основе представленных в пособии текстов составлен англо-русский словарь экономических терминов, поясняющий все термины, которые могут быть непонятны студентам.
Text 1. What is economics?
Economics, social science concerned with the production, distribution, exchange, and consumption of goods and services. Economists focus on the way in which individuals, groups, business enterprises, and governments seek to achieve efficiently any economic objective they select. Other fields of study also contribute to this knowledge: Psychology and ethics try to explain how objectives are formed; history records changes in human objectives; sociology interprets human behavior in social contexts.
Standard economics can be divided into two major fields. The first, price theory or microeconomics, explains how the interplay of supply and demand in competitive markets creates a multitude of individual prices, wage rates, profit ;line-height: 100%; widows: 0; orphans: 0"> The second field, macroeconomics, deals with modern explanations of national income and employment. Macroeconomics dates from the book, The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money (1935), by the British economist John Maynard Keynes. His explanation of prosperity and depression centers on the total or aggregate demand for goods and services by consumers, business investors, and governments. Because, according to Keynes, inadequate aggregate demand increases unemployment, the indicated cure is either more investment by businesses or more spending and consequently larger budget deficits by government.
to be concerned with - заниматься изучением чего-то
exchange - обмен
consumption - потребление
goods and services - товары и услуги
business enterprises - деловое предприятие
objective - цель
psychology [sai`kli] - психология
sociology - [ sousi`li] - социология
behavior - [ bi`heivj] - поведение
microeconomics - [maikroui:k`nmiks] - микроэкономика
interplay - взаимодействие
supply and demand - спрос и предложение
a competitive market - рынок конкурирующих продавцов
wage rates - ставки заработной платы
profit ;line-height: 100%; widows: 0; orphans: 0"> rental changes - изменения арендной платы
consumer - потребитель
income - доход
entrepreneur - фр. [antrpr`n:(r)] - предприниматель
to deal with - заниматься чем-либо
employment - занятость
to increase - увеличивать
interest - процент
John Maynard Keynes - Джон Мейнард Кейнс
II. Exercises on the Text:
social science; distribution of goods and services; to try to explain; sociology interprets human behavior; to create a multitude of individual prices; to spend their income; as much pleasure as possible; they maximize utility; for their part; to deal with modern explanation; prosperity and depression; demand for goods and services; business investors; according to Keynes; larger budget deficits.
What is economics?
On what problems do economists focus their attention?
What do psychology and ethics try to explain?
What does sociology interpret in social contexts?
Into what fields can be standard economics divided?
What does microeconomics explain?
How do consumers try to spend their income?
Do they maximize utility?
What questions does the second field study?
Who is the author of the book «The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money»?
How does he explain prosperity and depression?
the corporations of the nation.
the activities of the people.
the desires of consumers.
the image of a product.
the reputation of a seller.
the work of a day.
the economy of a country.
the problems of the economists.
the play of the government.
the works of Keynes.
the dollar of a consumer.
Example: high -higher - the highest;
professional - more professional - the most professional.
efficient, rational, modern, total, large, rich, poor, little, good, traditional, important.
1. There are, however, no «pure» market economies in the world today.
2. Economists note that there is no limit to the amount or kinds of things that people want.
3. There is, however, a limit to the resources.
4. In addition to buyers and sellers, there are several other essential elements in a market economy.
5. There are many buyers and sellers so that no individual or group can control prices.
6. There are two ways to earn income: from your work and from the use of your wealth.
8. Chose the right word to the words given in the first column:
a lot of
Economists have two ways of looking at economics and economy.
Macroeconomics is the study of the economy as a whole, microeconomics is the study of individual consumers and the business firm.
Each factor of production has a place in our economic system, and each has a particular function.
Price stability refers to times during which prices remain constant.
A budget is a financial plan that summarizes income and expenditures over a period of time.
Saving is one of the most important things that people do with their incomes.
Economic forces also affect decisions in the world of business.
The United States government also employs economists to study economic problems and to suggest ways to solve them.
Consumers are people who use goods and services to satisfy their wants.
Efficiency is a measure of how much we get for what we use.
Demand is a consumer’s willingness and ability to buy a product or service at a particular time and place.
A.: Our math professor talks to himself, does yours?
B.: Yes, but he doesn’t realize it. He thinks we’re listening.
Text 2. Marketing
Marketing, activities involved in getting goods from the producer to the consumer. The producer is responsible for the design and manufacture of goods. Early marketing techniques followed production and were responsible only for moving goods from the manufacturer to the point of final sale. Now, however, marketing is much more pervasive. In large corporations the marketing functions precede the manufacture of a product. They involve market research and product development, design, and testing.
Marketing concentrates primarily on the buyers, or consumers, determining their needs and desires, educating them with regard to the availability of products and to important product features, developing strategies to persuade them to buy, and, finally, enhancing their satisfaction with a purchase. Marketing management includes planning, organizing, directing, and controlling decision making regarding product lines, pricing, promotion, and servicing. In most of these areas marketing has complete control; in others, as in product-line development, its function is primarily advisory. In addition, the marketing department of a business firm is responsible for the physical distribution of the products, determining the channels of distribution that will be used and supervising the profitable flow of goods from the factory or warehouse.
to involve - вовлекать
producer - производитель
to be responsible for - быть ответственным за
consumer - потребитель
manufacturer - производитель, изготовитель
pervasive - обширный
to determine - определять
needs and desires - нужды и желания
with regard to - относительно, что касается
to persuade - убеждать
purchase - покупка
product line - ассортимент изделий
promotion - стимулирование, продвижение товара
in addition - в дополнение
to supervise - наблюдать за чем-либо
warehouse - товарный склад, оптовый магазин
II. Exercises on the Text:
Activities involved in getting goods; is responsible for the design; early marketing techniques; to the point of final stage; is much more pervasive; in large corporations; precede the manufacture of a product; testing; with regard to the availability of product; enhancing their satisfaction with a purchase; marketing management; regarding product lines; promotion; its function is primarily advisory; the marketing department; physical distribution; the profitable flow of goods.
1. is, marketing, what?
2. the producer, is, for what, responsible?
3. early marketing technique, did, what, follow?
4. the manufacture of a profit, where, precede, the marketing functions, do?
5. they, what, do, involve?
6. does, on, what, concentrate, marketing?
7. what, marketing management, does, include?
8. marketing, complete control, has, when?
9. the marketing department of a business firm, responsible for the physical distribution of the products, is?
III. Grammar Exercises
to involve, to be, to precede, to concentrate, to buy, to get, to make, to have, to select, to contribute, to try, to assume, to spend, to give, to increase.
1. Aristotle and Plato in ancient Greece (to write) about problems of wealth, property, and trade.
2. The Romans (to borrow) their economic ideas from the Greeks and (to show) the same contempt for trade.
3. In ancient and medieval times dire scarcity of resources (to be) common and (to affect) the lives of most human beings.
4. In England, Parliament (to pass) a Statute of Monopolies (1624).
5. The Second development (to be) the expansion of production that (to follow) the Industrial Revolution.
6. Cartels (to originate) in Germany during the 1870s.
7. As business (to become) more competitive, new and more complex corporate combinations (to come) on the scene.
1. During World War II the government of Germany utilized domestic cartels to produce armaments.
2. It is the planners who decide what goods and services will be produced.
3. It is the planners, too, with guidance from the country’s political leadership, who decide who will receive the goods and services produced.
4. It was at this time (1936) that Keynes’ work was published.
5. Indeed, it is from the early 1970s, when détente began to take shape.
11, 12, 13, 15, 17, 20, 30, 40.
300 (dollar); 400 (pound); 10,000 (rouble); 500,000 (woman); 2,000,000 (man); 6,700 (child); 1,000 (computer).
March 8, 1991; June 22, 1941; May 9, 1945; April 12,1961; January 1, 2000.
A: Did the play have a happy ending?
B: Yes, everybody was happy when it ended.
A: A telegram from George, dear.
B: Well, did he pass the examination this time?
A: No, but he is almost at the top of the list of those who failed.
Text 3. Management
technique - [tek`ni:k] - техника (исполнения)
an organization chart - организационная схема
to designate [`dezineit] - определять
executives [i`zekjutivz] - директора
execution [eksi`kju:n] - выполнение
foreperson - мастер
department head - начальник (цеха)
with respect to - что касается
supply - поставка, снабжение
accounting - учет
supervision - наблюдение
guidance [`aidns] - руководство
records and reports - учетные документы и отчеты
wage incentive program - программа финансово-материального стимулирования
Industrial Management, in business, term used to describe the techniques and expertise of efficient organization, planning, direction, and control of the operations of a business.
In the theory of industrial management, organization has two principal aspects. One relates to the establishment of so-called lines of responsibility, drawn usually in the form of an organization chart that designates the executives of the business, from the president to the foreperson or department head, and specifies the functions for which they are responsible. The other principal aspect relates to the development of a staff of qualified executives.
Planning in industrial management has three principal aspects. One is the establishment of broad basic policies with respect to production; sales; the purchase of equipment, materials, and supplies; and accounting. The second aspect relates to the implementation of these policies by departments. The third relates to the establishment of standards of work in all departments. Direction is concerned primarily with supervision and guidance by the executive in authority; in this connection a distinction is generally made between top management, which is essentially administrative in nature, and operative management, which is concerned with the direct execution of policy. Control involves the use of records and reports to compare performance with the established standards for work.
Industrial management as just defined dates from the latter part of the 19th century. A notable impetus to its evolution was provided by the American engineer Frederick Taylor, who developed techniques for analyzing the operations involved in production and for setting standards for a day’s work. The techniques originally devised by Taylor were adopted by industrialists to other phases of business, including the employment of qualified workers, and wage incentive programs either to replace or to supplement the piecework system that had previously prevailed. Industrial management experts who succeeded Taylor have applied his techniques to a wider range of business problems. Among the leading successors are the Austrian-American management consultant and educator Peter Drucker and the American economist, writer, and diplomat John Kenneth Galbraith.
II. Exercises on the Text:
термин, используемый для описания; два главных аспекта; так называемый; которые определяют директоров предприятия; штат квалифицированных исполнителей; установление политики; закупка оборудования; уровни работы во всех отделах; в этой связи; высшее руководство; действующее руководство; управление; использование учетных документов и отчетов; заметный толчок; техника для анализа действий; была применена промышленниками; программы финансово-материального стимулирования; система сдельного труда; среди ведущих преемников; педагог.
Organization has two principal aspects.
One relates to the establishment of so-called lines of responsibility.
An organization chart designates the executives of the business.
Yes, it does.
The third aspect relates to the establishment of standards of work in all departments.
Yes, it is.
A distinction is made between top management and operative management.
Control involves the use of records and reports.
The American engineer Frederick Taylor.
It was adopted to the employment of qualified workers, and wage incentive programs.
Characteristics of Economic Markets
Numbers of Firms
Many independent firms. None able to control the market.
Many firms providing similar goods and services.
A few large firms providing similar goods and services.
A single large firm.
Control Over Price
None. Market determines price.
Influence limited by the availability of substitutes.
Often influenced by «price leader».
None. Products uniform and equal quality.
Products and services differentiated to meet the needs of specific markets.
Significant for some products like automobiles. Little for standardized products like gasoline.
Ease of Entry
Relatively easy to enter or leave the market
Relatively easy to enter or leave the market
Difficult. Often requires large capital investment.
III. Grammar Exercises
to go, to increase, to begin, to buy, to sell, to make, to play, to write, to bring, to specialize, to operate, to understand, to expand.
1. Every society (to face) with the identical problem, the problem of scarcity.
2. The need to chose (to impose) on us all by our income, wealth and ability to borrow.
3. Individuals and families (to limit) by the size of their personal income, savings and ability to borrow.
4. In a free market economy, prices (to determine) by the interaction of the forces of supply and demand.
5. When two goods satisfy similar needs, they (to describe) as substitutes.
1. Profits, savings and borrowing power limit business firms.
2. Frederick Taylor provided a notable impetus to industrial management.
3. Keynes wrote many books.
4. The competitive system will determine business ethics.
5. Great complexity of organization and administration characterize the operation of large business firms.
6. Two or more persons own a business organization.
7. Sir Joseph Binks gives Tom a small cheque.
8. They gave Uncle Tom a cheque and a railway carriage.
1. Salaries refer to earnings paid on a weekly or monthly basis.
2. The term «wage» typically refers to the earnings of workers paid by the hour or unit of production.
3. Used in certain ways, wealth can earn income.
4. Natural resources are the things provided by nature that go into the creation of goods and services.
5. Nearly 90 percent of goods and services produced in the U.S. each year come from privately owned firms.
6. Shares are traded in organized markets such as the New York Stock Exchange.
1. The more you know about the subject, the better career decisions you will be able to make.
2. For their part, entrepreneurs seek as much profit as they can extract from their operations.
3. As a rule, the more scarce something is the higher its price will be, and the fewer people will want to buy it.
4. The higher the price, the greater the incentive to produce and sell the product.
-al: economic, nation, production, education, profession.
-able: to change, to exchange, to read, fashion, mistake.
economical, political, different, rapid, definite, historical, complete, formal, practical, particular.
Text 4. Banks and business.
Banks and business.
Banks are different in different countries. Let’s speak about the banks in the United States of America. There, commercial banks are classified into two main groups. First, there are national banks. They are charted are supervised by the Federal Government. Secondly, there are state banks. They are charted and supervised by the state in which they are operated. All commercial banks can make loans to borrowers.
Major commercial banks in such cities as Tokyo, Paris, Rio cooperate with each other. In this way they finance imports and exports between countries.
An importer buys merchandise from another country using the currency of that country. For that purpose he buys this currency from the foreign exchange department of his bank. And in the same way if an exporter receives foreign money from sales to other countries, he sells this currency to his bank. By this method the currency of any country can usually be exchanged.
commercial bank коммерческий банк
national bank национальный банк
to charter учреждать, создавать
to supervise заведовать, контролировать
state bank государственный банк
currency валюта, деньги
foreign exchange department отдел обмена валюты
to exchange currency обменивать валюту
1. What do all commercial banks do?
2. What kinds of commercial banks in the USA do you know? What are they called?
3. Who supervises the operations of national banks?
4. What kind of currency does an importer generally use when he buys goods from another country?
5. What do you know about the “international exchange”?
6. What is the currency of this country called?
7. What is the exchange rate between your currency and the currency of the USA and Germany? How can you find it out if you don’t know it?
Choose the necessary word and put it in the sentence.
1. Federal government … and … all national banks. | 1. merchandise 2. currency
2. International cooperation between banks makes it possible … imports and exports. | 3. commercial
3. It is possible to convert American dollars to Swiss francs in … department. | 4. foreign exchange
4. The … of Germany is the mark. | 5. to finance
5. All … banks make loans to borrowers. | 6. to supervise
6. If the importer buys … from another country he will pay for it in the currency of this country. | 7. to charter
banking банковское дело
to make a career in smth. сделать карьеру в чем-либо
bank services банковские услуги
checking account чековый счет
savings account сберегательный счет с установленным процентом
safety deposit box сейф для депозитов, предоставляемый частным лицам в банке
to make a loan to smb. давать заем кому-либо
to be eligible for a loan подходящий для займа (т.е. признаваемый платежеспособным)
long-term loan долгосрочный заем
short-term loan краткосрочный заем
prime-rate наименьший процент со ссуды, установленный в определенное время и в определенном месте
preferred customer привилегированный клиент
to be available наличный, имеющийся в распоряжении
line of credit кредитный лимит
to borrow занимать
letter of credit кредитное письмо, аккредитив
credit reference letter рекомендательное кредитное письмо
Exercise 3. Answer the questions.
1. Is there a difference between banking systems in the USSR and western countries? What is the difference?
2. What bank services are you familiar with?
3. Do the banks in this country have safety deposit boxes?
4. Whom do the banks make loans to in this country?
5. What kind of loan would you prefer, long-term loan or short-term loan?
6. What prime-rates are available in this country?
7. What does the line of credit of the enterprise depend on?
8. What is a credit letter written for?
9. What can one do with credit reference letter?
Exercise 4. Translate into English.
1. Государство учреждает коммерческие банки.
2. Если ты хочешь купить товары за границей, ты должен поменять деньги в отделе обмена валюты.
3. Я бы хотел сделать карьеру в банковском деле.
4. Все банки устанавливают проценты на ссуду.
5. Наш банк намерен предоставить краткосрочную ссуду этому предприятию.
6. Наименьший процент со ссуды предоставляется привилегированным клиентам.
7. Банки могут выпускать аккредитивы и рекомендательные письма.
8. Я намерен занять крупную сумму денег.
9. Банк считает, что это предприятие платежеспособно и ему можно предоставить заем.
Text 5. Function of money.
The Functions of Money
1. A medium of exchange.
The use of money as a medium of exchange makes possible a great extenuation of the principle of specialization. In an advanced society the use of money allows us to exchange hours of labour for an amazing variety of goods and services. We can exchange, for example, two weeks" labour for a holiday abroad just as easily as we can exchange it for a piece of furniture or a year´s rent on a television set. Such exchanges are taken for granted yet they would be inconvenient without the use of money.
2. A measure of value.
The first step in the use of money was probably the adoption of some commodity as a unit of account or measure of value. Money, most likely, came into use within the barter system as a means whereby the values of different goods could be compared. The direct exchange of goods for goods would raise all sorts of problems regarding valuation. The problem of exchange rates is easily solved when all other commodities are valued in terms of a single commodity which then acts as a standard of value.
Money now serves as such a standard and when all economic goods are given money values (i.e. prices), we know, immediately, the value of one commodity in terms of any other commodity.
extenuation- ослабление, истощение
advanced society- продвинутое общество
measure of value- мера цены
commodity- предмет потребления
II. Письменно ответьте на вопросы:
1. What are the main functions of money?
2. When did money come to use?
3. When can money be served as a standard of value?
III. Поставьте вопросы к выделенным словам:
1. The use of money makes possible a great extension of the principle of specialization.
2. The use of money allows us to exchange hours of labour for an amazing variety of goods and services.
Использование денег позволяет нам обменивать рабочее время на
3. The problem of exchange rates is easily solved when all other commodities are valued in terms of a single commodity.
4. It is a great convenience to hold wealth in the form of money.
IV. Переведите предложения письменно на русский язык, подчеркните модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты:
1. All invoices must be paid not later than 30 days from the date of issue.
2. We needn´t finish this meeting before 12 o´clock.
3. Changes in the quality of money may or may not have an influence on prices.
4. They sent the goods two weeks ago: so, they could have arrived by now.
5. These figures can´t be right. There must be a mistake somewhere.
V. Переведите предложения на английский язык, используя Present, Past, Future Continuous Tenses:
1. Что вы делали в это время в прошлом месяце?
2. Она будет работать над своим отчетом завтра в 10.
3. В настоящий момент распродажи не увеличиваются.
4. Они работали с менеджером, когда зазвонил телефон.
5. Он пойдет завтра в Университет в 11.
6. Завтра приезжает директор компании.
VI. Перепишите предложения, укажите Participle I, Participle II, переведите предложения:
1. The information obtained is very valuable.
2. The house restored by the Johnson is quite unusual.
3. The quantity of labour derived from a given stock of population depends upon several factors.
4. In advanced capitalist societies, advertising is a powerful instrument affecting demand in many markets.
5. The persons forming a company are required to submit several documents to the Registrar of Companies.
6. Industries producing steel, paper and chemicals require very large quantities of water and tend to be found near rivers.
VII. Выпишите из текста предложения, содержащие страдательный залог, укажите время.
Text 6. Credit
Credit is borrowed money that you can use to purchase things you need when you need them and then repay the funds back at an agreed on time. Services can also be paid for this way, such as cable and telephone services. For example, if you use telephone or cable services for a month or two and then pay for them at the end of that period, you are receiving services on credit. Common types include mortgages or home loans as well as personal loans or lines of credit.
A personal line of credit allows you to have money available when you need it. This often has a low interest rate, and the borrower can choose to use the entire limit at once or use it in smaller increments. This can be perfect for meeting ongoing money needs such as renovating your home. A personal line of credit for an approved amount means that you do not have to keep going back to the back for approval for each small amount you want to borrow.
borrowed money- деньги взаймы
funds- запас, источник
mortgages- заклад, ипотека
personal line of credit- личный кредит
increments- разрастание, увеличение
Answer the questions
What is credit?
What services can be paid by credit?
What has low interest rate?
What does a personal line of credit mean?
Make plural of singular and translate
Credit, loan, mortgage, borrower, type, period, fund, amount, telephone, service, month
Text 7 Trade
Trade is the buying and selling of goods and services. The products that are exchanged are things that people grow or make, like food to eat, machines to work with or clothes to wear. Services are things that people do for others, like working in bank, caring for old people or teaching pupils.
Why do we trade?
Trade happens because people need or want things that they don't have. We also trade for work that we cannot do ourselves. Trade between countries happens for the same reason. Some countries, for example, have natural resources, like coal, oil or wood which other countries might want to buy. They try to sell the goods, products or services that they have too much of to other countries. They earn money from these sales and then can buy the things that they themselves need and cannot produce on their own.
Both producers and consumers profit from international trade. If countries can produce goods more cheaply than others because they specialize on them why not let them. They make more money on one side and consumers in other countries can buy goods that are cheaper.
Even though many nations have a lot of different goods to export there are countries that depend only on one or two products to get money. Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and other countries of the Middle East depend on oil exports, because it is pretty much the only thing that they can sell. Poor countries in Africa depend largely on the export of tropical farm products to get money.
Each year goods and services worth about 11 trillion dollars ($ 11 000 000 000 000) are traded all over the world. The biggest exporting nations are The United States, France, Germany, the United Kingdom, Canada and Japan.
The difference between what a country exports and what it imports is called the balance of trade. If a country exports more than it imports we call this a trade surplus. And if a country pays more for its imports than it gets for its exports it has a trade deficit.
trade surplus- активный торговый баланс
Answer the questions
What is trade?
Why is there a trade between countries?
What do we sell?
What are the biggest exporting nations?
What is the balance of trade?
What is the trade surplus?
Make three degrees of adjectives. Translate them
Simple, difficult, easy, tall, small, big, convenient, narrow, wide, comfortable, little, bad, good, far
PRICES AND MARKETS
1. Прочтите и выучите следующие слова и выражения.
, transaction- сделка,
foodstuff's- пищевые продукты,
the basic determinants of price-базовое определение цены,
subjective value- субъективная ценность,
the economic worth of value-экономически обоснованная цена,
under market conditions-под действием рыночных условий.
2. К каждому термину из левой колонки подберите русский перевод. Запишите получившиеся пары и выучите слова и выражения.
заключать в себе, значить; подразумевать
забота; интерес; дело; отношение; касательство
3. Внимательно прочитайте текст № 1, переведите его устно.
Price and Value
. Price is not the same thing as value. Things are 'valuable' because people think they are, and for no other reason. The 'value' which an individual places on a commodity can not be measured; its value will be different for different people. This kind of subjective value is not the concern of the economist who is interested only in 'value in exchange'. The economic worth of value of a good can only be measured in some kind of market transaction which reveals the value of the good in terms of what is offered in exchange for it. If 5 Ib of potatoes will exchange for 5 Ib of sugar, then the 'price' of 1 Ib of sugar is 5 Ib of potatoes. Nowadays practically all exchanges represent an exchange of goods and services for money, and prices in terms of money are the market value of the things they buy.
Prices arise in exchange transactions and this implies some kind of market. This need not, necessarily, be a fixed location - a building, or a market place. We are all familiar with the open and covered markets in the centres of our towns, but in the modem world the word 'market' has a much wider meaning. Any effective arrangement for bringing buyers and sellers into contact with one another is defined as a market. The small ad. columns of the local newspaper provide a very efficient market for second-hand cars. Face to face contact between buyers and sellers is not a requirement for a market to be able to operate efficiently. In the foreign exchange market, buyers and sellers are separated by thousands of miles, but the knowledge of what is happening in the market is just as complete, and the ease of dealing is just as effective as if the participants were in the same room.
For some commodities, notably fresh fruit and vegetables, the traditional market is still the normal arrangement, but for most goods the market is a national one. Most consumer goods, in developed countries, are bought, and sold on a countrywide basis. For other commodities the market is world-wide. This is particularly true of the more important primary products such as rubber, tin, copper, and oil, and of the basic foodstuff's such as meat, wheat, sugar, tea, and coffee. Most of the products of advanced technology also have world markets, for example, computers, aeroplanes, ships, and motor cars.
The price of any economic good, under market conditions such as we find in the capitalist world, is determined by the forces of supply acting through the sellers and the forces of demand acting through the buyers, determine the market price.
4. Найдите в тексте слова из задания № 2. Выпишите предложения с ними и переведите их письменно на русский язык.
5. Запишите предложения, заполнив пропуски данными словами. Подчеркните вставленные слова и переведите предложения письменно на русский язык.
Supply, transaction, determinants, concern, arise, advanced, value, meaning, markets, conditions, worth, demand.
1. In this chapter we discuss the basic ______of price.
2. Price is not the same thing as _____.
3. This kind of subjective value is not the _______ of the economist.
4. The economic _____ of value of a good can only be measured in some kind of market ______.
5. Prices _____ in exchange transactions.
6. In the modem world the word 'market' has a much wider _____.
7. Most of the products of _______ technologies also have world _______.
8. The price of any economic good under market _______ is determined by the forces of _____ and ________.
6. Выберите из слов, данных ниже, антонимы и запишите их парами.
same, different, knowledge, false, foreign, Ignorance, narrow, true, domestic, second-hand, new - wide
Money doesn’t buy happiness but it helps.
Money has become one of the main things in our modern life. Some people live their lives to earn money. They work hard, trying to earn as much money as they can. Some of them become crazy about it and lose their dignity hunting money. They don’t appreciate such important things as family, friendship, love and other feelings. Such people become greedy, they spend their lives in loneliness.
I don’t deny that money influences our life a lot. As W.S. Maugham said “ Money is like the sixth feeling without which you cannot make a complete use of the other five.” I quite agree. A person can’t be happy if he has no money to satisfy his natural needs. But I think that money should have a limit. A person shouldn’t have too much money. It begins destroying him and becomes his curse.
It is said in the Bible that “The love of money is the root of all evil.” Yes, big sums of money really bring different problems because people feel very envious and jealous of other’s fortune. The majority of all the crimes are made because of money.
I’m among the people who consider that money is not all-powerful. Humanity, dignity, intelligence, kindness and other good qualities of a person can’t be bought for money. We’ll never be able to buy pure love, real friendship and loving and caring family. But life isn’t worth living without these things. It’s not worth living if money has become the point of it either.
Answer the questions
How do many people live?
What did Maugham say about money?
When does money begin to destroy people?
What are made because of money?
Is money necessary things? Why?
Перевод с английского языка
разг. пятерка (банкнота достоинством 5 фунтов)
разг. десятка (банкнота достоинством 10 фунтов)
разг. фунт стерлингов
разг. сотня фунтов
разг. 1000 фунтов
мелочь, разменная монета
медяки, медные монеты достоинством 1 и 2 пенса
разг. дебитовая (кредитная) карта
Если у кого много денег, говорят так:
У нее куча денег
He's stinking rich
Он купается в деньгах
Если же человек испытывает недостаток в денежных средствах, в Англии можно услышать следующее:
Перевод с английского языка
шутл. разг. У меня нет ни гроша
I can't afford it!
Я не могу себе этого позволить
They get paid peanuts!
Им платят гроши!
He lost his job
Он потерял работу
to go on the dole
получать пособие по безработице
They don't have two pennies to rub together
Они не могут свести концы с концами
Inert necessary modal verb
. Complete the following sentences using the most appropriate forms of the verbs.
1. Jack has got a headache. He … sleep well recently.
b) couldn’t have
c) hasn’t been able to
2. I … sleep for hours when I was a little girls.
b) am able to
3. Tom … play tennis well but he … play a game yesterday because he was ill.
a) couldn’t, could
b) can, was able
c) can, couldn’t
4. I didn’t want to be late for the meeting. We … meet at 5 sharp.
a) were to
b) had to
5. Where are my gloves? — I … put them on because it’s cold today.
b) have to
6. You … take an umbrella today. The Sun is shining.
7. I’m sorry, you didn’t invite me to your birthday party. You … invite me next time.
c) need to
8. Well, it’s 10 o’clock. I … go now.
b) has to
9. You … smoke so much.
10. We have got plenty of time. We … hurry.
Подробнее на сайте: http://study-english.info/exercises-modal.php#ixzz33SZC1qQA
В пособии представлены специализированные тексты для студентов 3 курса специальности «Экономика и бух учёт (по отраслям)». Тексты сопровождаются введением новой лексики и различными видами упражнений. Главная цель пособия - развить у учащихся навыки перевода профессиональных текстов, извлечения и обработки информации, правильного построения предложений на английском языке.
Пособие можно использовать для аудиторных и внеаудиторных занятий по английскому языку.
Аванесян Ж.Г. «Английский для экономистов», М. 2009
Шевчук Д. «Английский для экономистов» М., 2009
Малюга Е.Н. «Английский для экономистов» СПб, 2010
bill of credit
вкладчик, депозитор, депонент
unified tax on imputed income (UTII)
единый налог на вмененный доход
deficiency/ scarcity / shortage
Доходы физических лиц
historical [original] cost of capital assets [fixed assets]
Первоначальная стоимость основных средств
VAT to be paid to supplier
НДС к уплате поставщику
аренда, пользование на правах аренды
bank transfer/ bank remittance
bail / pawn
joint venture zone
зона совместного предпринимательства
market-rate/ stock prices
collection of payment
И еще несколько полезных терминов…
клиринг, безналичные расчеты между банками
commercial classified information
tax statement / tax return
неустойка, штраф, конфискация
bill of lading
коносамент, транспортная накладная
circulating capital/ floating capital / trading capital
контрольный пакет акций
control packet of shares/ majority ownership
контрольный пакет акций
пеня, штраф, наказание
market opportunities / sales opportunities
котировка, курс, расценка
payment by installments
рассрочка, рассрочка платежа
creditor / debtee
raw material market
секвестр, наложение ареста, конфискация
gamble / speculation
спекуляция, сделка, биржевая игра
commercial credit company
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