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Методическое пособие для студентов строительных специальностей

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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И МОЛОДЕЖНОЙ ПОЛИТИКИ

ЧУВАШСКОЙ РЕСПУБЛИКИ

ГАПОУ «Чебоксарский техникум ТрансСтройТех» Минобразования Чувашии

 

 

 

 

English for Construction

Учебное пособие для студентов

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Чебоксары

2018


Михайлова К.В. Учебное пособие для студентов 2 курса очной формы обучения направления подготовки 08.02.01 «Строительство и эксплуатация зданий и сооружений». – Чебоксары: ГАПОУ Чебоксарскаий техникум «ТрансСтройТех» Минобразования Чувашии, 2018. –54 с.

Учебное пособие предназначено для студентов очной формы обучения профессиональных техникумов и колледжей. Основная цель учебного пособия – развитие и совершенствование навыков устной коммуникации и письменной речи в рамках предложенной тематики. Содержит обширный аутентичный текстовый материал, ориентированный на освоение тематической лексики. Предлагается система упражнений, позволяющих обеспечить одновременное овладение навыками восприятия, воспроизведения и продуцирования изучаемого материала в речи. Способствует развитию у студентов коммуникативной способности в сфере профессиональной деятельности.


ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ

ВВЕДЕНИЕ……………………………………………...……………………………………..4

ОСНОВНАЯ ЧАСТЬ

Unit 1. FROM THE HISTORY OF BUILDING………………………………………….….…..6

Unit 2. JOBS IN CONSTRUCTION……………………………………………………….……11

Unit 3. EQUIPMENT AND INSTRUMENTS…………………………………………….…….17

Unit 4. BUILDING MATERIALS…………………………………………………………...….25

Unit 5. PROPERTY OF MATERIALS……………………………………………………….....30

Unit 6. TYPES OF BUILDINGS……………………………................................................…..34

Unit 7. PARTS OF A BUILDING…………………………................................................…….40

Unit 8. CONSTRACTION……………………………………………………………..………..46

ЗАКЛЮЧЕНИЕ……………………………………………………………………………….53

СПИСОК ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ…………………………………………………………..………….54


ВВЕДЕНИЕ

Данное учебное пособие представляет собой практикум для развития навыков профессионально ориентированного речевого общения и предназначено для студентов 2 курса  обучающихся по направлению 08.02.01 «Строительство и эксплуатация зданий и сооружений». Предлагаемый курс построен по тематическому принципу, включает 8 разделов (FROM THE HISTORY OF BUILDING, JOBS IN CONSTRUCTION, QUIPMENT AND INSTRUMENTS, BUILDING MATERIALS, PROPERTY OF MATERIALS, TYPES OF BUILDINGS, PARTS OF A BUILDING, CONSTRACTION) и призван развивать у студентов профессионально-ориентированную грамматическую и коммуникативную компетенцию, обеспечить совершенствование навыков правильного грамматического оформления речи.

В данном пособии отражен коммуникативный подход в обучении. Для успешного овладения иностранным языком обучаемые должны знать не только языковые формы (т.е. грамматику, лексику и произношение), но также иметь представление о том, как их использовать для целей реальной коммуникации. Представленный учебный материал знакомит обучаемых с функциональным аспектом изучаемого языка и предлагает соответствующую систему упражнений. В данном пособии показаны основные приемы коммуникативно - ориентированного подхода к обучению иностранного языка. Каждый раздел (Unit) включает в себя тексты для ознакомительного, изучающего и просмотрового чтения, которые содержат актуальную информацию из аутентичных источников, а также упражнения на закрепление грамматического материала каждого раздела. Тексты сопровождаются подробным словарем, а также значительным количеством иллюстраций, что привлекает внимание студентов и облегчает понимание представленного им материала. Тематика текстов охватывает основные строительные понятия, историю предмета и развития строительного дела, современные строительные технологии, а также проблемы маркетинга и менеджмента в строительстве.

Целью учебного пособия является развитие и совершенствование умений и навыков устной речи в деловой и общепрофессиональной коммуникации, формирование профессионально ориентированной лингвистической компетентности студентов.

Формальные аспекты языка: грамматика, лексика и фонетика представлены в коммуникативном контексте так, что обучаемым сразу становится понятно их использование в речи. Кроме того, обучающимся предлагаются приближенные к реальной жизни задания, в ходе выполнения которых систематически развиваются иноязычные речевые умения. Такой поход предполагает создание на занятиях атмосферы доверия и сотрудничества, когда обучающиеся вовлечены в процесс обучения.

Учебное пособие может быть использовано как для работы в аудитории, так и для самостоятельной работы. При составлении данного пособия был соблюден общедидактичексий принцип «от простого к сложному», то есть отбор материала по уровню сложности, что позволяет определить последовательность введения нового материала и его количество, а также темп его изучения, также уделено большое внимание повторяемости лексических и грамматических явлений и использован принцип постепенного нарастания трудностей, что позволяет лучше усваивать материал.

Каждое аудиторное занятие рассчитано на 2 часа, примерно столько же требуется на подготовку к нему дома и около одного часа на выполнение письменной работы.

Учебное пособие составлено в соответствии с Государственным образовательным стандартом по иностранным языкам и квалификационными требованиями к содержанию и уровню профессиональной подготовки студентов.

 


Unit 1. FROM THE HISTORY OF BUILDING

1.                   Listen and repeat after the teacher.


art of building - искусство строить

building-здание, строение, сооружение

build (built, built) – строить

to be constructed – сооружаться

industrial – промышленный

look for-искать

brick -  кирпич

borrow (from) - занимать, заимствовать

concrete - бетон

dome - купол

dwell - жить, проживать

embody - олицетворять, воплощать

erect - возводить, строить

find (out) - обнаружить, найти

kiln - обжиговая печь, сушильная печь

pile - свая, столб

pillar - столб, колонна

remains - остатки, руины

tribe – племя

mud – грязь


 

2.                  Translate into Russian.

1)  Most of  the  modern  man  is  spent  within  the  walls  of some building.

2) Houses   are   built   for   dwelling, large   buildings   are constructed for  industrial  purposes,  theatres  and  museums  are built for cultural activities of the people.

3) Protection was looked for everywhere.

4) Such decorated caves are found in Europe, Asia and Africa.

5) When man began (begin-начинать) to build  a  home  for himself,   caves   were imitated   (imitate-представлять) in   stone structures, trees were taken (take-брать) as a model for huts built of  branches;  skins  were  raised (raise-поднимать)  on  poles  and formed tents.

6) Castles (замки) were built to stand up (противостоять)  to enemy attract and to be strong bases in war time.

7) In Rome bricks were used (use-использовать) for building, and houses  were  often  finished  (finish-отделывать) with  plaster over bricks

 

3.                   Read and translate the text.

Many thousands of years ago there were no houses such as people live in today. In hot countries people sometimes made their homes in the trees and used leaves to protect themselves from rain or sun. In colder countries they dwelt in caves. Later people left their caves and trees and began to build houses out of different materials such as mud, wood or stones.

Later people found out that bricks made of mud and dried in the hot sunshine became almost as hard as stones. In ancient Egypt especially, people learned to use these sun-dried mud bricks. Some of their buildings are still standing after several thousands of years.

The ancient Egyptians discovered how to cut stone for building purposes. They erected temples, palaces and huge tombs. The greatest tomb is the stone pyramid of Khufu, king of Egypt. The ancient Egyptians often erected their huge constructions to commemorate their kings or pharaohs.

The ancient Greeks also understood the art of building with cut stone, and their buildings were beautiful as well as useful. They often used pillars, partly for supporting the roofs and partly for decoration. Parts of these ancient buildings can still be seen today in Greece.

Whereas the ancient Greeks tried to embody the idea of harmony and pure beauty in their buildings, the Roman architecture produces the impression of greatness, might, and practicalness. The Romans were great bridge, harbour and road builders. In road works the Romans widely used timber piles. They also erected aqueducts, reservoirs, water tanks, etc. Some of their constructions are still used till now. It is known that the manufacture of lime is one of the oldest industries used by man. Lime is a basic building material used all over the world as today so in the ancient world. One of the Romans Marcus Porcius Cato, gave an idea of a kiln for lime, production: it's shape and dimensions. Such kilns were fired with wood or coal and were extremely inefficient. There are still many remains of kilns in some places of Great Britain as well as roads and the famous Hadrian Wall, which was erected to protect the Romans from the celtic tribes in the first century A.D. Britain was a province of the Roman Empire for about four centuries. There are many things today in Britain to remind the people of the Romans: towns, roads, wells and the words.

By the way, Hadrian, the Roman emperor, was also the one who suggested the absolutely new for that time idea of building the Pantheon with a dome. He constructed it, and alongside with a number of other outstanding buildings such as the Colosseum and the Baths of Caracalla, it is still there in Rome. Many ancient buildings in K-Ome were designed by Hadrian as well as by other Roman emperors. In a period of 800 to 900 years the Romans developed concrete to the position of the main structural material in the empire.

It is surprising, therefore, that after the fall of the Empire, much of the great knowledge should have disappeared so completely. The knowledge of how to make durable concrete has been lost for centuries, but reunion was made of it in the writings of architects from time to time.

Fusion of Roman and North European traditions in construction was reflected in many ways. Buildings combined the Roman arch and the steep peaked roof of Nothern Europe. Roman traditions were continued in the architectural form known as Romanesque. London Bridge, finished in 1209, took thirty-three years to build. It consisted of nineteen irregular pointed arches with its piers resting on broad foundation, which was designed to withstand the Thames current.

The Romanian period was followed by other periods each of which produced its own type of architecture and building materials. During the last hundred years many new methods of building have been discovered. One of the most recent discoveries is the usefulness of steel as a building material.

Nowadays when it is necessary to have a very tall building, the frame of it is first built in steel and then the building is completed in concrete. Concrete is an artificial kind of stone, much cheaper than brick or natural stone and much stronger than they are. The earliest findings of concrete building fragments belonging to prehistoric times were discovered in Mexico and Peru. The Egyptians in the construction of bridges, roads and town walls employed it. There are evidences that ancient Greeks also used concrete in the building purposes. The use of concrete by the ancient Romans can be traced back as far as 500 B.C. They were the first to use4 it throughout the ancient Roman Empire on a pretty large scale5 and many constructions made of concrete remain till nowadays thus proving the long life of buildings made of concrete. Of course, it was not the concrete people use today. It consisted of mud, clay and pure lime, which were used to hold together the roughly broken stone in foundations and walls. It was the so-called "pseudo concrete". The idea of such building material might have been borrowed from the ancient Greeks as some samples of it were found in the ruins of Pompeii.

 

4.                   Explain in English the meaning of the following words.

sun-dried mud bricks

timber piles

pseudo concrete

the ruins of Pompeii

harmony and pure beauty

5.                   Find in the text equivalent English phrases to the following Russian.

доисторические времена

римский период

бесполезность использования стали

в качестве строительного материала

грубо обтесанный камень

они первыми использовали

недавние открытия

в довольно широких масштабах

6.                  Answer the following questions.

1) Where did primitive people look for protection?

2) What are the earliest types of human dwellings?

3) Why were the houses in town higher than in the country?

4) What were the houses in ancient Egypt built of?

5) How did the light come into early English houses?

 

7.                   Finish the sentences.

1) Houses are built for...

2) The purpose of any building is...

3) Primitive men looked for protection...

4) On the walls of their caves ancient man...

5) When men began to build towns, these grew up...

6) A typical town house consisted of...

7) These castles were built not only as...

8) Some Egyptian houses were built around...

9) Greek houses had...

10) The earliest houses in Britain were...

 

8.                   Translate the extract into Russian.

The term "civil engineering" is usually applied to such activities as the excavation and then the construction of different buildings, bridges, roads, docks, harbours and embankments as well as to the water control by dams and reservoirs, canals and aqueducts, pipelines and the reclamation of land.

 

9.                   What does the international word "reclamation" mean? Explain it in the most detailed way in Russian.

 

10.               Home task. Project 1. In your groups, make a presentation of different constriction traditions in different countries: Ancient Egypt, Ancient Rome, Ancient Greece, Europe.

 

 

 

 

Grammar revision:

 

1. Put questions to the following sentences.

1. There are some radioactive elements in our laboratory. (general)

2. Our engineer wants to take part in this research work. (What)

3. She has got many books on your speciality. (How many)

4. A satellite in orbit remained in space. (Where)

5. Atoms of different kinds can join together in different ways. (How)

 

2. Open the brackets.

1. Scientists (to find) a way how to control the splitting of atoms.

2. Many complicated problems (to solve) with the help of computers now.

3. We (to be able) to examine this apparatus tomorrow.

4. The computational part of the experiment (to complete) before we began our work.

5. While I (to solve) these problems, I paid much attention to the correct computations.
Unit 2. JOBS IN CONSTRUCTION

 

1.                   Discuss in pairs.

-Who is involved in a construction project?

-Who is a tradesperson?

-Who is a subcontractor?

 

2.                   Find the following words in the text, read the sentence and translate it.

trade - профессия

skill – умение customer – заказчик

building contract - подряд на строительство

structural engineer- инженер-строитель

building services engineer- инженер по обслуживанию здания

competitive tender- конкурентные торги

site agent- начальник строительной площадки

 

3.                   Read the text. Make notes of jobs in construction with their short description.

A construction project is not usually a one-person job, but a process taken care of by a project team, which comprises designers, consultants and constructors working on behalf of the client. A building project may begin relatively simply with a client and an architect, but over a few months, depending on the size of the project, many more people become involved. The client is the customer and therefore the most important member of the team. Because the development of a project includes a mix of materials, a team often involves many different trades offering a variety of skills.

Client. The client is the person who commissions the design and the 11 construction. Under standard building contracts, the client is known as the employer and is the one who makes the investment and finances the project. A good relationship between the client and the architect is extremely important and should be based on trust.

Architect. It is the architect’s task to translate the client’s ideas into an acceptable design and produce a building that meets the client’s needs. The architect requires creative skills and a professional understanding of materials, construction techniques and their application on site.

Consultants. The design team may also include the following consultants:

- A structural engineer offers advice on the structural design from the foundations to the roof. The work includes advice, specifications, design and supervision of the works in progress.

- A building services engineer is responsible for the mechanical and electrical aspects of a project. A building services engineer provides advice and drawings, and is sometimes involved in the tendering procedures with specialist firms.

- A landscape architect is involved in the design and supervision of external works. Ground formation, planting and arboreal work provide the finishing touches to every project.

Contractor. The building contractor is the second major party in the project team. The contractor is usually selected by competitive tender and has a contract directly with the client. The contractor turns the architect’s design into reality. Depending on the size of the contractor’s company, a contract manager may be responsible for the management of the work. It is from the contract manager that the site agent receives instructions.

Construction engineers. Construction engineers build structures that are used by  people everyday so they have to be safe and be able to withstand the elements. To complete the job properly construction engineers have to have the knowledge of many different aspects. Those aspects include engineering, technology, design, math, construction, English, customer service, management, transportation, public safety, and computers. They use the engineering, technology, and math aspects to make sure they build the structure to the set standards. They use English, customer service, and management knowledge to deal with the people that could possibly buy the structure. They also use this knowledge to inform the management on how the project is coming along and if any changes are needed.

Most construction engineers have a love for math and science. In addition to these abilities there are many other skills needed to be a construction engineer.  Critical thinking,  listening, learning,  problem solving,  monitoring,  and  decision  making  are  all  very  important  in construction  engineering.  Construction engineers have to be able to think about all aspects of a problem and listen to other’s ideas so that they can learn everything about a project before it begins. After they have begun a project they must solve the problems that they encounter using math and science.  They also have to monitor the workers on the job site for safety and to make sure that the project is on time and done correctly. Whenever a problem occurs it is up to the construction engineer to make the decision on how to fix it.

Site agent. The site agent has control of all construction processes on site. The site agent initiates each particular operation, coordinates it with other trades, ensures that it has a clear run and is supplied with appropriate plant, labour and materials.

Subcontractor. As the name suggests, work is sub-let to subcontractors by the (main) contractor. The contractor retains responsibility for all construction operations and remains liable to the client for any defects in sub-contracted work.

 

4.                   Answer the questions.

1.             What does a construction project mean?

2.             What trades does a project team involve?

3.             Who is the client?

4.             What is the architect’s task?

5.             What consultants does the design team include?

6.             What is the function of the site agent?

7.             What's the difference between a general contractor and a subcontractor?

8.             Why do structures that construction engineers build have to be safe?

9.             What do construction engineers have to have the knowledge of many different aspects for?

10.         What knowledge do construction engineers have to have to make sure they build the structure to the set standards?

11.         What knowledge do they use to deal with the people that could possibly buy the structure?

12.         Who informs the management on how the project is coming along?

13.         How do  construction  engineers  can  learn  everything  about  a project before it begins?

14.         What must construction engineers solve after they have begun a project?

15.         Why do construction engineers have to monitor the workers on the job site?

16.         Does the  management  or  a  construction  engineer  make  the decision on how to fix any problem whenever it occurs?

 

5.                   Translate the text and say whether these statements are true or false.

1. Structures that are used by people everyday have to be safe.

2.  To  complete  the  job  properly  construction  engineers  have  to have the knowledge of engineering and management only.

3. They use customer service and management knowledge to make sure they build the structure to the set standards.

4. To be a construction engineer you must have a love for literature.

5.  Construction  engineers  don’t  have  to  know  anything  about  a project before it begins.

6. They have to use  math and science after  a project have been started.

7. The workers have to monitor the construction process on the job site.

8. The construction engineers have to make the decision on how to fix any problem.

 

6.                   Find the following words and word combinations in the text.

выдерживать элементы конструкции – ________________________

инженерное искусство – ____________________________________

обслуживание клиентов – __________________________________

безопасность  населения  –  _________________________________

установленные нормы – ___________________________________

навыки управления – ______________________________________

идти, продвигаться – ______________________________________

критическое мышление – __________________________________

решение проблем – _______________________________________

принятие решений – ______________________________________

проблемы, с которыми они сталкиваются – ___________________

следить за рабочими – _____________________________________

рабочее место – __________________________________________

зависит от инженера-строителя – ____________________________

 

7.                  Give Russian equivalents of the following.

to be safe – _______________________________________________

to complete the job – _______________________________________

different aspects – _________________________________________

to inform management – ____________________________________

to buy the structure – _______________________________________

a love for math and science – _________________________________

many other skills – _________________________________________

all aspects of a problem – ____________________________________

to learn everything about the problem – _________________________

whenever a problem occurs – _________________________________

how to fix it – _____________________________________________

 

8.                   Continue the sentence.

1. Construction engineers use math aspects …

a)  to withstand the elements.

b)  to complete the job properly.

c)  to build the structure to the set standards.

2. Critical thinking, listening, learning, problem solving are needed …

a)  to use a computer properly.

b)  to be a construction engineer.

c)  to monitor the workers on the job site.

3. Construction engineers can learn everything about a project before it begins ...

a)  using English and management knowledge.

b)  thinking about all aspects of a problem and listening to other’s ideas.

c)  solving the problems that they encounter.

4. Construction engineers have to have the knowledge of many different aspects …

a)  to inform  the  management  on  how  the  project  is  coming along.

b)  to deal with the people that could possibly buy the structure.

c)  to complete the job properly.\

9. Home task. Project. Insert the functions below into the organigram and describe the relationships.

architect · authorities· supplier · subcontractor client · quantity surveyor · consultants

Scheme 1. Source: Sharon Heidenreich English for Architects and Civil Engineers

 

 

 

 

 

Grammar revision:

 

1. Put questions to the following sentences.

1. He will be busy with his research work. (general)

2. The scientists obtained new laboratory equipment. (What)

3. You must switch on the apparatus in time. (When)

4. We were taught how to handle these instruments. (Who)

5. The students have to study a lot of material. (Why)

 

2. Open the brackets.

1. The engine (not to function). It must (to repair).

2. We (to repeat) the experiment next month.

3. Our engineers (to put) the engine in motion yesterday.

4. They (to report) on the results of their observations by 10 o’clock tomorrow.

5. This area (to explore) by the scientists for several months last year.


Unit 3. EQUIPMENT AND INSTRUMENTS

 

1.                    Match sentences 1-4 to illustrations A-D. Then put sentences 1-4 in the correct order for unloading the crates.

1) He's parking the truck on the hard standing.

2) He's unloading the crates.

3) He's adjusting the stabiliser.

4) He's attaching the slings to the hook.

Source: English for Construction 1 Evan Frendo

 

2.                   Read this text about mixing concrete. Are sentences 1-5 true (T) or false (F)?

Concrete mixers mix and pour concrete. For small quantities of concrete, hand mixers are ideal. The portable mixer has wheels and uses electricity. It has a small drum, which rotates. Concrete transport trucks - or in-transit mixers - transport large quantities of concrete to the site. The drum rotates during transport. The chute man pours the concrete down the chute, or uses a pump to get the concrete to difficult locations. Sometimes a crane lifts a hopper full of concrete to the job site.

1) Concrete mixers mix and pour concrete. (T / F)

2) For small quantities of concrete, transport trucks are ideal. (T / F)

3) Portable mixers use electricity. (T / F)

4) Cranes lift hoppers full of chute men t o the job site. (T / F)

5) In-transit mixers rotate during transport. (T / F)

3.                   Label photos A-F with the equipment in the box.

Source: English for Construction 1 Evan Frendo

 

4.                   Work in small groups. Brainstorm different ways to use these items.

 

 

5.                   Read these extracts from manufacturers' sales brochures. Name the types of equipment they describe.

Source: English for Construction 1 Evan Frendo

 

6.                   Match words 1-6 to definitions a-f.

1) hand mixer

2) portable mixer

3) concrete transport truck

4) chute

5) concrete pump

6) hopper

 

a. a piece of equipment to get the concrete from the mixer to the job site

b. a lightweight machine with a drum for mixing concrete

c. a hand tool for mixing concrete

d. a vehicle for transporting concrete

e. a container for concrete

f. a machine to push concrete along a pipe

 

7.                   Read and translate.

HOE:

A hoe is a tool used to digging soil and to place cement mortar, concrete in head pan.

PICK AXE

It is a hand tool with hard metal head and wooden handle. This tool is used to excavate the soil. It is more suitable for hard soil which is quite difficult to dig with spade or hoe.

SPADE

A spade is tool contains metal plate at the end of long wooden handle. It is used to dig the soil for foundation trenches etc.

DIGGING BAR

 

A digging bar is a long straight solid metal rod with pin shape at the bottom used to dig the hard surfaces of ground. 

MEASURING BOX

Measuring box is used to measure the quantity of cement, sand and aggregates used for making concrete mix. The volume of measuring box is generally 1 cum feet which makes it easy to measure concrete ratio. The general dimensions of measuring box are 300 x 300 x 400 mm.

HEAD PAN

Head pan is commonly used in construction sites made of iron or plastic. It is used to lift excavated soil or cement or concrete to the working site.

MASONRY TROWEL

The masonry trowel is used in brick work or stone work spreading, leveling and shaping mortar or concrete. It is made up of steel and wooden handle is provided for holding. The ends of trowel may be pointed or bull nosed.

FLOAT

It is made up of wood contains handle on its top and smooth surface on its bottom. Float is used to give a smooth finish to the plastered area.

WHEEL BARROW

A wheel barrow is a small hand propelled vehicle with one wheel designed to be pushed by a single person using two handle at the rear. It is used to transport bulk weight of materials like cement, sand, mortar, concrete etc. 

PLUMB BOB

A plumb bob is a weight with pointed tip at the bottom, suspended from a string and used as a vertical reference line or plumb line. It is used to check verticality of structures. It is also used in surveying to level the instrument position. 

CONCRETE MIXER

 

A concrete mixer is a device that homogeneously mixes cement, aggregates such as sand or gravels and water to form concrete. A typical concrete mixer uses a revolving drum to mix the components.

CROWBAR

Crow bars are commonly used to open nailed wooden crates, remove nails, or pry apart board.

BRICK HAMMER

 

Brick hammer has one flat traditional face and a short or long chisel shaped blade. It is used to cut the bricks and also used to push the bricks if they come out from the course line. 

CHISEL

A chisel is a tool that has a long metal blade with a sharp edge at the end and a handle which is struck with a hammer or mallet. It is generally used in wood work and must be useful to remove the concrete bumps or excess concrete in harden surface.

LINE AND PINS

 

A line pin is a metal rod usually with a pointed, leaf shaped blade and and a flat button head. Lines are typically found in pairs as they are commonly used as anchor points for a brick line. It is used to level the alignment of bricks course while brick laying.

MEASURING TAP

 

It is a common measuring tool consist of a ribbon of clothe, plastic, fiber glass or metal strip with linear measurement marking. It is used to check the thickness, length, widths of masonry walls, foundation beds, excavated trenches etc.

RUBBER BOOTS

 

Safety rubber boots are required to protect legs may damaged due to contact with chemical materials like cement or physical accidents during the construction work.

GLOVES

 

Gloves are required to prevent the hands from direct contact with cement, paints etc. and to avoid injury while using machines, tools etc. Gloves made from lather, cotton, synthetic, nitrile, latex, PVC or combinations of these.

HAND SAW

Hand saw is used to cut wood materials like doors, windows etc.

LADDER

 

A ladder is a vertical or inclined set of rugs or steps. It is also required in construction works to check the slab work, to transport material to the higher floor, to paint the walls etc.

TILE CUTTER

 

Tile cutters are used to cut the tiles to a required shape and size. Sometimes normal size of tiles is larger than the size required at the corners where the floor meets the wall in that case tile cutter is useful. 

PUTTY KNIFE

 

Putty knife is used to level the putty finishing and also used to reduce the thickness of finish when it is more thick.

 DRILL MACHINE

Drill machine is used to make holes in the walls, slabs, doors, window frames etc.

JACK PLANE

Jack plane is used in the wooden work to smoothen the surface of doors, windows etc.

MASON SQUARE

 

Mason square is used to achieve perfect right angle at the corner of masonry wall. It is L shaped. First course is laid properly using mason square then based on first, remaining layers of bricks are set out.

MEASURING WHEEL

 

Measuring wheel is used to measure the distances or lengths. It contains a wheel of known diameter which record the number of complete revolutions from which distance can be measured. It makes the work easier.

EARTH RAMMER

An earth rammer is a hand tool consist of big square shaped block with handle. Sometimes it is also called tamper. It is used in construction industries to compress or compact earth or soil. The earth rammer creates a solid, compacted layer of earth by compressing the soil repeatedly with its weight.

SAFETY GLASSES

 

Safety glasses should be used to protect the eye from dust, chemical action of materials etc.

SAFETY HELMET

The safety helmet is regarded one of the basic safety device required for workers in several industrial and construction related sectors in addition to industries likes mining's, petroleum, refineries and so on. If any material for structure may fall from height during construction work, it protect the head from injury or any fatal accident.

SCRATCHER

 

Plastering of a surface is carried out layer wise, minimum two layer are necessary for plastering. To provide a good bond between the old and new layer, old layer is scratched with the help of tool called scratcher.

SAND SCREEN MACHINE

 

The sand screen machine is used to screen the sand or fine aggregate before mixing it with concrete. It should remove the impurities and coarse particles from sand.

SPIRIT LEVEL

A spirit level is an instrument designed to indicate whether a surface is horizontal or vertical. It is made up of wood or hard plastic with bubble tube in the middle which is partially filled with alcohol so the air bubble is formed in it. It is used in brick masonry, plastering, flooring and tile work  to check the horizontal level of surface. The surface is leveled if the air bubble settles at the middle of the tube.

POLISHER

A polisher is a device used to smoothen the rough surfaces of tiles, marble, wood works etc. The smoothening makes them shine and the process is called polishing.

BUMP CUTTER

A bump cutter is a tool used to leveled the fresh concrete surfaces likes concrete floors, foundations, pavement etc. This is also called screed.

CIRCULAR SAW

Circular saw is used to cut wood boards, frames etc. It is used when accurate cutting is required in less time. It is safer then hand saw.

FRAMING HAMMER

Framing hammer is used to used to drive and remove nails.

VIBRATOR

A concrete vibrator is a construction tool typically used on construction pouring sites. The vibrators are used to ensure that the pour is free of air bubbles and are even. This is so that the concrete remains strong and has a smooth finish even after removal of the form work.

8.                   Work in pairs. Discuss equipment you are familiar with or are training to use.

A: I use a jackhammer in my job.

B: What do you use it for?

A: You use it for breaking up concrete.

 

9.                  Home task. Read and translate the text. Answer the questions below.

Architects who have been in practice for more than 15 years are fully aware of the changes, which have taken place due to information technology. Over the years, drawing boards, tee squares, stencils and tracing paper have been replaced by computer applications. There is no longer a need for large filing cabinets to store dyelines. Today the originals are nicely stored on disks and printed out on plotters when required. Changes are simply made by a mouse click without requiring razor blades to remove the drawing ink once used to make the drawings. Nowadays, all office staff are computer trained and multi-skilled in that they not only prepare their own drawings, but also draw up diagrams and charts, as well as write a lot of their own letters and e-mails. The cable clutter, which once occupied much of the floor space behind and under tables and desks, has disappeared since introduction of wireless equipment. Wireless phones, printers, monitors and keyboards bring great flexibility to once very rigid office arrangements. Despite all these changes, architecture is one profession which will never be able to cope as a paperless office. Paper and pencils will always remain the architect’s first tool. A pencil is small, quick, totally independent of electricity and able to express such a lot in a small space of time.

Source: Sharon Heidenreich English for Architects and Civil Engineers

 

1. What things have been replaced by computer applications?

2. What changes have occurred in recent years?

3. Are all office staff computer trained and multi-skilled nowadays?

 

 

 

 

 

Grammar revision:

 

1. Put questions to the following sentences.

1. Carbon improves the physical qualities of the metal. (general)

2. He will work in the field of Chemistry. (Where)

3. Our scientist took part in the atomic energy conference. (Who)

4. The students were listening to the professor with great attention. (How)

5. Some physicists made some interesting reports at the last International symposium. (What)

 

2. Open the brackets.

1. Electricity (to move) in the world forever.

2. The electricity (to flow) through the wire in the lightbulb and back to the battery.

3. In 1638, Galileo (to state) some of the fundamental concepts of mechanics, and in 1687, Isaac Newton (to publish) his Principia.

4. The scientists of the Pulkovo observatory (to make) a valuable contribution to the study of the cosmos.

5. you (to need) any additional information on this problem?


Unit 4. BUILDING MATERIALS

 

1.                   Read the following international words and guess their meaning.

Materials, manufacture, product, type, composite, group, substance, nature, plastics, energy, biological, process, micro-structure, metal, mineral, silicate, practical, object, construction, synthetic, molecule, polymer, elastomer, original, electricity, temperature.

 

2.                   Read and translate.

Modern Building Materials: Classification. Materials are solid substances of which manufactured products are made. A variety of materials are used in different products. Basic types of materials range from wood, which has been used for thousands of years, to composite materials, which are still under development.

Materials belong to two groups: (1) natural materials and (2) extracted materials. Natural materials, which include stone, wood, and wool, are used much as they occur in nature. Extracted materials, such as plastics, alloys (metal mixtures), and ceramics, are created through the processing of various natural substances.

Natural materials generally are used as they are found, except for being cleaned, cut, or processed in a simple way that does not use much energy. Natural materials include stone and biological materials.

Certain types of rock are extremely strong and hard, and are therefore used as building stone. There are two types of building stone—crushed stone and dimension stone.

Biological materials are substances that develop as part of a plant or animal. Common plant materials include wood and various fibers such as cotton. Animal materials include leather and fibers such as wool.

Wood is a valuable biological material because of its strength, toughness, and low density. These properties make wood an excellent material for thousands of products, including houses, sailboats, furniture, baseball bats, and railroad ties.

Extracted materials are created through processes that expend a great deal of energy or alter the microstructure of the substances used to make the materials. Extracted materials include ceramics, metals and their alloys, plastics, rubber, composite materials, and semiconductors.

Ceramics include such everyday materials as brick, cement, glass, and porcelain. These materials are made from mineral compounds called silicates, including clay, feldspar, silica, and talc.

People have used such metals as copper, gold, iron, and silver for thousands of years to make various practical and decorative objects. Today, metals are important in all aspects of construction and manufacturing.

Plastics are synthetic materials made up primarily of long chains of molecules called polymers. There are two basic types of plastics: (1) thermosetting plastics (usual called thermosets) and (2) thermoplastics.

Rubber is made up of elastomers, polymers that stretch easily to several times their length and then return to their original shape.

Engineers may artificially combine various materials to create a new composite material. Many composite materials contain a large amount of one substance to which fibers, flakes, or layers of another substance are added.

Semiconductors are materials that conduct electricity better than insulators, but not as well as conductors, at room temperature.

 

3.                   Match English and Russian equivalents.

1. solid substances                               a. извлеченные материалы.

2. natural materials                              b. колебаться в пределах

3. to return to the original shape          c. твердые вещества

4. dimension stone                              d. минеральные соединения

5. extracted materials                          e. содержать большое количество

6. to range from                                  f. вернуться в исходную форму

7. mineral compounds                            g. природные материалы

8. to contain a large amount                   h. штучный камень

 

4.                  Choose the right word or word-combination.

1. Natural materials, which include stone, wood, and … are used much as they occur in nature.

a) alloys b) wool c) plastics

2. Biological materials are substances that … as part of a plant or animal.

a) are formed b) grew c) develop

3. Wood is a valuable biological material because of its strength, toughness, and low….

a) stiffness b) density c) creep

4. Plastics are synthetic materials made up primarily of … called polymers.

a) long chains of molecules b) mineral compounds c) biological materials

5. Engineers may artificially combine various materials to create a new composite material.

a) primarily b) easily c) artificially

 

5. Label photos A-K with the words in the box. 

chipboard electrical fittings fire alarm floor boards gate gravel path insulation railings roofing steel fire escape timber

Source: English for Construction 1 Evan Frendo

 

6.                Complete the sentences.

1. Basic types of materials range from wood to ….

2. Natural materials, which include stone, wood, and wool, are used much as they…

3. Certain types of rock are extremely strong and hard, and are therefore used as ….

4. These properties make wood an excellent material for thousands of ….

5. Today, metals are important in all aspects of …

6. People have used such metals as copper, gold, iron, and silver for thousands of years to make…

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7.                   Match the wood products below with the appropriate terms from the box.

glulam · parquet flooring · veneer · OSB · I-beam · rafter · sheathing · plank · post squared timber · particle board · LVL · batten · purlin · weatherboarding · Brettstapel panel

 Source: Sharon Heidenreich English for Architects and Civil Engineers

8.                   Answer the questions on the text.

1. What are materials?

2. What groups do materials belong to?

3. How are natural materials generally used?

4. Do natural materials include alloys and plastics?

5. Extracted materials are created through processes that expend a great deal of energy or alter the microstructure of the substances used to make the materials, aren`t they?

6. How long have people used such metals as copper, gold, iron, and silver?

7. What materials conduct electricity better than insulators?

 

9.                   Decide which statements are true and which ones are false.

1. Composite materials have been used for thousands of years.

2. Extracted materials are used much as they occur in nature.

3. Stone belongs to natural materials which are widely used in the construction industry.

4. Brick, cement, glass, and porcelain are natural materials which are made from mineral compounds.

5. People have used such metals as copper, gold, iron, and silver for thousands of years to make various practical and decorative objects.

6. Insulators are materials that conduct electricity better than semiconductors, but not as well as conductors, at room temperature

 

10.              Home task. Make a summary of the text.

 

Grammar revision:

1. Put questions to the following sentences.

1. Chemical materials and products will always be of great importance for all branches of the national economy in our country.(What)

2. The explorers saw no modern houses and no trace of civilization for many days. (How long)

3. Two powerful ventilators have been purifying the air in the room for half an hour. (Where)

4. The scientists of the Pulkovo observatory have made a valuable contribution to the study of the space. (Who)

5. The engineers of research laboratory developed some new methods of work. (general)

2. Open the brackets.

1. Next year the restoration of this old house (to pay) special attention to.

2. The building of analog computers (to begin) at the start of the 20th century.

3. We (to use) to having electricity and gas in our houses but a hundred years ago people (not to have) either.

4. Lundberg (to believe) that by the year 2021, there (to be) no longer oil for gasoline makers to use.

5. They (to maintain) constant temperature in the chamber since the beginning of the experiment.


Unit 5. PROPERTY OF MATERIALS

 

1.                   Read the words after the teacher. Translate them.

mechanical, chemical, electrical, magnetic, thermal, optical, stiffness, yield stress, toughness, strength, creep and fatigue resistance. 

 

2.                   Read the text.

Manufacturers determine which material to use for a given product by evaluating properties (qualities) of materials. Some properties can be linked with a material's macrostructure (structure visible to the unaided eye). Other properties are explained by a material's microstructure (structure that can be seen only through a microscope). The properties of materials are determined by their internal structure—that is, the way in which the fundamental parts of the materials are put together. At the most basic level, properties of materials are determined by chemical bonds, forces that attract atoms to one another and hold them together.

Materials scientists study how the structure of materials relates to their properties. A large part of their work involves experimentation.

Scientists group the properties of materials according to various functions that must be performed by objects made of the materials. Most properties of materials fall into six groups: (1) mechanical, (2) chemical, (3) electrical, (4) magnetic, (5) thermal, (6) optical.

Mechanical properties are critical in a wide variety of structures and objects—from bridges, houses, and space vehicles to chairs and even food trays. Some of; the most important mechanical properties are (1) stiffness, (2) yield stress, (3) toughness, (4) strength, (5) creep and (6) fatigue resistance.

Stiffness measures how much a material bends when first subjected to a mechanical force. Yield stress measures how much force per unit area must be exerted on a material for that material to реrmanently deform (change its shape).

Toughness measures a material's resistance to cracking. The tougher a material, the greater the stress necessary to break that material near a crack.

Strength measures the greatest force a material can withstand without breaking. A material's strength depends on many factors, including its toughness and its shape.

Creep is a measure of a material's resistance to gradual deformation under a constant force.

Fatigue resistance measures the resistance of a material to repeated applications and withdrawals of force.

Chemical properties include catalytic properties and resistance to corrosion.

Electrical properties are important in products designed either to conduct (carry) or block the flow of electric current.

Dielectric strength describes a material's response to an electric field.

Magnetic properties indicate a material's response to a magnetic field—the region around a magnet or a conductor where the force of magnetism can be felt. Thermal properties reflect a material's response to heat.

Thermal conductivity is a measure of how well a material conducts heat.

As mentioned above, the physical and chemical properties of materials make them suitable to perform for specific roles in a construction. The aim is to select the most appropriate for the purpose in hand. The properties of every product vary and it is important to understand the advantages and disadvantages inherent in each.

 

3.                   Enter the following words to complete the sentences below in a meaningful way. Then find a suitable Russian translation for each.

durable · airtight · opaque · rigid · combustible · brittle load-bearing · malleable · monolithic · sustainable

1. A building that is well sealed and does not leak is ... …………………. ………………….

2. Structural elements that are able to support a lot of weight are … …………………. ………………….

3. Glass breaks easily. It is … …………………. ………………….

4. Before concrete sets, it is … …………………. ………………….

5. The opposite of transparent is … …………………. ………………….

6. A wall made of a single material, such as earth, is … …………………. ………………….

7. The opposite of flexible is … …………………. ………………….

8. If an object does not cause harm to our environment during its life-cycle, it is … …………………. ………………….

9. A material that burns easily is …. …………………. ………………….

10. The opposite of fragile is … …………………. ………………….

 

4.                   Answer the questions.

1.    What are the properties of materials linked with?

2.    What do materials scientists study?

3.    How many groups of properties do the materials scientists distinguish and what are they?

4.    Does creep belong to mechanical properties of materials?

5.    Could you define major mechanical properties of materials?

6.    What do chemical and electrical properties of materials include?

7.    Why is it important to study magnetic and thermal properties of materials?

 

5.                  Work in pairs. Imagine you are going to build a driveway to a house. Think about the materials and the different layers you will need. Give reasons for your choices. Use these sketches to help you.

Source: English for Construction 1 Evan Frendo

 

6.                  Listen to a contractor describing two types of driveway construction. List the materials you hear.

stones, ...

 

7.                  Here are some adjectives (in italics) that the contractor uses to describe the materials. Writ e the opposite of the adjectives. Then listen again and check your answers.

1) a firm surface__________________________

2) coarse sand or grit __________________________

3) a strong sub-base __________________________

4) tough edging __________________________

5) an attractive appearance __________________________

6) a rough texture__________________________

 

8.                   Listen to a contractor talking about the key properties of asphalt. Make notes on what he says about the following.

Example: penetration value - tells you how hard or soft the asphalt is; depends on the climate

1) cutback ____________________________________________________

2) porosity ____________________________________________________

3) noise reduction_______________________________________________

4) reflection____________________________________________________

 

9. Match the nouns 1-6 with the correct adjectives a-f.

1) strength    a) elastic

2) toughness b) strong

3) hardness   c) brittle

4) elasticity   d) porous

5) brittleness e) hard

6) porosity f) tough

 

10. Complete these sentences by choosing the correct words in italics.

1) Asphalt is used in road construction because it is strength / strong.

2) Hardness / Hard asphalt is often very brittleness / brittle.

3) Porosity / Porous asphalt improves safety by removing water from the surface of the road.

4) Toughness / Tough is a measure of the energy you need to break something.

5) It is important that roads have enough elasticity / elastic to return to their original shape after loading.

 

11.               Home task. Project. Make a presentation about properties of different materials.

 

Grammar revision:

1.                   Complete the following exercise.

Adjectives have three forms of comparison: positive, comparative and superlative. Taipei 101 in Taiwan is …………………. (tall) building in the world. It is also ………..…………. (recent) construction. It is …………………. (high) than both the Petronas Towers and the Sears Tower in Chicago. The Petronas Towers are only slightly…………………. (tall) than the Sears Tower. The Commerzbank Zentrale in Frankfurt measuring 259m is …………………. (high) building in Germany. However, it is …………………. (low) than all the buildings mentioned above. The Empire State building in New York is by far ………..……………. (ancient) skyscraper. It is not …………………. (tall) the Jin Mao Building in Shanghai, but it is a lot …………………. (old).     


Unit 6. TYPES OF BUILDINGS

 

1.                   Read these international words and try to guess their meaning.

Social, function, activity, condition, technique, technological, evolution, minimum, stimulate, industry, standardization, production, mechanization, bulldozer, decoration.

 

2.                   Read the following words after the teacher.


an apartment - многоквартирный дом

recreational - развлекательный

а permanence- постоянство, прочность

to tend - направлять

an assemblage - сборка, монтаж

to erect - сооружать, воздвигать, устанавливать

а built-in - вставка, встроенный

a load - нагрузка

to conceal - скрывать, маскировать

a search - поиск

expressive - выразительный

meaningful - многозначительный

to suit - удовлетворять

resultant - результативный

private - частный

an excavation - земляные работы, выемка грунта

an output – производительность.

 

3.                   Listen and repeat. Find the following phrases in the text and translate the sentences. Make up your own sentence with the words given.

at once – одновременно

to depend upon –  зависеть от;

interchangeability of smth – взаимозаменяемость чего-либо;

modular design – блочная конструкция (модульное проектирование);

to classify according smth – классифицировать согласно чему-то;

a minimum of materials – минимальное использование материалов;

to protect smb from smth – защищать кого-то от чего-то;

the methods by which – методы, с помощью которых;  

at lower cost – при наименьших затратах; 

carefully think of smth – тщательно продумывать что-то;

in order to do smth – для того, чтобы сделать что-то;

to form from – производить из. 

 

4.                   Read the text and get ready to speak about the types of buildings.

 

Types of buildings depend upon social functions and may be classified according to the role in the Community. The types of buildings may be domestic, educational, office, industrial, recreational, etc. The common and necessary conditions are: 

a) its suitability to use by human beings in general and its adaptability

to particular human activities; 

b)  the stability and permanence of its construction.

Speaking of residential construction we must say that the apartment houses are mostly built to suit urban conditions. Group housing provides home for many families and is at once public and private. The techniques of construction or the methods by which structures are formed from particular materials are influenced not only by the availability and character of materials but also by the total technological development of society.

The evolution of techniques is conditioned by two factors: 

1) one is economic – the search for a maximum of stability and 

durability in building with a minimum of materials, labour and time; 

2) the other is expressive – the desire to produce meaningful form.

Large housing programmes have tended to stimulate technological change in the building industry. Modular design (i.e. design in which the elements are dimensioned in combinations of a fixed unit) has led to standardization of elements, interchangeability of parts and increased possibilities for mass production, with resultant economies. Entire apartment assemblages are available and are being used to an increasing extent. These techniques aim at a higher output of better structures at lower cost. The high degree of mechanization and standardization is successfully achieved  by reinforced concrete blocks and units. Reinforced concrete homes are produced by a variety of construction methods. Various methods of constructing reinforced concrete houses involve extensive use of large sections manufactured in heavily mechanized factories and erected at the site.

In order to build a house first an excavation is dug by bulldozers. Then a foundation is laid to carry the load of a structure and to keep the walls and the floors from the contact with soil. Floors divide a building into storeys and carry the loads too. The upper part of a structure is a roof; it ties a building, gives the firmness to the structure and protects people from rain, wind, snow, etc. Doors, windows, stairs, lifts are integral elements of a building and they are always precast or prefabricated. When a structure is ready builders start to decorate it.

When decoration work is over a building is considered to be finished. The built-in space of an apartment should be carefully thought of as well. There is a considerable trend toward built-in furniture. Rooms should be both efficient and visually satisfying. The extent of built-in cabinets must be determined. Drawers and shelves can often be concealed behind walls, freeing valuable floor space.

 

5.                   Answer the following questions:

1. What do types of buildings depend upon?

2. In what way may  be they classified?

3. What are the common and necessary conditions? 

4. What is the function of group housing?

5. The evolution of techniques is conditioned by several factors, isn’t it?

6. What is modular design? 

7. Why is it used?

8. What is the aim of entire apartment assemblages? 

9. What methods are used to produce reinforced concrete homes?

10. Where are large sections manufactured and erected?

11. What is necessary to first in order to build a house?

12. Why is the foundation laid?

13. What is the upper part of a structure?

14. What elements are integral?

15. Who starts to decorate the structure?

16. When is a building considered to be finished?

17. What do we call the built-in space of an apartment?

18. Should rooms be both efficient and visually satisfying?

19. What must be determined?

20. Where can be drawers and shelves concealed?

 

6.                  Agree or disagree with the following statements.

1. Types of buildings may be classified according to a special rule. 

2. One of the necessary conditions of a building is its adaptability to particular human activities.

3. The apartment houses are mostly built to suit people who live in them.

4. The techniques of construction are influenced only by the availability and character of materials.

5. Large housing programmes have tended to stimulate technological change in the building industry.

6. Modular design is of no use in our country.

7. The techniques of assemblage are very expensive.

8. The high degree of mechanization and standardization is successfully achieved by good work of engineers. 

9. Large sections manufactured in all building factories are of great use in residential construction.

10. In order to build a house it is necessary to have a project.

11. Floors are used for a flat to be warm.

12. Roofs protect people from cold.

13. When a structure is ready special specialists are  invited to decorate it.

14. When decoration work is over a commission comes to decide if the dwelling is ready for living.

15. The built-in space of an apartment is not convenient by the living standards.

16. Rooms should be both efficient and adaptable for living in them.

 

7.                   Complete the sentences according to the text.

1. … upon social functions.

2. The types of buildings may be … .

3. The apartment houses are mostly built … .

4. Group housing provides … and is at once public and private.

5. The methods by which structures are formed from particular materials are influenced by the total …. .

6. Large housing programmes have tended to … .

7. Modular design is … of a fixed unit.

8. … are available and are being used to … .

9. … is successfully achieved by reinforced concrete blocks and units.

10. Various methods of constructing … use of large sections.

11. In order to build a house first … . 

12. Floors divide a building into … .

13. Doors, windows, stairs, lifts are integral elements of … .

14. … toward built-in furniture.

 

8.                   Choose a word to put into each gap.

Public, resultant, technological, private, meaningful, stability, assemblages, techniques, standardization, the load, the firmness, reinforced concrete, interchangeability, foundation, roof, mechanization, precast, built-in, the evolution, permanence, freeing, modular, a building.

 

1. Among the common and necessary conditions are … and … of the construction.

2. Group housing provides home for many families and is at once … and … .

3. The … of construction are influenced by the total … development of society.

4. One of the factures influenced … of techniques is the desire to produce … form.

5. … design has led to … of elements, … of parts and increased possibilities for mass production, with … economies.

6. Entire apartment … are available and are being used to an increasing extent.

7. The high degree of … and standardization is successfully achieved by … blocks and units.

8. A … is laid to carry … of a structure and to keep the walls and the floors from the contact with soil.

9. … ties a building and gives … to the structure.

10. Doors, windows, stairs, lifts are integral elements of … and they are always … or prefabricated.

11. There is a considerable trend toward … furniture.

12. Drawers and shelves can often be concealed behind walls, … valuable floor space.

9.                  Home task. Project. In your groups make a presentation of:

-the evolution of techniques;

-the perspectives of modular design;

-steps of building a house. 

 

Grammar revision:

1. Put questions to the following sentences.

1. Physics explains many of the changes that go on around us. (general)

2. A new glass works will be built here next year. (When)

3. The scientists obtained very important data. (What)

4. This woman is a teacher of physics. (Who)

5. They made many experiments in the cybernetics laboratory. (Where)

 

2. Open the brackets.

1. These data (to test) by our engineers at the laboratory tomorrow.

2. When a substance (to heat), the speed with which the molecules move is increased.

3. Electronics (to become) very important in all branches of production now.

4. I (to read) the material about friction at this time yesterday.

5. The lecturer told us that Archimedes (to discover) many laws of mathematics.


Unit 7. PARTS OF A BUILDING

 

1.                   Read and translate the text.

Almost everyone has watched building of a house and followed its progress with interest.

First the excavation is dug for the basement, then the foundation walls bellow ground level are constructed; after this the framework is erected and clothed with various finishing materials and protected by several coats of paint.

The part upon which the stability of the structure depends is the framework. It is intended for safely carrying the loads imposed. The floors, walls, roof and other parts of the building must be carefully designed and proportioned.

The architect or designer must decide what the size of the walls, the floors, the beams, the girders and the parts which make up the framework must be, and how they must be placed and arranged. Sometimes it is done by the architect who draws the plans for the house, sometimes by a designer.

Here are the main parts of a building and their functions.

Foundations are to keep the walls and floors from contact with the soil, to guard them against the action of frost, to prevent them from sinking and settling which can cause cracks in walls and uneven floors.

Floors divide the building into stories. They may be either of timber or of a fire-resisting material.

Walls are built to enclose areas and carry the weight of floors and roofs. The walls may be solid or hollow. The materials used for the wall construction can be brick, stone, concrete and other natural and artificial materials.

Roofs cover the building and protect it from exposure to weather. They tie the walls and give the construction strength and firmness.

 

2.                  Find English equivalents in the text.

котлован – _______________________________________________

копать, рыть – ____________________________________________

цоколь, подошва – _________________________________________

каркас – _________________________________________________

воздвигать – ______________________________________________

покрывать – ______________________________________________

отделочный материал – ____________________________________

слой краски – ____________________________________________

сооружение – ____________________________________________

действующая нагрузка – ___________________________________

балки – __________________________________________________

грунт, почва – _____________________________________________

затоплять – ______________________________________________

оседать – ________________________________________________

трещина – _______________________________________________

неровный – ______________________________________________

древесина – _____________________________________________

бетон – __________________________________________________

искусственный материал – _________________________________

твердотельный, цельный – _________________________________

пустотелый – _____________________________________________

воздействие – ____________________________________________

прочность – _____________________________________________

твердость (устойчивость) – ________________________________

 

3.                   Give Russian equivalents to the following.

progress – ________________________________________________

foundation walls – _________________________________________

below ground level – _______________________________________

parts of the building – ______________________________________

the loads – ________________________________________________

must be carefully proportioned – ______________________________

to prevent them from sinking – _______________________________

fire-resisting material – ______________________________________

the weight of floors – _______________________________________

brick – ___________________________________________________

to tie the walls – ___________________________________________

natural materials – _________________________________________

to protect from exposure to weather – __________________________

 

4.                   Say whether these statements are true or false:

1.         First the excavation is dug for the framework.

2.         The foundation walls are constructed above ground level.

3.         The framework is clothed with various finishing materials and protected by several coats of paint.

4.         The part upon which the stability of the structure depends is the basement.

5.         The walls and other parts of the building must be carefully proportioned.

6.         The architect must decide what the size of the floors, the beams and the girders must be.

7.         Sinking and settling of a construction can cause cracks in walls and uneven floors.

8.         Floors may be of timber only.

9.         The materials used for the wall construction can be natural only.

10.     Roofs cover the building and protect it from settling.

 

5.                   Answer the questions.

1. Have you ever watched building of a house?

2. Where are the foundation walls constructed?

3. Which part of the building does its stability depend on?

4. What are the functions of the foundation?

5. What materials may be used in constructing floors?

6. What materials are used for the wall construction?

7. What’s the function of the roof?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6.                   Look at house plan s A and B. Then listen. Does the speaker describe the house correctly?

 

Source: English for Construction 1 Evan Frendo

 

7.                  Read and translate the text.

Roof shapes not only have a significant effect on the appearance of a building, they also determine how well the structure can withstand certain elements. The slope of a roof and its overhang system are often dictated by the climate. This phenomenon leads to specific styles becoming dominant and characteristic for certain regions.

8.                   Connect the roof descriptions with the appropriate drawings.

Source: Sharon Heidenreich English for Architects and Civil Engineers

 

9.                   Home task. Project. Draw a simple house plan and label it. Show it to your partner and ask and answer questions about it. Then repeat with a new partner.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Grammar revision:

 

1. Write these sentences in the Past and Future Simple tense forms.

1. The designer must determine the height of the ceiling.

2. You can use several ways to guard the foundation from dampness.

3. He may make all the arrangements for the presentation.

 

2. Make this sentence passive.

The architect calculates an estimate of the design of the building.

 

3. Open the brackets.

1. Scientists so far (to find) only 115 different kinds of atoms.

2. A battery (to produce) electricity using two different metals in a chemical solution.

3. To solve the problem of sending electricity over long distances, William Stanley (to develop) a device called a transformer.

4. Half of the electrons (to spin) in one direction; half (to spin) in the other.

5. The concept of electric eld (to be introduced) by Michael Faraday.


Unit 8. CONSTRACTION

 

1.                  Discuss in groups.

-What trades in construction industry do you know? 

-What can you say about building processes?

2.                   Read after the teacher.

trade – вид строительных работ

excavation work - земляные работы

building contractor-заказчик-застройщик

concrete work - бетонные работы

formwork - опалубка

reinforcement - армирование

steelfixer - арматурщик

structural steelwork - несущая стальная конструкция

steel erector - монтажник стальных конструкций

brickwork - каменная кладка

timberwork - деревянная конструкция

roofing - кровельные работы

sheet metal work - жестяные работы

roof plumbing work – кровельные паяльные работы

thermal insulation work - теплоизоляционные работы

dry construction work - полносборное строительство

floor screeding - заливка и выравнивание пола

plaster work - штукатурные работы

rendering - наружная штукатурка

plumbing work - слесарно-водопроводные и канализационные работы

blacksmiths work- кузнечное дело

joinery work - столярные работы

tiling - облицовка плиткой

locksmiths workcлесарные работы

glazing - застекление

painting and wallpapering work - покраска и поклейка обоев

flooring- настилка полов

3.                   Read and translate this list of trades and building processes to get a general understanding of the work on the place.

Trade

Persons involved

Building process

Excavation work

Building contractor

The site is cleared, and the ground is prepared.

Profile boards are pegged with the help of a level indicating the exact location of the building.

Excavators dig the construction pit, which has to either be secured by planking or sloped to prevent collapse. Excavated material is either stored in spoil heaps or removed.

Concrete work

Concrete worker

Ready-mixed concrete is poured into formwork, compacted by vibrators to ensure solidity and cured with sprinklers. Pre -cast concrete is cast and cured in factories and transported to the site. The components, aggregate, cement and water, define the strength, durability, density, impermeability and stability of the concrete.

Formwork

Formworker

Before in-situ concrete can be poured, formwork, which is also known as shuttering, has to be prepared. It needs to be sufficiently tight to prevent leakage and smooth to impart a smooth finish to the concrete surface – this especially applies to exposed concrete. After an adequate striking time, the formwork is removed. For repetitive elements, sliding formwork is used. Occasionally, the formwork remains in the structure; this is then called permanent formwork

Reinforcement

Steelfixer

Steelfixers bend and fix reinforcement bars andcages and install them in formwork to strengthen concrete. Barspacers are used to guarantee a certain concrete cover. Bar intersections are securely tied with wire.

Structural steelwork

Steel erector

Steel profiles are often used to form the structure of a building. Standard profiles with I -shaped, Tshaped, etc. cross sections are welded or bolted together to form stiffened frames.

Brickwork

Mason

Bricks or larger blocks are layered with mortar to form walls, piers, chimneys etc. All combinations of stretcher and header bonds are termed English bond. Face brickwork is built to a fair face and pointed. Cavity walls consist of two skins joined together by wall ties.

Timberwork

Carpenter

A carpenter’s work includes the construction, erection and installation of timber structures. This may involve joining purlins and rafters to assemble a roof; it might involve posts and beams for a whole structure. A carpenter usually has a circular saw on site, other tools include milling and drilling machines, grinders and, not to be forgotten, the carpenter’s hammer.

Roofing

Roofer

The roofer is responsible for covering the roof and making the structure watertight. Most roofs involve a combination of structure, waterproofing, heat insulation and vapour barrier. Whereas a gable roof is covered with roof tiles, a flat roof is sealed with bituminous materials.

Sheet metal work

Tin smith or sheet metal worker

A tin smith is the person who makes and repairs things made of light metal, copper, stainless steel, aluminium, zinc, etc. Most buildings, especially regarding roofs, require flashings or copings. Fixing gutters, downpipes and sills is usually also the work of a tinsmith.

Roof plumbing work

Roof plumber

It is essential for a building to be watertight. In the roof area, roofing felt is installed to prevent the penetration of moisture. A vertical damp proof course (DPC) is usually applied around the base of the building using a bituminous paint coat.

Thermal insulation

Worker

Insulation material is either fixed or installed in or on walls, ceilings and roofs to prevent heat loss. Vapour barriers are installed on the warm side of the insulation to prevent moisture developing.

Dry construction work

Dry construction

Builder

Dry construction builders fix plasterboards as internal linings.

Their work includes preparatory measures such as erecting frames and battens to fix boards, installing insulation and vapour barriers, as well as decorative measures.

Floor screeding

Floor screeder

Screed is a layer of concrete or plaster is installed on top of the structural slab. Usually the mix is pumped into a specified area and leveled creating a smooth surface for floor coverings.

Plaster work

Plasterer

Generally gypsum-based plasters are applied to internal walls in order to create smooth and uniform surfaces.

Rendering

Renderer

Render is applied to external walls. Usually cement -based materials are used to protect and smoothen brickwork.

Plumbing work

Plumber

Plumbing work involves all of the pipework within a building. This includes water supply, discharge and drainage, heating and gas. They also fit all sanitary appliances and radiators. Plumbing embraces a large area of work and most plumbers specialize in one specific field.

Electrical installations Electrician

Electrical work includes the installation of electrical and electronic equipment for industrial, commercial and domestic purposes, such as lighting, plugs, switches, etc. Electricians are responsible for laying cables in buildings and connecting a distribution board to the main supply. Electricians have to work in stages, alternating their visits on site with plasterers, painters, etc.

Blacksmith’s work Blacksmith

A blacksmith creates objects from iron or steel by forging the metal, i.e. by using tools to hammer, bend, cut and shape metal. Blacksmiths create products such as wrought iron gates, grills, railings, etc.

Joinery work

Joiner

Joinery work involves all tasks from fabricating to installing architectural woodwork. The building components can include doors, windows, stairs, wooden panelling, shop cabinets, kitchens, etc. The skills of a joiner are somewhere between a carpenter and a cabinet maker.

Tiling

Tiler

A tiler sets tiles made of ceramic, stone or glass in mortar or uses a tile adhesive to arrange tiles on floors and walls. Grout is used to fill and seal the joints between the tiles.

Locksmith’s work Locksmith

Locksmiths traditionally secure buildings with locking mechanisms. Today electronic lock services involve overall security systems of complex structures.

Glazing

Glazier

The trade involves selecting, cutting, installing, replacing and removing glass. Double-glazing and triple glazing, insulated glazing units with a hermetically sealed air spaces between the layers, have replaced single glazing. Glaziers work together with joiners in workshops, they also work on site installing curtain walls, glass floors, partitions, shelving, etc.

Painting and wallpapering work/ decorating Painter/decorator

Usually the decorating concludes all activities on site. The work includes painting, varnishing and wallpapering in order to protect and decorate interior and exterior surfaces.

Flooring

Floor layer

Flooring is a general term for a permanent covering of a floor. It can refer to carpets, parquet, raised flooring, laminate and linoleum. The work of a floor layer also includes levelling, the installation of insulation and skirting boards.

Source: Sharon Heidenreich English for Architects and Civil Engineers

 

4.                   According to the descriptions above, decide which tradesperson performs the work below.

1. They work with a trowel and are responsible for creating the shell of a building …………………...……

2. They will be on site to fit built-in wardrobes in the bedrooms. …………………...……

3. When it comes to a roof conversion, they will erect dormers. …………………...……

4. They are responsible for wall and floor finishes in kitchens and bathrooms. …………………...……

5. They use wet materials to prepare internal walls for painting. …………………...……

6. The owner commissions one to repair a leak in a flat roof. …………………...……

7. They will produce and install a railing on a balcony. …………………...……

8. They work with wire and pliers to make the building tension resistant. …………………...……

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5.                   Label tradespeople 1-8 with the following words.

carpenter concrete finisher electrician glazier painter plumber roofer welder

Source: English for Construction 1 Evan Frendo

6.                   Complete these sentences. Write one word in each gap.

1. I'm a bricklayer. I lay____________________ .

2. I'm a(n) ____________________I do the wiring .

3. I'm a(n) _____________technician. I do the heating, ventilation and air conditioning .

4. I'm a carpenter. I work with___________________.

5. I'm a(n) _________________. I install windows.

6. I'm a painter. I use __________________ to decorate houses.

7. I'm a welder. I weld_________________.

 

7.                   Write the tradesperson that works with each of these materials.

1)     wood

2)      bricks

3)     metal

4)     concrete

5)     glass

6)     paint

 

8.                   Listen to five people. What do they do? Tick the correct boxes.

 Source: English for Construction 1 Evan Frendo

9.                   Home task. Project. Make a brochure of trades and building processes with illustrations and description, use all the information from previous units.

 

Grammar revision:

 

1. Put questions to the following sentences.

1. The speed of the rocket depends on the velocity of the escaping gases. (What)

2. We had to work hard to learn how to solve such equations. (Why)

3. There are many interesting articles about electronics at our library. (general)

4. Numbers can be multiplied in any order. (How)

5. We consulted a specialist before taking a decision. (Whom)

 

2. Open the brackets.

1. He (to work) at the mechanical shop now.

2. The energy that (to use) to put this engine in motion is not great.

3. A monumental work on mechanics (to complete) by Newton in 1687.

4. Tomorrow at this time they (to work) at the laboratory and (to make) interesting observations.

5. They (to finish) the experiment yesterday.


ЗАКЛЮЧЕНИЕ

 

Сборник составлен в соответствии с общеобразовательным стандартом и охватывает широкий круг проблем, обогащает словарный запас студента, а так же способствует закреплению изучаемого грамматического материала.

Пособие может быть использовано как основа для подготовки к профессиональным олимпиадам и конкурсам (WorldSkills, профессиональные олимпиады).

Данное пособие состоит из 8 тем, каждая из которых включает в себя текст, словарь с актуальной профессиональной лексикой и упражнения, которые способствуют последовательному закреплению лексико-грамматического материала и развитию навыков устной речи, а также навыков проектной деятельности.

В пособии вы найдете все основные темы, связанные со строительством, которые позволят обучающимся значительно расширить свои профессиональные навыки, умения и знания, т.е. пособие отлично подойдет как средство формирования профессиональных компетенций.


СПИСОК ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ

 

1)     Chappell, David and Willis, Andrew, The Architect in Practice, 9th edition, Blackwell Publishing

2)     Sharon Heidenreich, Englisch für Architekten und Bauingenieure – English for Architects and Civil Engineers

3)     Brieger, Nick and Pohl, Alison, Technical English Vocabulary and Grammar, Summertown Publishing

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