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Инфоурок / Иностранные языки / Другие методич. материалы / Методическое пособие по синтаксису английского языка

Методическое пособие по синтаксису английского языка

Международный конкурс по математике «Поверь в себя»

для учеников 1-11 классов и дошкольников с ЛЮБЫМ уровнем знаний

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К ОПЛАТЕ ЗА ОДНОГО УЧЕНИКА: ВСЕГО 28 РУБ.

Конкурс проходит полностью дистанционно. Это значит, что ребенок сам решает задания, сидя за своим домашним компьютером (по желанию учителя дети могут решать задания и организованно в компьютерном классе).

Подробнее о конкурсе - https://urokimatematiki.ru/


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  • Иностранные языки

Поделитесь материалом с коллегами:


Махмудова А.Ж.








Учебно-методическое пособие

по синтаксису английского языка для учащихся старших классов















Кизляр

2010

1. Phrasal verbs


TO BRING

to bring about - to cause something. Science has brought about many changes in our life.

to bring back — to take back. You must bring these library books back next week.

to bring down — to carry or move (someone or something). The pilot brought the plane down gently.

to bring in — to introduce (an idea). The government intends to bring in a new law about wearing safety belts in cars.

to bring off — to succeed in something difficult. Jim's plan seemed hopeless, but he brought it off.

to bring on - to cause something or someone to appear. The waiter brought the next dish on.

to bring out — to produce something. Suddenly the man brought out a gun and threatened the driver with it.

to bring up — to educate, raise. He left her to bring up three young children on her own.


TO CARRY

to carry away — to excite or persuade (something). The politician carried his hearers away with "his speech.

to carry off — to succeed in doing or achieving. She was nervous about giving a talk to her colleagues, but she carried it off very well.

to carry on — to continue, sometimes after interruption I'll try to carry on the work in spite of difficulties.

to carry out — to fulfil or perform. We all have certain duties and jobs to carry out.

to carry over — to last. Her liking for black polo neck jumpers carries over from when they were) fashionable in the sixties.

to carry through — to complete something in spite of difficulties. I'm determined to carry this through.


TO COME

to come about — to happen, to arise. How did it come about that humans speak so many different languages?

to come across - to find (something) or meet (someone). Outside the restaurant, we came across a man doing a fire-eating performance.

to come along - to pass, arrive. My teacher came along just as we were talking about him.

to come back — to return. It's suddenly come back to me where I met you.

to come by - to obtain something. A good boss is not easy to come by.

to come down — to fall, drop or descend. The child, running too fast, came down and hurt his knee.

to come from — to arrive from, have one's origin in. Danger comes from unexpected places.

to come into — to begin to be in. The machinery will come into use next week.

to come out — to become clear or known. It came out that he had been in prison before.

to come to — to reach (a total, condition, or time). The happy state of affairs must not be allowed to come to an end.


TO DO

to do by — to treat. The firm that does badly by its workers will not succeed.

to do in — to murder, kill. The criminals have done in the old man.

to do to — to cause, to happen. What harm have I ever done to you?

to do up — to repair or improve the appearance of; to make attractive. She's bought a load of posters to do her room up with.

to do with — to be/have something to do with, to be carried with. "Why did you want to talk to me?" "Well, it's to do with a complaint that's been made about your work."

to do without — to live or continue in spite of lacking something, someone, or doing something. I can't afford a car, so I guess I'll just have to do without.


TO GET

to get away from — to leave or escape from something or someone. The prisoners got away from their guards after a struggle.

to get back — to return. Grandfather often says that he would like to get back to the good old days.

to get beyond — to be too difficult to do or understand; find (doing something) too difficult. I enjoyed the book as far as Part two; after that, it got a bit beyond after me.

to get by — continue to live, often in spite of difficulties. We can get by without your help, thank you.

to get down to — to begin to give serious attention to (something such as work, or doing something). It's time we got down to work.

to get from — to obtain and receive. You can't get hard work from unwilling students.

to get into — to put (oneself or someone else) into (a state). I'm sorry to hear that your son got into a bad company.

to get off — to leave, start journey. We have to get off on our journey tomorrow.

to get on with — to continue with (something such as work), often after inter­ruption or in spite of difficulties. The government is trying to get on with the job of running the country in spite of impossible difficulties.

to get out of — to receive; gain. The children are always trying to get more money out of their father.


TO GIVE

to give away — to give someone a present or prize; gives something free of charge. We have invited a famous former student to give away the prizes.

to give for — to pay to obtain something. To think that I gave Ј25 for that coat when I could have got the same one for Ј18.

to give in — to yield. The argument went on got hours as neither side would give in.

to give off to send out (something, especially a liquid, gas, or smell) The milk must be bad, it is giving off a nasty smell.

to give out — to come to an end. His strength gave out after running that long distance.

to give over — to stop. Do give over! You keep knocking my arm.

to give to — to supply, provide, or pass something to someone; spend time on something. You ought to give a better example to the children.

to give up — to stop doing or having something, willingly or unwillingly lose something or someone, get rid of something; do without something. The doctor told him to give up sweets to lose weight.


TO GO

to go about — to move freely, travel. They usually go about together.

to go after — to chase, to catch someone or something. The dogs went after the fox.

to go against — to oppose. It's no use going against the customs of a country that you are visiting.

to go along with — to accept, agree with someone or something. We'll go along with your suggestion, although it's not exactly what we wanted.

to go in for — to take an interest in a subject or doing something. I thought he only went in for music or tennis.

to go over — to look at, examine something to see that it is good; search something for faults or someone for something wrong. The doctor went over the girl carefully but could find no broken bones.

to go up — to move in an upward direction; climb; rise. Have the children gone up yet? I promised to tell them the story.

to go without — to live or continue in spite of lacking something. I'm afraid there's no coffee, so we'll just have to go without.


TO LOOK

to look about/around — to see in various directions about a place or one. The stranger looked about him at the wonderful new sights.

to look after — to take care. Who is looking after the arrangements for the wedding?

to look ahead — to think about, prepare or plan for the future. When choosing a profession, it is wise to look ahead and see what kind of a future each one offers.

to look at — to see, watch. She looked at him in great surprise, wondering what he meant.

to look back — to remember, think about the past. Looking back on the old days, I'm sure we were much happier then.

to look beyond — to consider, know, or, imagine something further, after, or greater than something. You have to look beyond these early difficulties to the hope of future success.

to look down on — to have a poor opinion of someone, disapprove on. At first, Mary's parents looked down on her marrying Jim.

to look for — to try to find. Detectives are still looking for the prisoner who escaped three days ago.

to look forward to — to expect and usually hope to enjoy something or doing something. I am looking forward to some warmer weather after the bitter winter.

to look in — to pay a short visit. I promised to look in on Dad and see if he's feeling any better.

to look out for — to try to find someone or something by searching. The men in the tower are looking out for escaped prisoners.

to look over — to examine. We must look the school over before sending our son there.

to look up to — to admire, to respect. It must be rewarding to be looked up to by so many people.


TO MAKE

to make for — to move especially quickly in the direction of something. We made for St Louis as fast as possible.

to make from — to produce; shape; form. The children's playhouse has been made from a pile of cardboard boxes

to make into — to change something or someone into something else or a kind of person. Can you make this dress into a skirt?

to make out — to see clearly. You can just make out the farm in the distance.

to make of — to understand something in a particular way. I could make nothing of the chairman's remark.

to make over — to change. The garage has been made over into a playroom.

to make up — to be part of, complete. These three articles make up the whole book.



TO PUT

to put about — to spread news, often bad or false. Someone's been putting it about that she is splitting with her husband.

to put across — to explain. The politician was able to put himself across (to the voters) as a suitable leader.

to put away — to store. Will you put the car away while I see to the cases?

to put forward to offer, suggest. May I put your name forward as a possible chairman of the committee?

to put in — to include, add. There is no room to put in a single additional word.

to put into — to cause someone to be in a certain position, usually bad, as morally, socially or politically. What an awkward position I'm now put into - if I say yes, I'm too demanding, if no, I'm too proud - either way I loose.

to put off — to delay till a later time or date. Never put off till tomorrow what you can do today.

to put up — to raise something to a higher position, as in the air. Put up your hand if you know the answer


hello_html_29d08be5.gifTO RUN

to run at — to move quickly on foot in order to take action. The brave woman ran at her attacker with a pair of scissors.

to run down — to knock down and damage something or wound someone with a vehicle or ship. The poor boy has been run down by a bus.

to run from (of a performance, arrangement, etc) to continue, starting at (a date). The play ran from 1951 to 1976.

to run high — to be excited, powerful. The sales at this auction usually don't run high.

to run off — to escape as from home or duty. Jim and Mary threatened to run off to get married, if Mary's father continued to refuse his permission for the wedding.

to run through — to pass through. You'll see what I mean when you run the film through the machine.

to run to — to complain to, to ask for help, advice. She runs to the doctor with every little pain.



TO SET

to set about — to start or deal with. How do you set about building a boat?

to set apart — to save something such as money or time. I have to set some hours apart specially for writing my paper.

to set back — to delay the advance of something. The cost of the war was set back national development by ten years.

to set down — to place something or someone down, as on the ground, furniture, etc. The dinner guest set down his knife and fork with a look of complete satisfaction.

to set forward — to offer, suggest or explain (an idea). The parliament set forward new laws and regulations.

to set in — (usually of bad weather or condition) to begin and seem likely to continue. You'd better paint the woodwork before decay sets in.

to set on — to put in position on top of something. Set the plates gently on the table, they are very delicate.

to set out — to begin any activity such as a profession. Her uncle helped her to set out as a professional singer

to set up — to start in business or in some other activity, as by giving money or other help; provide with something needed. He gave his son some capital to set him up.


TO TAKE

to take aback — to greatly surprise or confuse. His sudden change of opinion took us all aback

to take away — to remove. These books are for reading in the library and may not be taken away.

to take down — to record something in writing. Let me take down your name and number.

to take for — suppose wrongly to be. Do you take me for a fool?

to take in — to lead or carry indoors or into a room. "May I take you in to dinner?" he said, offering the lady his arm.

to take over — to win control of. Military leaders have taken over the country.

to take up — to continue an activity or speech after interruption. Let's take up where we left off before our coffee break.



2. Prepositions

in + cities / towns / streets / the suburbs / an armchair / danger / the middle of / the queue

at + house number (at 23 Oxford St) / home / school / university / work / the bus-stop

on + the floor / the outskirts / a chair / foot / holiday by + bus / taxi / car / helicopter / plane / train / coach / ship / boat / air / sea

BUT on a / the bus / plane / train / coach / ship / boat - in a taxi / car / helicopter

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Prepositions of Time

NOTE

on time = at the right time

by 8:30 = not later than that time, before

in time = early enough, not late

at 8:30 = exactly at that time

AT

IN

ON


in the morning/afternoon/night

on Sunday

at Christmas/Easter

in July (months)

on Monday etc

at night/midnight/ noon

in summer (seasons)

on March 28th

at the weekend

in 1991 (years) in the 20th century

on a winter night

Composite Prepositions


according to

согласно (чему- либо)

According to the schedule the steamer arrives at 7 o'clock on Monday.

in accordance with

в соответствии с

He acted in accordance with our instructions.

as compared with

по сравнению с

The output has greatly increased as compared with the last year.

as far as

до (о расстоянии)

I'll go with you as far as the station.

as to/as for

что касается

As to (as for) our plans we'll speak about them later.

because of

из-за

We didn't go there because of the rain.

by means of

посредством

It can be done by means of heat treatment.

due to; owing to

из-за; благодаря

He achieved these results due to hard work.

thanks

благодаря

Thanks to his help we could finish the work in time.

except for

за исключением; если не считать

Your essay is good except for a few mistakes.

in spite of

несмотря на

We finished the work in time in spite of all

the difficulties.

instead of

вместо

We bought a new car instead of the old one.

irrespective of

независимо от

In US every person can study at a University irrespective of age.

The use of prepositions in set expressions

ABOUT

to be about - собираться сделать что-либо

to bring about - приводить к чему-либо

ABOVE

above measure - свыше меры

above all - главным образом, больше всего

above suspicion - вне подозрений

AFTER

after all - в конце концов

the day after tomorrow - послезавтра

long/soon after - спустя долгое время/вскоре

name after smb - назвать в честь кого-либо

ALONG

come along - идем(те)

get along – ладить

all along - с самого начала

AT

at the age of - в возрасте

not at all - не совсем

at all costs - любой ценой

at dinner/lunch/tea - за обедом/ланчем

at the expense of - за счет кого-либо

at the end - в конце

at first - сначала

at once - сразу же

at any rate - во всяком случае

at a time - за один раз

at a speed of - со скоростью

at this/that/the same time - в это/то/ то же самое время

at somebody's disposal/service - в распоряжении кого-либо

at home - дома

BEFORE

the day before (yesterday) - накануне (позавчера)

long before - задолго до

BEHIND

be behind time - опаздывать

behind one's back - за спиной кого-либо

be behind smb - отставать от кого-либо

BY

by accident/chance - случайно

by heart - наизусть

by land/sea/air - сухопутным/морским/воздушным путем

by means of - посредством

by no means - ни в коем случае

by the way - между прочим

step by step - шаг за шагом

by retail - в розницу

six by eight meters - 6 на 8 метров

by six meters - на 6 метров (больше/меньше)

DOWN

up and down - взад и вперед; вверх и вниз

down to - вплоть до upside down - вверх дном

FOR

for ever/good - навсегда

for example/instance - например

for ages - целую вечность

for the time being - в настоящее время

to go for a walk - идти на прогулку

IN

in any case - во всяком случае

in conclusion - в заключение

in the direction of - в направлении

in exchange - в обмен

in fact - в действительности

in generalвообще

in the meantime - тем временем

in part - частично

in ink/pencil - чернилами/карандашом

in Russian/English - на русском/английском языке

in sight - в поле зрения

in stock - на складе/в запасе

in return - взамен

ON

on the average - в среднем

on business - по делу/в командировку

on board - на борту

on condition that - при условии, что

on the contrary - наоборот

on demand - по требованию

on the one/other hand - с одной стороны/с другой стороны

on the part of - со стороны кого-либо

on purpose - специально

on sale - в продаже

on the whole - в общем

and so on - и так далее

later on - позже

be on - идти (о фильме, пьесе)

OUT OF

out of date - устарелый

out of doors - на улице/открытом воздухе

out of necessity - по необходимости

out of pity - из жалости

out of order - не работает

out of use - вышедший из употребления

TO

to my disappointment/sorrow/joy - к моему разочарованию /горю/ радости

to the end - до конца

to the right/left - направо/налево

to and fro - взад-вперед

to the North/South - на север/юг

UNDER

be under construction/repair - строиться/ремонтироваться

under the circumstances - при этих обстоятельствах

under the agreement/contract - по соглашению/контракту

UP

up to - вплоть до

up-to-date - современный

be up - проснуться

The time is up. - Время истекло.

What's up? - Что случилось?

WITHIN

within reach/sight/hearing - в пределах достижимости/ видимости/ слышимости

within three miles of - в трех милях от


3. The compound sentence and the complex sentence

The compound sentence

It is a sentence which consists of two or more clauses coordinated with each other, each clause has a subject and a predicate of its own.

In a compound sentence the clauses may be connected:

a) by means of coordinating conjunctions: and, or, else (иначе), but or connective adverbs: otherwise (иначе), however (однако), nevertheless (тем не менее), yet/still (все-таки, тем не менее), therefore (поэтому):

  • Не went to his study but he couldn't work.

  • There was no news, nevertheless, she went on hoping.

  • She's vain (тщеславие) and foolish, and yet people like her.

  • He has treated you badly: still, he's your brother and you ought to help him.

  • Do what you've been told, otherwise, you'll be punished.

  • He was mistaken, however, he went on doing his way.

b) without a conjunction:

The rain fell softly, the house was quiet.

Some conjunctions are used in pairs (correlatively): both ... and, either ... or, neither ... nor, not only ... but (also). These conjunctions are more widely used in simple sentences than in complex sentences, but sometimes they connect simple sentences:

  • Either you're lying or he must be an absolute wimp.

  • Not only did they win, but they also changed the nature of their team.

The complex sentence

A complex sentence is a hierarchical structure, which consists of an independent (main) clause and one or more dependent (subordinate) clauses. The subordinate clauses may function grammatically as subject, object, predicative, attribute or adverbial modifier in a main clause. The subordinate clauses are generally introduced by subordinating conjunctions and connectives. These conjunctions and connectives are often polysemantic and multifunctional, which may cause confusion in usage and understanding. We shall consider here only those types of sentences and connectives which may present some difficulties in understanding and translating.

A subordinate clause may follow, precede or interrupt the principal clause:

  • I asked him why he had come.

  • Since it was Saturday, he didn't go to his office.

  • The man who lives next door is very friendly.


4. Subject clauses

Subordinate subject clauses are introduced by the following connectives:

that - то, что

what - то, что; что ... , так это ...

if, whether - частица ли после сказуемого в предложении-подлежащем

who - кто; тот, кто

whoever - кто бы ... ни ...; всякий, кто ...

which - кто из; который из

whatever - всё, что; что бы ни ...

where - то, где; вопрос о том, где; то, куда; вопрос о том, куда

when - то, когда; вопрос о том, когда

why - то, почему; вопрос о том, почему

how - то, как; вопрос о том, как

how + adjective - насколько + прилагательное


  • That he will never agree to this plan is absolutely clear. - To, что он никогда не согласится на этот план, совершенно ясно.

  • Whether he will agree to join us is not quite clear. - Еще не совсем ясно, согласится ли он присоединиться к нам.

  • What was done could not be undone. - Что сделано, того уже не исправить.

  • Who her mother was, was the question. - Кто был ее матерью - вот вопрос.

  • When we shall start is uncertain. - Когда мы отправимся, неизвестно.

  • Whoever is elected Prime Minister, lives at 10 Downing Street. - Кто бы ни был избран премьер-министром, он живет на Даунинг стрит, 10.

  • How important it is to start the work right away is clear to everybody. - Всем ясно, насколько важно начать эту работу немедленно.

NOTES:

1. When a subject clause is placed at the end of the sentence, it is introduced by the anticipatory it:

It is surprising how your voice hasn't changed.

2. Subject clauses are not separated from the principal clause by a comma.


EXERCISES

Ex.1 . (A, B) Translate the sentences into Russian.

1. That electrons compose the atom was settled, but what an electron is was yet to be discovered. 2. It is very difficult for me to know whether to say "yes" or "no". 3. Whether there is life on Mars has been a most intriguing problem since the exploration of space started. 4. How this can happen may be shown on a diagram. 5. What seems to us today to be a banal truth was by no means trivial six centuries ago. 6. That the environment affects man in a great variety of ways is a point beyond discussion. 7. When this should be done remains to be settled yet. 8. Why he did it has been puzzling me these two days. 9. Which of them is going to win, has suddenly become a matter of primary importance for everybody. 10. Whatever they say or do becomes immediately known to the headmaster. 11. It is my belief that they were lost while trying to locate their companions. 12. That he exceeded his authority (полномочия) seems practically certain.

Ex. 2. (В, С) Translate from Russian into English.

1. Тот, кто не знает этого, не знает ничего. 2. То, что я пытался узнать, было очень важно для нашего расследования. 3. Пыталась ли она когда-либо изменить это или нет, было спрятано в ее собственном сердце. 4. Удивительно, как мало изменился этот район. 5. Что мне больше всего нравится в полковнике, так это его усы. 6. Что бы вы ни делали, не говорите сразу «да». 7. Что бы она ни намеревалась (mean) сказать, осталось несказанным. 8. Вопрос о том, куда им переезжать, не обсуждался. 9. Встретятся ли они когда-нибудь еще - загадка. 10. Насколько трудно было выполнить эту работу, видно из ее дневника. 11. Кто бы это ни сделал - гений. 12. То, что вы сделали, непростительно. 13. То, что нравилось им, восхищало меня. 14. Когда вы это сделаете, мне не важно. 15. Как вы это сделаете - совсем другой вопрос (matter). 16. Как вы это собираетесь сделать, мне неясно. 17. Вопрос о том, есть ли жизнь, подобная жизни на Земле, еще где-нибудь во Вселенной, всегда интересовал ученых.


5. Predicative clauses

A subordinate predicative clause together with the link-verb in the main clause forms a compound nominal predicate to the subject of the main clause. The connectives introducing predicative clauses are the same as with subject clauses (See p. 39).

  • This decision is what we have been hoping for. - Это решение - как раз то, на что мы надеялись.

  • But his chief trouble was that he did not know any editor or writer ... – Ho главная его проблема заключалась в том, что он не знал ни одного редактора или писателя.


As a rule predicative clause are not separated by a comma.

Sometimes we need to translate the link-verb to be into Russian. The recommended ways to do it are:

состоит в том, что ...

представляет собой то, что ...

является тем, что ...

это то, что ...


EXERCISES

Ex. 3. (А, В) Translate into Russian.

1. This was what I wished for. 2. This book was what is often referred to as an autobiographical novel. 3. The trouble is that have lost his address. 4. The problem is whether they'll be able to help us. 5. The mistake was that he had never had to earn his living. 6. The boy's only excuse was that he had had no time to study. 7. This was why he had thought of Bosinney. 8. The greatest difficulty is how you are to get across the border. 9. It is wonderful and beautiful how a man and his dog will stick to one another, through thick and thin. 10. The most important thing is whether they can deliver the parcel in time.

Ex. 4. (В, С) Translate the sentences into English.

1. Самое неприятное условие заключается в том, что мы сами должны поехать за товаром. 2. Его предложение состоит в том, что они изготовят и доставят мебель сами. 3. Такая работа - это то, что называется настоящим искусством. 4, Самая большая загадка - это то, как он сюда попал. 5. Самое смешное в этом то, что я не знаю ответа на ваш вопрос. 6. Вопрос в том, что он скажет нам. 7. Ваша поддержка - это то, в чем она сейчас нуждается больше всего. 8. Вопрос в том, приедут ли они вовремя, чтобы помочь нам. 9. Причина в том, что ты не хочешь понимать. 10. Его самая большая надежда - это то, что опыт удастся.

6. Object clauses

Object clauses perform the function of an object to the predicate verb of the principal clause:

  • I don't know what you're talking about.

  • He told us that he felt ill.

1. Object clauses are connected to the principal clause in the following ways: a) by means of conjunctions that, if, whether (see p. 39)

  • Time will show whether I'm right or wrong.

  • The policeman inquired if I had a driving license.

b) By means of the connectives who, which, what, whatever, whoever, whichever, connective pronouns where, when, how, why, etc.

  • I'll do what I say.

  • I'm always ready to listen to whatever you may say.

  • I found out who had done it.

  • I don't know when he will come.

c) Asyndetically

  • He said he felt tired.

  • I'm afraid they'll be late.

  1. As a rule object clauses are not separated by a comma from the principal clause.

  2. When the predicate verb in the principal clause is expressed by the verbs: to demand, to require, to insist, to advise, to recommend, to suggest, to propose, to agree, to arrange (договариваться), to order, to command, |should + infinitive| is used in the object clause:

  • They insisted (that) we should have dinner with them. Они настаивали, чтобы мы с ними пообедали.

  • She demanded (that) I should apologies to her.

NOTES:

1. Other structures are possible too:

  • What do you suggest we should do?

  • What do you suggest we do?

  • Jim insisted I should see a doctor.

  • Jim insisted I see a doctor.

2. We use should in a subordinate clause after the adjectives: important, strange, funny, natural, surprised, essential, unbelievable, odd, typical, interesting, surprising, desirable, etc.

  • It's strange that he should be late. He's usually on time.

  • I was surprised that he should say such a thing.


EXERCISES

Ex. 5. (A, B) Write a new sentence with the same meaning using the verbs above. Model: "You must stay in bed for two days," the doctor said to me.

The doctor recommended that I should stay in bed for two days.

  1. "Why don't you visit the museum after lunch?" I said to them.

  2. "Help me!," he didn't ask, he demanded and it sounded rude.

  3. "I think it's wise to accept such a good offer," he advised me.

  4. "Arrange everything for the journey," the director ordered the secretary.

  5. "If I were you, I'd start early," she advised.

  6. "You really must stay a little longer," she insisted.

  7. "Let the prisoners free," the officer commanded.

  8. "You must come with us," he insisted.

  1. "You ought to be present. The situation here requires that."

  2. "Why don't we start at ten?" the guide proposed.

  3. "You must pay by the Monday evening," the landlord demanded.

  4. "Why don't you go away for a few days?" Jack suggested to me.


Ex. 6. (В, С) Translate the sentences.

  1. Желательно, чтобы они приняли участие в этой работе.

  2. Очень важно, чтобы все документы были подписаны ко вторнику.

  3. Невероятно, что он не знал об этом.

  4. Необходимо, чтобы врач немедленно осмотрел его.

  5. Лучше, чтобы вы пошли туда сами.

  6. Естественно, что родители беспокоятся о своих детях.

  7. Я была удивлена, что он сказал это.

  8. Странно, что он ушел не прощаясь.

  9. Очень важно, чтобы все слушали внимательно.


  1. Доктор посоветовал, чтобы она поехала на юг осенью.

  2. Они настаивали на том, чтобы этот вопрос был обсужден на следующем заседании.

  3. Он приказал, чтобы все было готово к 5 часам.

  4. Мой брат предложил, чтобы мы провели отпуск в деревне.

  5. Покупатель настаивал, чтобы товар был принят обратно в магазин.

  6. Заказчик потребовал, чтобы работа была завершена в срок.


7. Clauses introduced by what, that, which what (relative pronoun)

I told you what I know, that (conjunction) то, что именно

I told you that I know about the plan.

I told you everything that I know.

Which: □ I told you about the plan, which is enough for the present. - Я рассказал вам о плане, чего на настоящий момент достаточно/и этого в настоящий момент достаточно.


NOTES:

1. What is always stressed; that is always unstressed:

  • I told you what I know.

  • I told you that I know.

  1. The conjunction that can be left out. The connectives what and which are never omitted.

  2. Which here refers to the whole main clause.

hello_html_m5951b446.gifEXERCISES

Ex. 16. (A, B) Supply that or what.

1. The thing is ____________ I can't do without a dictionary today. 2. You should have apologized to Anne, that's ___________ I'm driving at. 3. All ___________ glitters is not gold. 4. __________ they will get there at noon is out of the question. 5. ______________ puzzled us was the way he disappeared after the concert. 6. He'll do anything ____________ will be necessary to help. Lizzie, there's no doubt about that. 7. The point is _______________ she always says ____________ she means. 8. I'm absolutely sure ________________ he'll do nothing __________ might do her any harm. 9. ___________ I'd like to know is whether he'll have some time to spare on Monday morning. 10. That was all ______________ he wanted to ask us. 11. __________________ he should have refused to go to the skating-rink is very strange. 12. I'll do my best to get everything __________ you'll want for your work. 13. ______________ he really said was _____________ he was feeling unwell. 14. I mean is _____________ the proof of the pudding is in the eating.

Ex. 17. (В, С) Fill in the proper connectives: that, what or which.

1. I am afraid ___________ you overlook the thing ___________ you have been requested to do it immediately. 2. I felt certain now ________ I had seen him somewhere. 3. He was deeply displeased by ____________ had occurred that day. 4. She walked ten kilometers that day, _________ was pretty good for a woman of 68. 5. You can have everything ___________ you like. 6. I'm sorry. That's all ___________ I know. 7. Steve went out with Susan, _____________ made Jane very angry. 8. Do you want to know _______________ I've learnt? 9. The thing ______________ I'd like is a digital camera. 10. ___________ I'd like is a trip to Turkey. 11. You are the one ____________ knows where to go. 12. ____________ she and Elliott wished to find out from Dr. Nelson was __________________ Larry intended to do. 13. He told me all _____________ he knew. 14. I will not forget __________ you have told me. 15. He was cruel to the poor boy, ___________ surprised me at the time.

Ex. 18. (B, C) Tick the sentences in which connectives may be omitted.

1. They don't seem to speak with one another, which is somehow strange. 2.1 gave her just the money that she needed. 3.1 passed him a large glass of juice which he drank immediately. 4. Show me the book that you have read. 5. The air which surrounds us consists of various elements. 6. Where is the girl that asked about Mr Wilson? 7. Thank you for all that you have done for me. 8. Are you not glad that we came? 9. I don't understand what you are driving at. 10. We scarcely noticed that it had stopped raining. 11. The thought instantly occurred to me that the paper was a note from Augustus. 12. There was a coyness about her very way of pouring out the tea, which Tom quite reveled in. 13. It was not the sort of house that he was accustomed to. 14. Are you saying that you haven't known about it? 15. I gave her everything that she could wish for.

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8. Adverbial clauses

Adverbial clauses refer to a verb, an adjective or an adverb of the main clause in the function of an adverbial modifier (обстоятельства). Adverbial clauses are connected with the main clause by means of subordinating conjunctions and connectives. Some conjunctions are polysemantic and can introduce different types of adverbial clauses, which may be confusing. Besides, many English conjunctions, prepositions and adverbs are identical in form, which also may create some difficulties in understanding the meaning of a sentence. It is necessary to differentiate them by their functions.

Prepositions connect phrases to the words they modify:

After the presentation the guests will be able to buy some products.

Subordinating conjunctions connect clauses to the words they modify:

  • After the presentation is over, the guests will be able to buy some products.

  • Once the performance starts, they will not allow entrance.

The adverb, unlike the preposition and conjunction, is a part of the sentence - an adverbial modifier:

Once the towns were independent entities.

EXERCISE

Ex. 1. (A, B) Define the function of the words in italics. Translate the sentences into Russian.

1. Before you read his answer, tell me the circumstances. 2. The rope will tighten considerably after it has been soaked. 3. Until about 1900 smoking was almost entirely a masculine habit. 4. Once introduced to Europe, the habit of smoking spread round the world. 5. I was hoping that once I was in the right area, I would get some fresh images. 6. No matter what they teach you once you believe it's true. 7. If you are wise you will leave before he sees you. 8. I know what we shall have for dinner, for I have seen the menu. 9. I haven't seen him since, not once. 10. For several days we didn't hear from them. 11. Don't make any hasty decisions until Father comes home. 12. He didn't start to read her letter until late that night when the whole family had settled for the night. 13. She didn't begin to read before she was seven. 14. What do you think was after? 15. Come Tuesday night, but not before.


9. Time clauses

We use time clauses to say when something happens.

Time clause are introduced by conjunctions when, after, before, while, till, until, as, since, as soon as, as long as.

NOTE! The verb in the time clause can be in the present or past tense. We never use a future tense in a time clause, we use one of the present tenses instead:

  • I'll look after the children while she goes to London.

  • I'll do it when I've finished writing this letter.

No commas are used, when time clause follows the main clause, if it proceeds the main clause, it is separated from it by a comma.

When he had finished reading, he looked up.

a) When, as, while are used to say that two events happen at the same time («в то время как...»), (seep. 24)

  • We arrived when they were leaving.

  • She wept as he told us the story.

  • John arrived while we were watching the film.

b) When one event happens before or after another event the conjunctions after, as soon as, before, when {как только), as long "as {пока, до тех пор, пока...):

  • Can I see you before we go, Helen?

  • As soon as we get tickets, we'll call you.

c) When we want to say that something happens when a situation ends, we use a time clause with till or until and a present or past tense:

  • We'll support them till they find work.

  • They waited until he had gone.

NOTE! After till/until no negation is used as the conjunctions till and until are negative in meaning.

d) A clause introduced by since denotes the starting point of the action (situation) described in the main clause. The verb in the since-clause may be past or present perfect.

NOTE! We use past indefinite or past perfect in the time clause; present or past perfect in the main clause (see p. 42, 60).

  • I've been in politics since I was at university.

  • Janine had been busy ever since she had heard the news.

e) Time clauses are sometimes introduced by phrases: at the time (в то время когда), by the time (that) (к тому времени когда), the moment (в тот момент когда), the day (в тот день когда), the next time (в следующий раз когда):

  • The moment I saw him I understood that something had happened.

  • I'll ask him about it the next time I see him.

  • I was informed about it the day I arrived in Moscow.

f) while «в то время как» While I slept, it rained.

as long as «до тех пор пока» □ He read as long as the

ПОКА lamp burned.

before «прежде чем» □ He worked hard before he reached his goal.

till/Until «пока не» □ He won't stop until he achieves good results.

ihello_html_m533d48fe.gifndicates the longer situation, which started before the shorter event, and, perhaps went on after it:

□ As they were driving along the main road, they saw a broken car smashed into a shop windows, (когда)

Ahello_html_7babcc06.gifhello_html_m311f0002.gifS is used to talk about two developing situations:

As the city grew, more and more people were attracted to the new capital, (по мере того как; в то время как)

is used to say that two short actions both happened at the same time:

Just as he passed under the window, the lights in the room went off. (в то самое время)


EXERCISES

Ex. 2. (A, B) Complete the sentences with one of the conjunctions or phrases from the box.

while

by the time

the moment

after

since

before

as soon as

till

as long as

when

until

as

1. I got home, I found that Jill had painted her room. 2. She was an employee at

the post office she started her own business. 3. Can you look after the children I am out? 4. Wait here I come back. 5. You'll feel better you've had something to eat. 6. You can use my car I am on holidays. 7. The building had almost burnt down the fire brigade arrived. 8. We realized that something had gone wrong __________ we saw him run towards us. 9. You'll get a surprise ________ you open the door. 10. We waited at the airport he arrived. 11. I watched her ______________ she opened the letter. 12. We've been staying in this hotel we arrived to London.

Ex. 3. (A, B) Decide which conjunction is correct in this situation. Cross out the one which is wrong.

  1. After/before you leave, you must visit the museum.

  2. Don't say anything while/when Tom is here.

  3. Wait here after/until he has gone.

  4. We saw Ann when/while we were waiting for the bus.

  5. She had already opened the letter when/before she realized it wasn't addressed to her.

  6. The alarm was raised as long as/as soon as the fire was discovered.

  7. While/when I was reading, Joan was playing the piano.

  8. At the time/by the time we arrived, the party had finished.

  9. I've been living by myself from/since I entered university.

  10. Before/since I went out, I phoned Ann.


Ex. 4. Translate the sentences.

I (A, B)

1. Я подожду дома, пока вы позвоните. 2. Когда мы были в Лондоне, мы посетили Тауэр. 3. Я передам ему это сообщение, как только он позвонит. 4. Я не играл в футбол с 15 лет (мне было 15 лет). 5. После того, как я закончил работу, я пошел домой. 6. Они закрыли ворота до того, как я вошел в них. 7. Я позвонил в магазин, как только проверил (check) содержимое (contents) коробки. 8. После того, как я прочту книгу, ты сможешь взять ее. 9. Том читал книгу, а я в это время смотрел телевизор. 10. Что ты собираешься делать, пока ты ждешь их?

II (В, С)

1. Давайте проведем совещание после того, как пообедаем. 2. Я не могу работать, пока не позавтракаю. 3. Я похудела, пока болела. 4. Мы ждали в аэропорту, пока они не прибыли. 5. Сэлли рассказала мне о своей помолвке, когда была здесь. 6. Я приду, как только закончу работу. 7. Я еду в Лондон на следующей неделе. Я надеюсь увидеть Тома, пока я там. 8. Он будет работать в саду, пока светло. 9. Они остановились несколько раз, пока не дошли до станции. 10. Он не пойдет домой, пока они не вернутся. 11. Они ушли, пока я разговаривал с доктором. 12. Мне сообщили об этом в тот день, когда я приехал в Москву. 13. К тому времени, как он приехал, там была полиция. 14. Я принесу тебе эту книгу в следующий раз, когда приду. 15. Они не получали от него никаких известий (hear from) с тех пор, как он покинул Россию.


Ex. 5. (В, С) Fill in the blanks with till/until or before.

1. He recalled that day he fell asleep. 2. Don't take any steps you learn what is in this letter. 3. They remained in the garden they got quite cold. 4. A quarter of an hour passed the lessons began. 5. He slept through the early grey of morning __________ the direct rays of the sun fell on his face. 6. I waited ______ the next train came. 7. Meg strained her eyes upon her work___________ it was too dark to see the threads. 8. She listened patiently___________ he had finished his lecture. 9. He worked slowly, first writing the message, then rewording it he was satisfied. 10. He waited ____________ the girl had gone, then he walked over to the closet where his street clothes were. 11._____________ we start our experiment, I want you to read these notes. 12. He was sure that she wouldn't say anything the children left for school. 13. Don't trouble trouble the trouble troubles you.





10. Adverbial clauses of place


To say where something happens, we use conjunction where and connective adverbs wherever, anywhere, everywhere:

  • This is the exact spot where the accident happened.

  • Please sit wherever you find place.

  • You are not allowed to park anywhere you like.



11. Adverbial clauses of manner

1. Manner clauses are used to say how something is done. They are introduced by conjunctions as (как), as if/as though (как будто/как если бы), like. The manner clause always comes after the main clause. Adverbs just exactly, precisely are often used in front of as for emphasis:

  • They plough land exactly as their ancestors did.

  • He complained about everything just as I knew he would.

We can also use "the way (that)", "in a way (that)", "in the way (that)" to talk how something is done:

They did it in a way (that) I had never seen before.

We made it move in the way (that) we wanted it to.

2. As if/as though are used to say how someone or something looks/feels/sounds, etc:

  • She felt as if she had a fever.

  • He looked as if he hadn't slept much.

  • Mary sounded as though she had run all the way.

3. As if/as though are also used to indicate that the information in the manner clause might not be true, or is definitely not true.

She acts as if she owns the place.

4. We use past tense after as if /as though to show that the idea is not real:

She treats him as though he were her own son.

NOTE! When the action in the manner clause is described as unreal were is used instead of was.






The use of tenses after as if/as though (unreal action)



Principal Clause

Manner Clause

Simultaneous Action

He talks as if he knew everything. (Past Indef.)

They walked slowly as though they were carrying something heavy. (Past Continuous)

Prior Action

I remember the story as if I had just read it.


He described her as if he had met her before.

(Past Perfect)

EXERCISES

Ex. 6. (А, В, С) Complete the sentences with the words from the box. as the way in the way as if

1. I think you should write the paper I showed you. 2. He did ________________________he was desired. 3. He kept looking at the entrance ________________________ he was waiting for somebody. 4. You never do anything _______ you're asked to. 5. He stretched himself (потянуться) on his bed _________ a dog stretches himself. 6. He speaks ______________________ he knows the subject well. 7. I think the cake is exactly ___________ mother makes it. 8. He described the town he had seen it himself. 9. Her smile was sweet and innocent just ______________ it had ever been. 10. He left but she went on talking ____________ nothing had happened.

Ex. 7. (A, B) Put the verbs in brackets in the correct tense forms.

  1. Why do you talk about her as if she (be}old? She is only fifty five. 2. They ate their dinner as if they (not eat) for a week. 3.They spoke as though they never (part). 4. I'm not a child but you speak to me as if I (be) a child. 5. The sky is full of black clouds. It looks as if it (be) going to rain. 6. He felt as if he (see) him somewhere. 7. You write as if you (not know) the rules. 8. I'm in love. I feel as if I (float) on air. 9. He looked at me as if he never (see) me. 10. They met as if they (be) friends. 11. He ran as if he (run) for life. 12. When I told her the news she reacted as though she already (hear) it. 13. You act as though you (be) my boss. 14. It sounds as if it (rain).

Ex. 8. (В, С) Translate the sentences.

1, Похоже, что Том не придет. 2. Аня говорила (sound), как будто была простужена. 3. Сью хромала (limp), похоже она повредила ногу. 4. Мы незнакомы. Почему она улыбается мне, как будто мы знакомы? 5. Он говорит как мой отец. 6. Кирпичи делаются также, как во время Римской империи. 7. Мне никогда не разрешали вести себя так, как я хотел. 8. Они танцевали так, как я никогда не видел прежде. 9. Мне не нравятся люди, которые ведут себя так, как он. 10. Она не хочет (отказывается) одеваться так, как ее коллеги. 11. Он сказал, что будет работать как остальные, если ему будут платить как им. 12. Он выглядит так, как будто увидел привидение.


12. Purpose and reason clauses

We use a reason clause to say what one's intention is when he does something.

Purpose clauses are introduced by conjunctions so, so as to, so that, in order that (чтобы, для того чтобы).

A purpose clause usually comes after a main clause. The most common type of purpose clause contains a modal and is introduced by so that:

  • I have drawn a diagram so that my explanation will be clear.

  • She said she wanted tea ready at six so that she could be out by eight.

  • Father lifted Philip onto his shoulder so that he might see the procession.

To make a purpose clause negative, we use so that... won't/wouldn't:

I hurried so that l wouldn't be late.

We use a reason clause when we want to explain why one does something or why it happens. It is introduced by conjunctions because (потому что), since or as [так как, поскольку):

  • Since it was Saturday, he stayed at home.

  • As he had been up since 4 a.m., he was very tired.


13. Reason clauses

As- and since-clauses can be used to give the reason for an action or situation. They are used when the reason is already well known, or is less important than the rest of the sentence. Since is a little more formal than as:

  • Since you refuse to pay, we shall be forced to take legal action.

  • As I had no money with me, I didn't pay him.

When the reason is the most important part of the sentence because is generally used. Because-clause usually comes at the end of the sentence:

  • You will never learn because you are idle.

  • You want to know why I didn't tell you? I didn't tell you because I forgot, simply. For suggests that the reason is given as an explanation for the action, as an afterthought. For-clauses never come at the beginning of the sentence:

  • I know what we shall have for dinner, for I have seen the menu.

In a formal and literary style for is used to indicate the reason for mentioning what has been said previously:

The visitors will be well content to walk around at their own pace. For it is a long day's walk, and the scenery is very enjoyable.


EXERCISES

Ex. 9. (A, B) Complete the sentences with the conjunctions from the box. so that because since as so

1. I walk to work every morning I can get some exercise. 2. no one answered my call, I left a message on the answer-phone. 3. I went away _______________ there was no one there. 4. He spoke slowly_____________ everybody may understand him. 5._________ nobody met me at the station, I had to carry the luggage myself. 6. ____________, you've finished your work, you may go home. 7. I'll call him at once he wouldn't wait for me. 8. it's a public holiday, you won't find many shops open. 9. I'll write the letter immediately _____________ they could receive it by the end of the week. 10. He walked quickly he was in a great hurry. 11. He drew a street plan she might be able to find the house easily. 12. He left the car in the road _____________ he wanted to keep it out of sight. 13. Speak louder _______________ I may hear you. 14. I came to live in the country _________________ I wanted to have trees around me instead of buildings. 15. ____________ I wanted to study in England, I studied English. 16. I've written it very clearly the old man may be able to read it easily.


Ex. 10. (В, С) Translate the sentences.

1. Я записал все цифры, чтобы он не забыл их. 2. Говори громче, чтобы я мог слышать тебя. 3. Она тихо открыла дверь, чтобы дети не проснулись. 4. Положите часы на стол, чтобы дети не сломали их. 5. Девочка спряталась за дерево, чтобы брат не заметил ее. 6. Зажгите свет, чтобы они могли читать. 7. Я сказал им об этом еще раз, чтобы они не забыли. 8. Я дал ему этот журнал, чтобы он мог прочесть вашу статью. 9. Секретарь положил почту на стол, чтобы директор просмотрел ее. 10. Обслуживание в гостинице должно улучшиться, так как произошли изменения в ее руководстве. 11. Так как авиадиспетчеры (The Air Traffic Controllers) объявили забастовку (be on strike), мы отменили свой полет. 12. Так как ее никогда нет дома, когда я звоню, мне придется написать ей. 13. Мне пришлось отдать документ в перевод (have smth done), так как я не смог прочесть его по-немецки. 14. Я не сплю так поздно, так как хочу посмотреть фильм в половине двенадцатого.


14. Contrast clauses

We use contrast clauses when we want to make two statements and one of the statements makes the other seem surprising.

Contrast clauses are introduced by conjunctions: although, though, even though:

  • Although he was late, he stopped to buy a newspaper.

  • She finished the race, even though she had a bad fall.

Sometimes the words still, nevertheless or just the same are used in the main clause to add emphasis to the contrast:

  • Although I was shocked, I still couldn't blame him.

  • Although she hated them; she agreed to help them all the same.

We can also use despite of the fact that or in spite of the fact that to form a contrast clause. In spoken English it is possible to omit that

They ignored his order, in spite of the fact that they would probably get into trouble.

He insisted on playing, in spite of the fact he had a bad cold.


NOTES:

1. To render the same idea we can use in spite of despite + noun/pronoun or -ing

  • Although the traffic was bad, I arrived on time.

  • In spite of the traffic, I arrived on time.

  • I couldn't sleep though I was very tired.

  • I couldn't sleep despite being tired. .

2. We use in spite of but despite without "of".

  • In spite of poor health, my father was always cheerful.

  • Despite the difference in their ages they were close friends.

3. Even though is a stronger form of although.

Even though I was really tired, I couldn't sleep.


EXERCISES

Ex. 15. (A, B) Match the two parts of sentences using the conjunctions: although, though, in spite of the fact that to introduce the contrast. Model: It rained a lot. We enjoyed our holiday.

Although it rained a lot, we enjoyed our holiday.

1. She wasn't well. She went to work.

2. I'm not tired. I've been working hard all day.

3. The house isn't very nice. I like the garden.

4. I've never seen him before. I recognized him from a photograph.

5. I don't play the piano now. I used to when I was younger. You look very much as your grandfather. You're not as tall as he was.

6. We were hungry. We had no time for lunch.

7. We are poor. We still have our pride.

8. He was difficult to understand. His English was very good.

9. We started early. We only arrived just in time.

10. It was very warm. She had her coat on.


Ex. 17. (В, С) Translate the sentences.

  1. Мне очень понравилась его последняя книга, несмотря на то, что она была не очень хорошо написана. 2. Я никогда не могу вспомнить его имя, хотя знаю его давно. 3. Женщины уходят на пенсию раньше, чем мужчины, несмотря на то, что они живут дольше. 4. Я совершенно без сил (exhausted), хотя ничего не делал весь день. 5. Мне действительно понравилась пьеса, хотя у нас были не очень хорошие места. 6. Он умер бедным, хотя много работал всю свою жизнь. 7. Несмотря на то, что я учил французский язык три года, мне трудно говорить на нем на улице. 8. Хотя я не ел 24 часа, я не голоден. 9. Хотя было только 9 часов, на улицах было мало народу. 10. Хотя он очень занят, он найдет время, чтобы помочь нам. 11. Он вышел, несмотря на то, что он был очень простужен. 12. Хотя было поздно, мы решили пойти туда. 13. Несмотря на то, что он много работает, он зарабатывает мало. 14. Я люблю музыку, хотя и не играю на музыкальном инструменте.


15. Emphases

In the English language there is a variety of ways to emphasize (выделить, подчеркнуть) the meaning of certain parts of a sentence. We shall deal here with those that may cause some difficulty in understanding and interpreting the sense of the sentence: emphatic do; double negation; emphatic constructions "ft is.'., that/which/who/whom"; "it was not until... that"; the emphatic phrase "not... till/until".

1. The emphatic DO

The verb do is used to emphasize the predicate of the sentence. It is placed right before the predicate in the required grammatical form, and the predicate is in the form of the infinitive without to:

  • We waited and waited, and finally he did come. - Мы все ждали и ждали, и наконец, он все-таки пришел.

  • She did learn to drive at the age of 65. - Она действительно научилась водить машину в возрасте 65-ти лет.

  • Не does know a lot about the ocean. - Он на самом деле много знает об океане.

  • She does talk a lot, doesn't she? - Она, и правда, много говорит.

NOTE: the verb do in these cases is always pronounced with strong stress.


EXERCISES

Ex. 1. (A, B) Translate the sentences into Russian. Try to convey the exact meaning of the emphatic do.

1. I don't have much contact with my family. I do see my younger sister, though, when I come to London. 2. I don't take much exercise now, but I did play volleyball quite a lot when I was at school. 3. He said he would come and he did come. 4. Now I see that she does know the subject well. 5. We do not know very much of this author. But we do know that all the three poems were written by him. 6. One day a big wolf waited in a dark forest for a little girl to come along carrying a basket of food to her grandmother. Finally a little girl did come along. 7. Materialism does not deny the reality of mind. What materialism does deny is that a thing called «the mind» exists separate from the body. 8. I don't object to your going to the mountains, but I do object to your going there unaccompanied. 9. This writer does, however, belong to that small and select company of contemporary writers whose best work will survive beyond their lifetime. 10. He didn't come, but he did send them the atlas as he had promised.

Ex. 2. (В, С) Translate the sentences into English.

  1. Я действительно сначала думала, что это из-за денег. 2. Я на самом деле люблю его. 3. Я все-таки думаю, что мы должны туда поехать. 4. Я и правда поверила тебе hello_html_7c1e5f63.gifтогда. 5. Он на самом деле хочет тебе помочь. 6. Ты, правда, выглядишь замечательно сегодня. 7. Будь же все-таки серьезной! 8. Он все-таки отклонил это предложение. 9. Они действительно согласились сделать эту работу. 10. Я все-таки надеюсь, что вы приедете.



16. Double negation

The particle not before a negative adjective or adverb serves to emphasize the positive meaning of the adjective or adverb. Such phrases are usually rendered in Russian by means of the combinations «довольно, весьма, вполне» + прилагательное (наречие):

not unusual- вполне обычный

not impossible - весьма возможный

not infrequently - довольно часто

  • Constructions of this type are not unusual in this country.

  • Such outcome is not impossible.

  • These machines cause trouble not infrequently.


EXERCISE

Ex. 3, (А, В, С) Translate the sentences into Russian.

1. The total number of German words in English is not inconsiderable. 2. Their contribution to the common cause was not insignificant. 3. This second novel was savagely, but not unfairly criticized. 4. I would say, his reaction was not unreasonable. 5. It is not unreasonable to group together the painters who worked chiefly in Florence. 6. Storms and hurricanes are not infrequent in these parts of the world. 7. I'm afraid that was done not irregularly. 8. This last work of his is not uninteresting and will, not be unsuccessful. 9. Our life there was not uneventful. 10. He looked down at her not in an unfriendly way.


17. The emphatic construction "it is ... that, which, who, whom"

This construction is a grammatical means to emphasize some part of a sentence. The emphasized part is placed between it and that, and the whole sentence is a complex one. Russian sentences corresponding in meaning to such constructions, are usually simple, with emphatic words before the emphasized part of the sentence. Sometimes, in Russian sentences these emphasized parts are placed at the end.

It is always the unusual which alarms. - Тревогу вызывает всегда необычное.

It was he who had started the discussion. - Именно он открыл дискуссию.

NOTE: most frequently used Russian emphatic words are: именно, как раз, только, лишь. In the negative sentences they are: вовсе не; совсем не:

But it is not the Detective Inspector who is the central figure in the film.

EXERCISES

Ex. 4. (A, B) Translate the sentences into Russian.

1. It was in his dealings with children that the best and sweetest side of his personality was manifested. 2. It was not without a certain wild pleasure that I ran before the wind. 3. It was on the beach, closedown by the sea, that I found them. 4. And it was my dearest friend who first started me on that course. 5. It is no doubt to this quality that the great popularity of this collection is due. 6. It was then that the hunger, the excitement of her escape, and the scintillation of the overhead lights caused Toni to suddenly feel as giddy as a falling moth. 7. Once past the theatre, they wandered on to the library, a handsome, serious-looking room, and it was just past it that Liane discovered the winter garden, and she gasped as they stepped inside. 8.It was the first time in the whole year that he had lost balance. 9. It was of Walter that they now spoke. 10. It was while looking at the spot where the fine porcelain vase had stood that she felt a strange certainty of being watched, and turning saw a stranger in the open door way. 11. It was their identification of Ms Balantine with a certain school of American writers that made her subject to a powerful line of attack on the part of literary critics. 12. It is not from outside, however, but from within, that American English has made the greatest additions to its special words and their uses. 13. It is not only women who go to pawnbrokers, you know. 14. It isn't everyone who has mink, my dear. 15. It is when men begin to use tools for social production that they also begin to speak. 16. It was only with the help of my friends that I managed to survive that tragedy.

Ex. 5. (В, С) Translate the sentences into English.

1. Это сказал именно Джон. 2. Только после войны здесь появились каменные дома. 3. Именно она остановила машину. 4. Не только я один виноват. 5. Лишь на следующее утро она заметила исчезновение фотографии. 6. Они пришли из леса вовсе не этой дорогой. 7. Именно тогда он вспомнил о старом архитекторе. 8. Только после того, как вы научитесь плавать, я позволю вам принять участие в лодочном походе. 9. Вовсе не этот художник нарисовал папин пруд. 10. Они пришли как раз перед тем, как начался спектакль.


18. The emphatic construction "it is not until ... that"

When an adverbial modifier of time is emphasized by means of this construction, it is rendered in Russian by a simple affirmative sentence with emphasizing words:

It was not until noon that we were able to resume our work. - Только в полдень мы смогли возобновить работу.

When an adverbial clause of time is emphasized, it is rendered in Russian by a complex sentence:

It was not until they reached their house that he remembered about the letter. -Только (тогда), когда они подошли к своему дому, он вспомнил про письмо.

EXERCISES

Ex. 6. (В, С) Translate the sentences into Russian.

1. Actually, however, it is not until the other person begins to speak that you can form a very definite idea of his personality and his character. 2. It was not until 1846, when "Vanity Fair" began to appear, that Thackeray attained any eminence. 3. It was not until the end of the seventeenth century that France began to produce an art that, instead of echoing the faded glamour of Italy, reflected the lively if equally artificial life of Versailles. 4. It was not till impressionism turned its attention to the nature of light and especially to the colour of shadow that painters evolved a new way of seeing. 5. It was not until seven years had passed since the manuscripts had come into this scientist's hands that they published them with the introduction translated into English. 6. It was not till a century and a half had passed after Claudian conquest that the Emperor Severus marked the final limit of the northern frontier between Scotland and England by renovating the wall that Hadrian had erected.


Ex. 7. (В, С) Translate the sentences into English.

1 .Самолет отправился только на следующий день. 2.Только тогда, когда он увидел их снова, он понял свою ошибку. 3. Только глубокой ночью стали известны результаты матча. 4. Мы получили от него первые вести только ранней весной. 5. Они узнали, что поезд отменен только тогда, когда приехали на вокзал. 6. Снег растаял лишь в конце апреля. 7. Она сообщила им о своем решении уехать лишь когда уже приехала на новое место жительства. 8. Только тогда, когда была опубликована его книга, он смог оставить работу в больнице. 9. Только тогда, когда он увидел это письмо, он поверил, что все позади. 10. Это можно понять, лишь, когда сам сделаешь это.



19. The emphatic "not ... till/until"

This negative construction is rendered in Russian by means of an affirmative sentence with the emphatic words before the adverbial modifier of time.

Not till/until after = только после

  • They did not come back till late at night. - Они вернулись только поздно ночью.

  • They did not meet again until after the war. - Они встретились снова только после войны.


EXERCISES

Ex. 8. (A, B) Translate the sentences into Russian.

1. The first part of his novel did not come out until after his return from the trip. 2. Cotton was not introduced to Japan from China until later and wool was unknown. 3. The last novel by Ch. Bronte remained unfinished and was not published until the end of the 20th century when it was completed by another authoress. 4. In England ancient fields indicate that no plough was used till late in the local bronze age, about 800 B.C., and then at first only in the South. 5. Silver and lead were not used in Britain till after 500, though Britain is well supplied with lead ores.6. "Utopia" was written in Latin about 1516, and it was not translated till 1551, some years after More's death.

Ex. 9. (В, С) Translate the sentences into English.

1. Он начал писать стихи только после окончания университета. 2.Он позвонил только в 8 часов. 3. Они уехали только в полночь. 4. Спектакль начался только в 11 часов. 5. Я смог уйти только после ланча. 6. Мы сможем встретиться только после представления. 7. Я начну этот перевод только после отпуска. 8. Мы заснули только на рассвете. 9. Они вернутся только осенью. 10. Они поженились только после рождения их второго ребенка


















20. The compound sentence. Conjunctions and connectives



Conjunctions Connectives

Translation

Examples

Conjunctions

and or else but

и

или

иначе(или) но

Are you conning or are you staying at home?

He must be joking or else he's mad.

He went to his room but he couldn't work.

Connectives

otherwise however nevertheless yet/still

therefore

иначе

однако

тем не менее

все-таки

тем не менее

поэтому

Do what you've been told otherwise you'll be
punished.

He was wrong, however, he went on doing it his
own way.

There was no news, nevertheless, she went on
hoping.

She was vain and foolish, and yet people liked
her.

He has treated you badly; still, he's your brother
and you ought to help him.

I'm working on Monday, therefore 1 can't meet
you at the station.

Correlatives

both... and

either... or

neither... nor not only... but also

как... так и

или ... или

ни ... ни не только ... но и

The key both opened the door and it kept the
door locked.

You'll either sail this boat correctly or you'll never
sail with me again.

Her nails were neither long nor were they painted.

Not only did they win, but they also changed the
nature of the team.

21. The complex sentence. conjunctions and connectives

Clauses

Conjunctions Connectives

Translation

Examples

Object

that

if/whether

when

what

where

how

why

что

ли

когда

что

где

как

почему

She felt that someone else was there.

Time will show whether I'm right or not.

He asked when we would be back.

I'll do what 1 say.

He asked where we had met.

He stood thinking how nice she looked.

He wondered why he should do it.

Relative

who

that

which

whom

whose

который

который

который

которого

чей

The man who normally works here is ill.

Have you seen the dress that I've just bought?

Have you read the book which 1 gave you?

1 know the man whom you mean.

Our sister whose photo 1 showed you is coming tomorrow.

Time

when

after

before

while

till/until

as

since

as soon as

as long as

когда

после того как до того как в то время как пока, до тех пор как когда; в то время как; по мере того как

с, с тех пор как как только до тех пор пока

When he had finished, he turned out the light.

Laura went for a ride after Jan had left for work.

Read the document carefully before you sign it.

She had to escape, while they slept.

We waited until Bruno's brother came and told us the news.

The telephone rang as he was unlocking the door.

What have you been doing since 1 last saw you?

As soon as he gets the money he'll pay back.

I'll never forget them as long as 1 live.

Reason

because as

since for

потому что

так как

так как, поскольку так как, ибо (formal)

Because she was my mother, 1 expected her to understand me.

As 1 haven't read the book, 1 can't tell you anything about it.

You're sure to know him, since you seem to know everyone.

He walked quickly, for he was in a great hurry.

Manner

(just) as

as if /as though

как

как будто

The clock in the room ticked loudly, just as 1 had remember.

She looked at me as if the meaning escaped her.

Purpose

so as (not) to so

so that...

(not)

in order that

in order (not) to

чтобы (не), для того чтобы (не)

She stepped forward as though hypnotized.

Take notes so you'll remember all.

He arranged for the taxi to come at six so that she wouldn't have to wait long at the station.

He talked to the bird softly in order not to frighten it.

Contrast

although (even) though in spite of the fact that

хотя

хотя несмотря на то,что

He speaks fluent English (al)though he has never been to England.

He went out in spite of the fact that he had a bad cold.

Conditional

if

unless provided/ providing (that) in case

если

если не при условии, что

в случае

He'll get the letter tomorrow if you send it off now.

I'll go there tomorrow unless I'm too busy.

Mother will believe me provided 1 tell her what she wants to hear.

In case you see him, give him the message.




























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