Методичний посібник “Розвиток навичок читання, перекладу та мовлення на заняттях іноземної мови (англійської)”
Рекомендовано методичною радою
информаційно-методичним центром відділу освіти
Харківською районною державною адміністрацією
Протокол № від
Автор: Лупіка Лілія Василівна, вчитель іноземних мов (німецька, англійська), спеціаліст.
Методичний посібник “Розвиток навичок читання, перекладу та мовлення на заняттях іноземної мови (англійської)” розроблені для вчителів іноземної мови (англійської), як додаткова література з метою урізноманітнення занять іноземної мови та для учнів з поглибленим вивченням іноземної мови. Посібник вміщує оригінальні фабульні тексти для читання з загальним обсягом змісту; контрольні завдання типу текстів варіативного вибору; завдання для удосконалення навичок мовлення. Ціль цих завдань – удосконалити навички різноманітних видів читання; розширити лексичний мінімум учнів; організувати перевірку розуміння прочитаного; розвиток навичок виявлення змістової інформації; формування навичок виконати змістову компресію тексту; удосконалити навички мовної компетенції.
Методичний посібник “Розвиток навичок читання, перекладу та мовлення на заняттях іноземної мови (англійської)”: Методичний посібник. - 2013. – 95 с.
Вступ …………………………………………………………………………....с. 3
„How many languages can a person know?” ………………………………...c. 6
“Lispeth” …………………………………………………………………….....c. 8
“Pavlov's toy dog” ………………………………………………………….....c. 14
“The Diamond maker” ……………………………………………………….c. 16
“A Secret of Art” ………………………………………………………….….c. 25
“English spelling” …………………………………………………………….c. 27
“The Angry fan” ………………………………………………………….…..c. 32
“A clever explanation” …………………………………………………….…c. 34
“A Service of Love” (O. Henry)…………………………………………...…c. 37
“A little accident while cycling” (Jerome K. Jerome) …………………..….c. 42
“My Uncle Tom” ………………………………………………………….......c. 46
“Eugene Witla wahts to be an artist” (from “The Genius” by Th. Dreiser) c.49
“Two Gentlemen of Verona” (after A. Cronin) ………………………….....c. 53
“Postal service in the past” …………………………………………………..c. 58
“Daily Bread” (retold from the story by O. Henry) …………………….….c. 64
“Photo printers: are they Worth the Extra cost?” ………………………....c. 69
“Nothing ordinary about standard PDA” …………………………………..c. 73
“European airlines to test cell phone use” ………………………………..…c. 75
“Verb for shoe – very intelligent shoes!” ……………………………...….…c. 78
“Robowatch technologies” ……………………………………………….…..c. 82
Висновки …………………………………………………………………..….с. 85
Література ………………………………………………..………………......с. 94
Інтеграція українського суспільства до Європейського та міжнародного соціально-економічного, культурного, інформаційного простору, ринку праці зумовлює потребу в ефективній дидактичній технології, що забезпечувала б неперервну взаємодію співучасників навчання, вмотивоване залучення їх до навчально-виховного процесу, бажання здійснювати самоосвіту та подальшу освіту у вищих навчальних закладах. Основною метою навчання іноземним мовам у загальноосвітній школі стає розвиток здібностей учнів використовувати іноземну мову як інструмент у діалозі культур і цивілізацій сучасного світу. Формування в учнів умінь і навичок іншомовного спілкування передбачає досягнення ними такого рівня комунікативної компетенції, який був би достатнім для здійснення спілкування в певних комунікативних сферах. З позицій державної мовної політики навчання іноземних мов є одним із пріоритетів сучасної освіти. Незважаючи на різноаспектність дослідження розглядуваної проблеми, не набуло достатнього обґрунтування питання вибору форм та методів роботи, спрямованих на формування та розвиток всіх складових комунікативної компетенції учнів. Стрімкі зміни, що відбуваються в українському суспільстві, осучаснення освітньої системи, досягнення в галузі практики викладання іноземної мови поставили перед кожним педагогом необхідність оновлення змісту і методів навчання іноземної мови. Загальна стратегія навчання іноземних мов визначається потребами сучасного суспільства та рівнем розвитку лінгвістичних, психолого-педагогічних і суміжних наук. Цією стратегією є комунікативний підхід, який зумовлює практичну мету навчання й вивчення іноземних мов, а саме: формування і розвитку міжкультурної комунікативної компетенції.
Концепція навчання іноземних мов, програми з іноземної мови для середніх загальноосвітніх та спеціалізованих шкіл з поглибленим вивченням іноземної мови визначають основну мету навчання, яка полягає у формуванні в учнів комунікативної компетенції, що розвиток умінь використовувати іноземну мову як інструмент у діалозі культур на основі комунікативно-орієнтованого підходу до навчання. Ця мета передбачає досягнення школярами такого рівня комунікативної компетенції, який був би достатнім для здійснення спілкування в усній (говоріння, аудіювання) та писемній (читання, письмо) формах у межах визначених комунікативних сфер, тематики ситуативного мовлення та на основі вивченого мовного і мовленнєвого матеріалу. Мова виступає як засіб пізнання картини світу, залучення до цінностей створених іншими народами. Одночасно мова – це ключ до відкриття унікальності і своєрідності, власної самобутності.
Пріоритетною є комунікативна мета у навчанні, що передбачає таку організацію діяльності, яка спрямована на оволодіння учнями спілкуванням в усній та писемній формах. Сучасна комунікативна методика передбачає використання різноманітних форм роботи для того, щоб забезпечити учнів активною мовленнєвою практикою на уроці іноземної мови.
Спираючись на теоретичний матеріал та свій практичний досвід, був зроблений висновок, що педагог не повинен домінувати на уроці, а навпаки, має стати з перших кроків вивчення іноземної мови рівноправним партнером, другом, помічником. Учні повинні не тільки сприймати і відчувати матеріал, а вміти з перших уроків висловлювати своє ставлення до нього, отримувати задоволення від своєї здатності розуміти ситуацію, не боятися припуститися помилок та відчувати доброзичливість і справедливість, повинні вміти критично мислити, навчитись правильно сприймати похвалу і критику, допомогу вчителя і однокласників, відчувати власний успіх. Використання ігрової ситуації, рольової гри на уроці підсилює емоційне сприйняття матеріалу, в процесі гри учні набувають досвіду мовного спілкування. Можливість говорити не від свого імені, а від імені персонажу, роль якого грає учень, дозволяє звільнитися від страху бути смішним, від сором’язливості, тривоги. А саме страх, як відомо, формує психологічний бар’єр, який сковує школярів, створює емоційну напругу.
Креативне навчання іноземної мови базується на обв’язковому здійсненні учнями творчої діяльності. Важливим завданням є полегшення і стимулювання творчого процесу, забезпечення оцінювання його продуктів. Учні звикли до таких видів робіт як реферат, повідомлення, реклама, запрошення, творчі переклади, презентації, власні відеофільми (додаток М). Створення власних відеороликів підвищує самооцінку учнів, сприяє розвитку самоосвіти, створює ситуації, наближені до реального спілкування, стимулює учнів творчо мислити та відходити від стандарту. Реалізація комунікативного підходу у навчальному процесі з іноземної мови означає, що формування комунікативної компетенції учнів відбувається шляхом і завдяки здійсненню учнем іншомовної мовленнєвої діяльності. Іншими словами, оволодіння засобами спілкування (фонетичними, лексичними, граматичними) спрямоване на їх практичне застосування у процесі спілкування. Оволодіння уміннями говоріння, аудіювання, читання та письма здійснюється шляхом реалізації цих видів мовленнєвої діяльності у процесі навчання в умовах, що моделюють ситуації реального спілкування. У зв’язку з цим навчальна діяльність учнів організується таким чином, щоб вони виконували вмотивовані дії з мовленнєвим матеріалом для вирішення комунікативних завдань, спрямованих на досягнення цілей та намірів спілкування.
Спілкування людей в реальному житті відбувається завдяки виникненню потреби в реалізації певного комунікативного наміру, досягнення або недосягнення якого визначає результат мовленнєвого спілкування. У ході спілкування комуні канти виступають як носії певних соціальних стосунків, що виникають в тій чи іншій сфері діяльності і реалізуються в конкретних мовленнєвих ситуаціях. Формування комунікативної компетенції можливе за умови моделювання у навчальному процесі типових ситуацій реального спілкування, які виникають в різних сферах життя і стосуються різних тем. Тобто предметно-змістовий план іншомовного мовлення учнів під час навчання зумовлюється темою, ситуацією і сферою спілкування.
HOW MANY LANGUAGES CAN A PERSON KNOW?
This happened in Paris, in the autumn of 1933. A woman came up to a newspaper stand and asked for newspapers in Russian, Italian, French, German and some other languages. The man at the stand was sure that the woman was buying the newspapers for a hotel where there were many foreign guests. "If you agree to buy all these newspapers for your hotel every day", he said, "I'll sell them to you for less money".
The woman smiled and answered that the newspapers were not for a hotel. They were for her husband, who read newspapers in seven languages every day.
She was the well-known Russian actress, Lunacharskaya-Rosenel, the wife of Lunacharsky, who was in a Paris hospital at that time. Lunacharsky could speak and read almost all the languages of Europe. You know, of course, how well Vladimir Ilyich Lenin knew foreign languages. At Comintern congress and conferences Lenin spoke in English, French, German, Italian, Polish, Swedish and
Czech. Karl Marx knew very many languages - one of them, Russian; and Frederick Engels knew even more languages.
Of course, all these were unusual people. But we must not think that anly great scientist s or geniuses can learn many foreign languages. In modern times, when science and technical knowledge are progressing so fast, all kinds of specialists need foreign languages in their work - teachers, doctors, scientific workers, engineers and people of many other professions. If a specialist doesn't know foreign languages, if he must wait for translations, he can hardly hope to know all the literature in foreign languages that he needs; and what he reads In translation may be months, and even years behind the times.
"But", you will say, "how can I hope to learn so much? I have enough dificulty learning one language". The answer is that when we have learned one foreign language, learning a second foreign language is much easier. Learning a third foreign language is much easier than learning the second, and so on. There are many people in our country who have discovered this secret. They know that success in foreign language learning is connected not only with a person's natural talent. We must work hard to learn our firs t foreign language. After the first, other languages are a much easier task.
a newspaper stand - кіоск
science - наука
knowledge – знання
Завдання до тексту:
Дайте відповіді на запитання:
How many languages could Lunacharsky speak and read?
What languages did Lenin speak in at Comintern Congresses?
Did Karl Marx and Frederick Engels know Russian?
Does the knowledge of foreign languages help all kinds of specialists
in their work?
What happens if a specialist doesn't know foreign languages?
Do you find it difficult to learn foreign languages?
Why are you learning English?
Whom do we call a polyglot?
What is polyglots' secret in language learning?
What languages would you like to learn (to know) besides English?
What is the success in foreign languages learning connected with?
She was the daughter of a hillman who lived in the Himalayas. One year, the harvest was very poor, and the hillman and his wife had nothing to eat that winter. So the next spring they decided to become Christians and they brought their baby to the English church in Kotgarh. The chaplain gave her the name of Elizabeth, and everybody in the hills pronounced her name Lispeth.
Her mother and father died soon after that, and Lispeth became a servant in the house of the Kotgarh chaplain. When she grew up, she was so beautiful that the chaplain's wife was ashamed to ask her to do servant's work. Lispeth played with the chaplain's children and helped about the house a little. She read all the books in the house and grew more and more beautiful. The chaplain's wife was worried about the girl's future. She wanted to send Lispeth to Simla or some other big city to receive an education, but Lispeth did not want to go away. She was happy where she was.
One day, a few months after her seventeenth birthday, Lispeth went out for a walk. She liked to walk far - twenty or even thirty miles. This time, she came back in the evening very tired. She was carrying something heavy in her arms. She came into the house and carefully put it on the bed. "This is my husband", she said simply. "I found him in the hills. He has hurt himself and he is not well. We will take care of him, and when he is well again, your husband will marry him to me".
This was the first time that Lispeth had ever spoken of her plans for future, and the chaplain's 'wife stood looking at her in the greatest surprise . But the man on the bed was badly hurt, and needed immediate attention. So she did not answer the girl then. He was a young Englishman, and Lispeth had found him at the foot
of a hill near a big stone. The chaplain, who knew something about medicine, examined him Lispeth helped. She explained to the chaplain that this was the man she wanted to marry. The chaplain and his wife tried to explain to her that a young girl must not say such things. Lispeth listened quietly and repeated what she had already said - that she was going to take care of the Englishman until he was well
enough to marry her.
Two weeks later, the patient began to feel better. He thanked the chaplain and his wife, and Lispeth - especially Lispeth - for everything they had done for him. He was a traveler in the East, he said, and had come to look for unusual plants in the Simla hills. He thought that he had fallen and hurt his head on a stone while he was trying to reach a flower. He said he would go back to Simla when he got back his health and strength.
Day after day passed, and though the Englishman was quite well now, he did not go away. The chaplain and his wife could not make Lispeth change her mind, so the chaplain's wife spoke to the Englishman and told him what was in Lispeth's heart. The Englishman laughed and said it was very romantic, but it didn't mean anything serious. And as he had a girl at home waiting for him, there was nothing to worry about. Still, he found it very pleasant to talk to Lispeth and walk with Lispeth and say nice things to her while those two weeks, because she had found someone to love. When he went away, Lispeth walked with him up the hill, worried and very unhappy. The chaplain's wife, who didn't like scandal of any kind, had asked the Englishman to tell Lispeth that he would come back to marry her. "She is only a child, you know, and besides, I am afraid she is not a real Christian", the chalplain's wife said. So, all the twelve miles up the hill, the Englishman, with his arm around Lispeth, was telling the girl that he would come back, and Lispeth made him repeat it again and again.
When she came home, she said, "He will come back and marry me". And the chaplain's wife said, "Yes, he will come back". At the end of two months, the chaplain and his wife told Lispeth that the Englishman had gone across the seas to England. Lispeth knew where England was, of course, because she had read geog-raphy books. There was an old map of the world in the house, and she looked at it in the evening after supper and cried and tried to guess when her Englishman would come back. But he had forgotten all about her when he came back to Simla. Later, he wrote a book about the East. There was nothing about Lispeth in the book.
At the end of the third month, Lispeth began to take walks up the hill to see if her Englishman was coming. But a little later the walks did not help, and she felt very unhappy. The chaplain's wife decided to tell Lispeth the truth - that the Englishman would not come back, and it was wrong for a hill girl to think of marring an Englishman. Lispeth did not believe it at first. "He told me himself that he would come back", she said. "And you said so too".
"W e said it to keep you quiet, child", the chaplain's wife said. "Then you have lied to me", Lispeth said. "You, and he!"
The chaplain's wife said nothing. For a minute or two, Lispeth said nothing either. Then she went out and came back in the clothes of a hill girl. "I am going back to my own people", she said. "I am no longer Lispeth. I am ashamed of you, and I hate you. You are all liars, you English!". And she left the house, and never came back again.
hillman – мешканець Гімалаїв
the Himalayas - Гімалаї
harvest - врожай
church - церква
chaplain - священик
to be worried about - непокоїтись
to take care of somebody – піклуватись про когось
medicine - медицина
immediate attention – невідкладна допомога (увага)
plants - рослини
to get back health and strength - вилікуватись
to guess - відгадувати
to be ashamed of somebody - соромитись
to hate - ненавидіти
Завдання до тексту:
I. Уважно прочитайте текст. Перевірте, чи вірно ви зрозуміли його зміст. Перегляньте наступні твердження та випишіть номера тих, які не відповідають змісту тексту.
1. Lispeth was the daughter of the Kotgarh chaplain.
2. The chaplain's wife was worried about the girl's future.
3. She did not like to walk far away from the house she lived in.
4. She was speaking of her plans for the future all the time.
5. One day Lispeth went out for a walk and came back in the evening carrying
badly hurt young Englishman.
6. Two weeks later the patient began to feel better and getting back to his health
and strength, he even did not thank chaplain and his family for everything they
had done for him and went away to England.
7. The chaplain and his wife could not make Lispeth change he mind to marry the
8. The Englishman was very romantic and agreed to marry Lispeth.
9. When the Englishman had come back to England he wrote a book about the East
and there was something about Lispeth" in it.
10. Lispeth went back to her own people when she had realized that those whom
she loved were all liars.
Прочитайте наступні речення. До кожного з речень надані два варіанти пояснень, розгортаючи цілі та мотиви вчинків героїв оповідання. Випишіть номера тих варіантів, що вважаєте відповідними змісту оповідання.
Lispeth's parents decided to become christians.
1) because they wanted to go to England;
2) because one year the harvest was very poor and they had nothing to eat;
The chaplain's wife was ashamed to ask Lispeth to do servant's work.
3) as she was very beautiful when grew up;
4) as she was from a noble family;
Lispeth was very tired one day when she came home.
5) because she was carrying the young Englishman;
6) because she had walked many miles in the high mountains with the young
Englishman whom it was very pleasant to talk;
The young Englishman went away when he began to feel stronger.
7) because it was clear to him that Lispeth was in love with him;
8) because he had a family of his own;
The chaplain's wife 1ied to Lispeth.
9) because she was afraid the girl would be unhappy;
10) because she thought that hill girl s were not good enough for the Englishmen
and must not dream of marrying Englishmen.
III. Дайте відповіді на наступні запитання:
1. Where did the events described in the story take place?
2. Why didn't Lispeth want to be sent to some big city to receive an education?
3. What did Lispeth say one day when she returned home from a walk with
something heavy in her arms?
4. Who was the young Englishman whom she had found at the foot of a hill?
5. Why didn't he go away at once when he became quite well?
6. Was Lispeth happy those two weeks?
7. Why did chaplain and his wife make the Englishman tell Lispeth a lie?
8. When did they tell Lispeth that her beloved had gone across the seas to
IV. Перекажіть зміст тексту, використовуючи запитання вправи III в якості плану.
Pavlov's toy dog
There is a monument to the dog in the Pavlov biological laboratory near Leningrad; and a toy dog stands on Pavlov's books in the room where the great scientist carried out his famous search on the higher nervous system. This toy dog has an interesting history. It came from England, and was a gift to Pavlov on the day he received the honorary degree of Doctor at Cambridge University.
On that day in July, 1912, there were several foreign scientists in Cambridge, who had arrived, at the invitation of the University, to receive honorary degrees. Among them was Ivan Pavlov: the University had chosen him for the honour because his outstanding research.
All the professors and students and many of the inhabitant of the town were present at the ceremony. The great hall was crowded, and there were hundreds of students in the gallery, watching the ceremony. It was opened with the traditional speech in Latin, after which the scientists came forward one by one, receive the diploma of Doctor of Cambridge.
When Pavlov's name was called and he began to move forward, there was loud applause in the hall. The students in the gallery over his head were letting a toy dog down to him, and he received it in his arms. As he looked up at the smiling, applauding students, Pavlov's eyes filled with tears. It was one of the happiest moment in his life.
"We got the idea from Darwin's grandson, who is a student here at the University", one of the student leaders told a reporter later. "He remembered that when his grandfather, Charles Darwin, was given the degree of Doctor, the students gave him a toy monkey. It wasn't a joke - the students wanted to express
their support for Darwin in his fight against the opponents of his theory. By giving Pavlov a dog we wanted to express our admiration for his brilliant experiments. We consider him a genius; he deserves the support of all progressive scientists".
"The gift gave me great pleasure", Pavlov said, and lie added: "Those young people are the future of science, and I am proud to have their support and recognition".
gift – подарунок
honorary degree – почесне звання, ступінь
invitation – запрошення
applause – аплодисменти
to applaud – аплодувати
support – підтримка
admiration – захоплення
monkey – мавпа
recognition – визнання
Завдання до тексту:
Перекажіть його зміст, використовуючи питання записані нижче у якості плану:
1. Where is a monument to the dog?
2. What do you know about Pavlov and his contribution into the world science?
3. What degree did Pavlov receive at Cambridge University?
4. How was he met by the students watching, the ceremony?
5. What did he receive from the students?
6. Why did Pavlov's eyes fill with tears?
7. Whose idea was it to give him a toy dog?
8. What did this gift mean?
THE DIAMOND MAKER
Some business had kept me in the office until nine in the evening. I felt tired and hot and went down to the rive r for a walk. I was looking at the lights in the dark water, when a voice near me said: "A warm night, isn't it?"
I turned to look at the person who had spoken. Large, dark eyes in a tired face, not young. His clothes were old, there was no hat on hi s head and I could see that he was poor. I knew that if I answered him, he would ask for money. At first I didn't want to talk to him. But there was something I liked in his face, and I changed my mind. "Very warm", I said with a smile. "But not too warm for us here in London". "No", he said. "The air is pleasant enough". "It is good", he continued, "to find such a quiet place after a busy day. You must be tired too, but I don't think you can be as tired as I am. Sometimes I think I'll stop trying to become rich and famous. But I know I'll be sorry for the rest of my days".
He stopped, and I looked at him. It was very strange: the man was poorly dressed and dirty - and he was dreaming of becoming famous!. He saw that I didn't believe him and said: "I am forgetting myself. Of course, you don't understand". He looked at me with unhappy eyes. "I am sure you will not believe me, even if I tell you. But I want to tell somebody... anybody. The fact is I have discovered a way to make diamonds". He pulled a little bag from under his coat and took a brown stone out of it. He gave the stone to me and asked: "Do you know what that is?".
I studied science when I went to London University, so I knew something about such things. The stone that I held looked like a real diamond, though it was too large, almost as big as a small bird's egg. I took my knife and tried to scratch it, but couldn't. Then I tried it on my watch-glass and it scratched a white line across it. The man was watching me.
"It looks a little like a diamond", I said. "But if it is a diamond, it is the biggest I have ever seen. Where did you get it?'. "I have told you, I made it", he answered. He was angry now. "Give it back to me". He took it and pushed it back into the bag. "I'll sell it to you for one hundred pounds", he said in a quick low voice.
I felt that there was something wrong. Perhaps it wasn't a diamond? Other stones can be almost as hard as a diamond. Or, if it was a diamond, where did he get it, and why was he selling it for only one hundred pounds? We looked into each other's eyes. At that moment, I believed that it was a diamond. But I am not a rich man, a hundred pounds is a large sum to me, and no man in his right mind buys a "diamond at night, in the poor light of a street lamp. A diamond like that could cost thousands of pounds. Such diamonds are described in special books. No, the idea of buying it seemed foolish.
"How did you get it?" I asked. "I'm telling you the truth", he answered. "I made it". As I did not continue, he spoke again. "I will tell you something about myself. Perhaps then you will believe me". He looked up at the dark sky. "Diamonds", he began, and now his words sounded like the speech of a university professor, "can be made out of carbon at very high temperatures and under very high pressure. Scientists have known that for years, but nobody has found the right
pressure or the right kind of carbon.
"I began to work on the problem when I was seventeen", he continued. "And now I am thirty-two. I had about a thousand pounds when I was twenty-one. I thought that would be enough for my experiments. I had to be very careful with my money. I lived in a dark room with no air and slept with all my wires and apparatus around me. The money flew out of my hands, though I spent nothing on myself and bought only what I needed to improve my apparatus. I tried to give lessons, but I am not a good teacher, and I haven't any education except in chemistry.
"I never stopped working, though I often had nothing to eat. At last I began to think about the high pressure of an explosion in a closed cylinder. With my last money I got a strong cylinder, put my carbon and dynamite into it, put the cylinder on the fire, and. went out for a walk".
"Weren't you afraid to leave the cylinder on the fire , full of dynamite?" I asked. "Yes, it was dangerous", he said. "But I was sure the cylinder was strong enough. When I returned, everything was the same as I had left it. The explosion had taken place and I knew there were diamond crystals in the cylinder. How I had a new problem. You know that time is the main question in crystallization. I f you
open the cylinder too soon, the crystals are small - they grow larger only under high temperatures for a very long time. I decided to let the temperature go down very slowly for two years, and not to open the cylinder during that time. But I had no money to buy coal for the fire that I had to have for two whole years. And I had to pay for my room, and I had to eat".
I can't tell you all the things I have done to get a little money while I was making the diamonds. I have sol d newspapers, worked in a shop, carried bags at railway stations. Once, for a week I couldn't find any work at all. What a week that was! I met a young man who was walking with his girl, and he gave, me a little money - perhaps to show his girl how rich he was. I was hungry, but I spent the money on coal for my fire.
At last, three weeks ago, I took my cylinder out of the fire. I opened the cylinder when it was still hot. And I found three big diamonds and five small ones in it. I was examining them when the door opened and my neighbour came in. He was drunk - as he usually is. "You're an anarchist!" he said, his eyes full of hate. "What are you doing here, you drunken animal!" I shouted. "Ha, hah!" he laughed. He was enjoying himself. He began to talk about how he had gone to the police and told them he had noticed the fire in my room. And that he was sure I was an anarchist, and I was making some kind of dynamite. "And they wrote down everything" he said. "And they didn't call me an animal, they could see that I was a gentleman!"
"I saw at once what would happen. If the police came, they would make me tell them my secret, or they would arrest me as a dangerous anarchist. And the newspapers would tell the whole story, and the big companies would get my invention. What can a poor man do against a rich company? "I threw him out of my room. Then I put my diamonds in this bag and left the house, and I never went back there. The evening news-papers called my place the Kentish-Town Bomb Factory. And I can't sell my diamonds to anybody, though I have gone everywhere. "When I go into a shop and show them these diamonds, they tell me to wait. Then they say something quietly to one of the girls, and she runs out to look for a policeman. I don't explain what is the matter, but I say I can't wait, and go away. I am walking the streets with a hundred thousand pounds in diamonds in this bag, and no home or food. You are the first person I have told the story to. I liked your face, and I must find help somewhere".
He looked into my eyes. "I can't buy the diamond here", I said. "Besides, I don't carry hundred pounds with me every day. But I half believe your story, and if you come to my office tomorrow..." He took a step away from me. "You think I am a thief!" he said. "You will tell the police". "No, I am sure you aren't a thief. Here is my address. An pound with it. Come whenever you like, don't tell me when. So you can be sure the police will not be waiting for you when you come.
He took the address and the money. "I don't know...", he said. "But I'll pay you back the pound some day, and thank you. I hope you will keep my secret...don't follow me".
He walked across the road, and when he reached the corner, turned and went into a dark street. And I never saw him again. Once, he came to my office when I was out. He left no message, and my office boy described him as a very tired, dirty man who looked seriously ill. I often think of him. Was he a clever story-teller? Or had he really discovered a way to make diamonds? Perhaps he has died, and people threw the stones away - one, you remember, was almost as big as a bird's egg. Or perhaps he is still walking the streets, and can't find anybody to sell them to. Sometimes I am sorry I didn't give him the hundred pounds.
to change one's mind – змінити рішення
to discover - викрити
diamond - діаманд
to pull - тягнути
to scratch - царапати
I tried it on my watch-glass – Я спробував його на склі годинника
to sell - продавати
to cost - коштувати
to describe - описувати
pressure - тиск
careful - обережний
flow out - відпливати
except - зокрема
explosion - вибух
dangerous - небезпечний
neighbour - сусід
hate – гнів
animal - тварина
invention - відкриття
message - повідомлення
Завдання до тексту:
Уважно прочитайте текст. Перевірте, чи вірно ви зрозуміли його зміст. Перегляньте наступні твердження та випишіть номера тих, які не відповідають змісту тексту.
The inventor's life wasn't an easy one.
At first the author did not believe his story.
The author was sorry he hadn't bought the diamond from the man.
The man was a thief.
When the man took his cylinder out of the fir e he found five big diamonds
and three small ones in it.
He was examining his diamonds when the door opened and the police came
The inventor had known the way the diamonds could be made and he found
the right pressure and the right kin d of carbon.
The author of the story was going down the rive r and the inventor told him
about his experiments he had made at the laboratory of London University.
The inventor tried to get rid of the diamonds.
The man had been working on the problem of artificial diamonds for fifteen
II. Визначте, чи є в оповіданні відповіді на наступні запитання? Випишіть
номера тих запитань, на які є відповіді:
1. What did the man say about his education?
2. Why was the stranger selling his diamonds for only one hundred pounds?
3. What made him so rich?
4. Was the man a clever story-teller?
5. Did the man look seriously ill?
6. Who called his place the Kentish-Town Bomb Factory?
7. How many diamonds did the man find in his cylinder?
8. Had he really discovered a way to make diamonds?
9. Did the newspapers tell the inventor's story and the big companies get his
10. What had happened to the inventor and his diamonds?
Знайдіть та прочитайте речення, що містять не згоду з наступними
1. Я озирнувся и поглянув на чоловіка, що заговорив зі мною. Він був одягнений за останньою модою, на голові в нього був капелюх, і по всьому було видно, що він багатій.
2. Наші погляди зустрілись. В той самий час я вірив, що це був діамант. Я був достатньо заможним і тисяча фунтів нічого не значили для мене; до того ж було щось таємниче в цій покупці при тусклому світлі вуличного стовпа.
3. незнайомець сказав, що він був непоганим вчителем і давав уроки, оскільки отримав різносторонню освіту у Лондонському університеті.
4. «Чи знаєте, що час це головний фактор в процесі кристалізації. В мене було достатньо грошей, щоб придбати вугіль для підтримки цього процесу цілих два роки», - сказав винахідник.
5. Він міг продати діаманти будь-якій людині, де б він не пішов.
6. Коли я заходив до магазину та показував ці діаманти, мене прохали почекати. Потім щось тихо казали одній з дівчат-продавчинь і вона приносила необхідну суму грошей.
7. Інколи я жалкую про те, що дав йому цю тисячу фунтів.
IV. Прочитайте наступні речення. До кожного з них надані пояснення, що розкривають цілі та мотиви вчинків героїв оповідання. Позначте номера тих варіантів пояснень, що не вважаєте відповідними змісту тексту :
At firs t the author did not want to talk to the man;
1) because there was something he disliked in the man's face;
2) because he knew that if he answered him, he would ask for money.
The man looked seriously ill.
3) because he live d in a dark room with no sir and slept with all his wires and
apparatus around him.
4) because he spent all his money on food.
A young man who met him once gave the inventor a little money
5) because he was sorry for him.
6) to show his girl how rich he was.
The inventor told his story to the author
7) because he liked his face and had to find help somewhere.
8) because he was looking for a refuge as the police pursued him.
The author gave the stranger his address and only one pound
9) because he thought the stranger was a good story-teller.
10) because a hundred pound was a large sum to him.
V. Дайте відповідь на наступні запитання:
1. Why and where did the author of the story go for a walk?
2. How did the person who had spoken to him looked like?
3. Why the author didn't want to speak to the stranger at first?
4. Did the author believe that the large brown stone he had examined was a
5. What did the stranger tell about diamonds?
6. What did the stranger do to get a little money while he was making the
7. What happened one day when he was examining his diamonds?
8. Why couldn't he sell his diamonds?
9. Did the author meet the stranger again?
10. What made the author be sorry that he did not give him the hundred pounds?
VI. Перекажіть зміст оповідання, використовуючи запитання вправи у
A SECRET OF ART
A rich American bought a painting by a well-known artist. A had cost him very much money, he was sure it was a fine piece art; besides, the man who sold it to him told him the artist had received a gold medal for it.
The American thought that the painting would look nice in main room of his house. But a difficult question suddenly came up: he could not decide which was the top and which was the bottom of the painting; they looked the same.
So he decided to let the painter himself decide the question. He found the man's address and invited him to dinner. He didn't say anything to the painter, but he put the picture on the wall, where the painter could see it during dinner.
While he was eating the soup, the painter noticed the pain when he came to the meat and potatoes he could not stop looking at it. Before he began to eat his fruit, he got up and moved to the picture then he stood farther away, holding his head first on one side, then on the other. At last he came back to the table sat down and said: "You've made a terrible mistake with that picture, my friend. Can't you see which is the top and which is the bottom? You have them wrong - and of course, the right and left sides are wrong too. Anybody can see that!"
"Then perhaps you will explain", said the man who had bought the painting, "why it took you so long to decide: you painted the picture yourself!"
Завдання до тексту:
I. Які з наступних висловлювань відповідають змісту тексту? Випишіть номера тверджень, що відповідають змісту текста:
1, A rich American -was an expert in painting.
2, He bought a painting as it cost very much money.
3, The American could not make head or tail of the painting.
4. Having looked at the picture the painter noticed at once that a terrible mistake
had been made with his painting.
II. Дайте відповіді на наступні запитання:
1. What made the American buy the painting?
2. Why did the American decide to invite the painter to dinner?
3. How much time did it take the painter to decide which was the top and which
was the bottom of the painting?
4. What did the American tell the painter after dinner?
English spelling has always had many critics, both among people born in England and those who have learned English as a foreign language. There are many good reasons for their criticism. In many words, the same sound is represented by different spellings. For example, the sound [e] appears in the words bread, bed, said; the sound [ei] in neighbour, grey and way; the sound [ς] in aggression, condition, shake, sugar, Asia, special. As you see, the same sounds may be represented by all kinds of spellings. On the other hand, the same letter or combination of letters may represent different sounds. Compare the vowel sounds in put, but; in song, among; in wave, have; in though, through, thought; in reason, earth, dead. Compare the letter "s" in the words son, prison, sure.
And finally, we constantly meet words with letters that a pronounced at all: such words as write and know and honest and scientific and foreign.
Why is English spelling so irregular, so un-phonetic? One reason is that the pronunciation of words has changed very much, while their spelling has not changed. Another reason is that the old scribes used two systems of orthography, the English and the continental. The letters in these two systems were the same, but
sometimes represented different sound". (Compare, for example, the letter "p" which represents different sounds in Russian and in German or English). In addition many words were borrowed from Latin and Greek; but though today they are pronounced in the English manner, the spelling remains the same as it was in the ancient languages.
The result of all this is that modern English spelling is archaic in many cases, and confused in many others. Attempts made to reform the system, some of them talented and quite scientific, have appeared in the last three centuries. But the system remains to this day, and is a source of difficulty to everybody.
Завдання до тексту:
I. Дайте відповіді на запитання:
1. How many good reasons have you found in the text for criticism of English
2. Is English spelling so irregular and so un-phonetic?
3. Why is modern English spelling archaic in many cases?
4. In what way are the words borrowed from Latin and Greek pronounced in
5. Are the attempts made to reform the English spelling system?
6. Is English spelling a source of difficulty to you?
II. Уважно прочитайте тексти, що в лівій частині. Найдіть продовження
та кінцівку кожної історії в правій частині.:
1. Somebody once asked Mark Twain whether he could remember the first moss./ he ever earned. "I remember quite well", the famous writer answered. "It happened at school. Schoolboys in those days had very little respect for their teachers and even less for their desks. The boys used pens and pencils and even knives to draw stars and faces or to write their names on their desks; At last the school principal said: The next time anybody does such a thing,
he will have to pay five dollars, or he will receive a beating in front of the whole school".
When the young man came to the girl's house the next day, she opened the door herself. Imagine his surprise when before he could open his mouth she said: "I never want to see you or speak to you again!" and she closed the door in his face.
"Soon after that I had to go to my father and ask him to give me five dollars. I was honest enough to explain that I could agree to receive a beating instead, but he said: "No, I can't allow you to connect our name with such things. So I'll pay the five dollars. But you must suffer for what you have done. I'll give you the beating here at home".
2. A young man met a beautiful girl at a party and immediately fell in love with her. For days he thought of ways of showing her how much she meant to him. At last the opportunity came: he heard by chance that the next day the girl's twenty-first birthday. The young man at once ran to a flower shop. He bought twenty-one beautiful roses and asked the owner of the shop to send them to the girl's house the next morning. And he wrote a message: "Happy Birthday! I am sending you red roses - one for each year of your life!"
Several minutes later the inn-keeper appeared together with all the people who had been in the room. They were all smiling with satisfaction at the thought that they had proved the traveler was wrong. "Your horse refused to eat the fish, as I told you", the inn-keeper said proudly. "That's not important", the traveler said. "Put the fish on the table. When my clothes are dry, I'll eat it myself".
3. It was raining heavily when a traveller at last got to an inn. He was cold and wet, but there were so many people in the inn that he could not get near the fire. The traveller knew that the man around the fire would never move away from it if they did not have a very good reason for doing so. He decided that there was only one thing to do in this situation: in a loud voice he said to the inn-keeper: "Give my horse some fish to eat!" "But horses don't eat fish!" the inn -keeper protested. "Do as I tell you", the traveller insisted. "I'll pay you for the fish; it makes no difference to you who eats it or who refuses to eat it"
The shop-owner knew the young man quite well and he liked him. He knew he was a poor student. When the young man left the shop, the owner thought: "It is clear the flowers are for the girl he is going to marry. He'd like to send more roses but he hasn't enough money. I'll help him". And added nine more roses and put thirty roses instead of twenty-one into a nice box together with the young man's message.
"Soon he beat me, and then gave me the five dollars to take to school. But I decided that the beating did not hurt so much, and another beating at school wouldn't be worth. So I told them to give me a beating in front of the whole school and I kept the five dollars. And that was the first money I ever earned".
The inn-keeper took some fish and went out to the horse: all the people in the hall ran out to see what would happen when he gave the fish to the horse. The traveller took off his wet coat and sat down in front of the fire to warm himself.
to earn - заробляти
respect (a) - повага
to draw - малювати
school principal - директор
beating - порка
honest - чесний
to receive - отримувати
to suffer – страждати, терпіти
immediately - негайно
to fall in love with smb. – закохатись у когось
Завдання до тексту:
II. Дайте заголовки до цих трьох текстів:
III. Підготуйте переказ одного з трьох текстів:
THE ANGRY FAN
This happened in Australia, during a water-polo game that was one of the main sports events of the season. There was nothing exciting at the beginning of the game; but suddenly one of the players jumped out of the water and ran to the referee. He said that one of the forwards of the other team had bitten him in the leg while he was swimming under the water.
At first the referee thought that it was some kind of a joke, but when the player pointed to blood on his leg, he had to believe that it was serious. He called the forward and asked him why he had done such a strange thing; and though the forward insisted that he had not bitten anybody, the referee made him leave the game.
They began again, but a few minutes later, two players, one from each team, climbed out of the water, shouting that somebody had bitten them. There was blood on both players' legs. The game was stopped, and they began to let the water out of the pool. When almost all the water was let out, everybody saw a young cro-codile at the bottom of the pool. Somebody had put the crocodile into the pool, but why?
The truth became known when the players returned to their dressing-room after the game and found a letter there. "I have been a water-polo fan for many years", the author of the letter wrote, "and I am not satisfied with the way the players seem to act. They have allowed the game to become slow and uninte-resting, and I have decided that I must do something to make them move faster. I don't think I can do this well myself, and I have decided that my crocodile will do it better".
fan - вболівальник
exciting - захоплюючий
referee - суддя
to bite (bit , bitten ) - кусати
to point to – вказувати на
blood - кров
to insist - наполягати
to climb out - вилазити
pool - басейн
Завдання до тексту:
I. Прочитайте текст. Перекладіть його. Дайте відповіді на запитання:
What is about this text?
Who did bite players?
Where was the crocodile?
Who did find a letter?
What had written in this letter?
II. Зверніть увагу на виділені речення у тексті. Як ви вважаєте, що було написано в листі роздратованого вболівальника? Допишіть цей лист, використовуючи наступні вирази та лексику.:
(to be not satisfied with, to decide, to make, to move faster, to help, to do better, crocodile)
III. Перекажіть зміст цього тексту та висловіть свою думку:
A CLEVER EXPLANATION
Tom Robinson's parents were poor and the family was often hungry, so Tom had to go to work when he was still a boy. It wasn't easy to find work that he could do: Tom was small and thin. At last he was successful in getting a place in an office where the work wasn't too hard, though there was much of it. Tom was paid only six shillings a week for his work. He wasn't satisfied with the low pay he was receiving because he knew that he had a right to more. "Hit for a long time, because he was so small and thin, he hadn't the courage to ask for a rise in pay. Whenever he imagined the scene - Mr. Marston's gloomy look and sharp voice - he decided to wait a little longer. Perhaps Mr. Marston would raise the pay himself? But at last it became clear that his pay would never be changed if he didn't insist on it himself.
So one morning he decided to go to Mr. Marston's office and have this unpleasant conversation. Though he was a little ashamed and afraid, he decided that he. would not leave the room until Mr. Marston had promised to give him four shillings more a week. After a short struggle with himself, he slowly opened the door and asked: "May I speak to you, sir?" Yes, what's the matter?" Mr. Marston's loud voice seemed more unpleasant than usual. Tom's voice sounded much smaller and thinner, as he told him that he -wanted a rise.
You are an honest boy and not afraid of work", Mr. Marston said. "How much more do you want?" I was hoping you would agree to a rise of four shillings", Tom said. "Don't you think that ten shillings is too much for such a small boy?"
"No, I don't", Tom answered. "I am older than I look. To tell you the truth, since I have worked here, I have been so busy that I haven't had time to grow".
to be successful in smth – поталанило
to be paid – отримувати гроші
to be satisfied – бути задоволеним
to receive – отримувати
law pay – низька платня
courage – сміливість, мужність
gloomy look – похмурий погляд
sharp voice – різкий голос
to be ashamed – соромитись
struggle – боротьба
to promise – обіцяти
Завдання до тексту:
I. Прочитайте текст. Перекладіть його. Знайдіть у тексті речення, в яких містяться відповіді на наступні запитання:
1. Why did Tom go to work when he was still a boy?
2 . How much was Tom paid for his work?
3. What stopped him to ask for a rise in pay?
4. What did he decide to do one morning?
5. Did it take him much time to struggle with himself before he opened the door of
Mr. Marston'a room?
6. What was Mr. Marston's opinion about Tom?.
7. Why didn't Tom's master agree to increase his pay?
8. What was Tom's final answer?
II. Які з наступних тверджень не відповідають змісту тексту. Випишіть їх номера:
1. Tom Robinson's parents were rich and the family lived in luxury.
2. It wasn't easy for Tom to find work as he was small and thin.
3. Tom's work wasn't too hard but there was too much of it.
4. He was not ashamed and afraid to ask for a rise in pay.
5. Mr. Marston was a very kind man.
6. Tom's voice sounded firmly when he opened the door of his master's room.
7. Mr. Marston thought that ten shillings a week were too much for such a small
boy like Tom.
8. Tom was a clever and quickwitted boy.
III. Перекажіть зміст тексту, використовуючи вправу II у якості плану:
A SERVICE OF LOVE
Joe Larrabee dreamed of becoming a great artist. Even when he was six, people in the little western town where he lived used to say,"Joe has great talent, he will become a famous artist". At twenty he left the little town and went to Hew York. He had his dreams - but very little money.
Dellia had her dreams too. She played the piano so remarkably well in the little southern village where she lived, that her family said, "She must finish her musical training in New York". With great difficulty they got together enough money to send her north 'to finish'.
Joe and Dellia met at a friend's house where some art and music students had gathered to discuss art, music and newest plays. They fell in love with each other, and in a short time they married.
Mr. and Mrs. Larrabee began their married life in a poor little flat. But they were happy, for they had their Art, and they had each other. Joe was painting in the class of the great Magister. Magister got a lot of money for his pictures - and he too a lot of money for his lessons. Dellia was taking piano lessons from the great Rosenstock, and he was taking a let of money from Dellia. The two young dreamers were very happy while their money lasted. But it didn't last very long. Soon they didn't have enough to pay for their lessons and eat three times a day. When one loves one's Art, no service seems too hard. So Dellia decided she must stop taking lessons and give lessons herself. She began to look for pupils.
One evening she came home very excited, with shining eyes. "Joe, dear", she announced happily. "I've got a pupil. General Pinkney - I mean - his daughter, Clementina. He's very rich and they have a splendid house. She's so beautiful - she dresses in white; and she's so nice and polite! I'm going to give her three lessons a week; and just think, Joe! Five dollars a lesson. Now, dear, don't look so worried, and let's have supper. I've bought some very nice fish".
But Joe refused to listen to her. "That's all right for you, Dellia, but all wrong for me", he said, "Do you,think I'm going to let you work while I go on my Art? No! Never! I can get a job as a mechanic or clean windows. I'll get some kind of work". Dellia threw her arms around him. "Joe, dear, you mustn't think of leaving Mr. Magister and your Art. I am not leaving my music. The lessons won't interfere with my music. While I teach, I learn and I can go back to Rosenstock when I get a few more pupils".
"All right", said Joe. "But giving lessons isn't Art". "When one loves one's Art, no service seems too hard", said Dellia.
During the next week, Mr. and Mrs. Larrabee had breakfast very early. Joe was painting some pictures in Central Park, and he needed the morning light especially, he said. Time flies when you love Art, and it was usually seven o'clock in the evening when Joe returned home. At the end of the week, Dellia, very proud but a little tired, put fifteen dollars on the table. "Sometimes", she said, "Clementina is a very difficult pupil. And she always wears white. I'm tired of seeing the same colour".
And then Joe, with the manner of Monter Cristo, pulled eighteen dollars out of his pocket and put it on the table too. "I sold one of my pictures to a man from Washington", he said. "And now he wants a picture of the East River to take with him to Washington".
"I'm so glad you have gone on with your Art, dear, "Dellia said. "You are sure to win! Thirty-three dollars! We have never had so much money to spend".
The next Saturday evening Joe came home first. He put his money on the table and then washed what seemed to look like a lot of paint from his hands. Half an hour later, Dellia arrived. There was a big bondage on her right hand. "Dellie, dear, what has happened? What is the matter with your hand?" Joe asked.
Dellia laughed, but not very joyfully. "Clementina", she explained, "asked me to have lunch with her and the General after our lesson. She's not very strong, you know, and when she was giving me some tea, her hand shook and she spilled a lot of very hot water over my hand. But General Pinkney ran to the kitchen and brought some oil and bandaged my hand himself. They were both so upset. Oh, Joe, did you sell another picture?" She had seen the money on the table.
"Yes", said Joe. "To the man from Washington. What time this afternoon did they burn your hand, Dellie?"
"Five o'clock, I think, said Dellia. "The iron - the water was very hot. And Clementina cried, and General Pinkney..."
Joe put his arms around Dellia. "Where are you working, Dellie? Tell me", he asked in a serious voice.
Dellia was about to say something, but suddenly she began to cry. "I couldn't get any pupils, "she said. "And I didn't want you to stop taking lessons, so I got a job ironing shirts in the big laundry on Twenty-Fourth Street. This afternoon I burned my hand with a hot iron. Don't be angry with me, Joe. I did it for your Art. And now, you have painted those pictures for the man from Washington..."
"He isn't from Washington", said Joe slowly. "It isn't important where he is from", said Dellia. "How clever you are, Joe! How did you guese that I wasn't giving music lessons?"
"I guessed", Jo e said, "because five o'clock this afternoon, I sent some oil up to the ironing-room. They said a girl had burned her hand. You see, dear, I work in the engine-room of the same laundry on Twenty-Fourth Street". "And the man from Washington...?" "Yes, dear, Joe said, "the man from Washington and General
Pinkney are both creations of the seme art, but you can't call it painting or music". And they both began to laugh.
"You know, dear," Joe said, "When one loves one's Art, no service seems..."
But Dellia stopped him with her hand on his mouth. "N o", she said, "just - 'when one loves'.
Завдання до тексту:
I. Перевірте чи вірно ви зрозуміли зміст тексту. Перегляньте наступні твердження та випишіть номера тверджень, що відповідають змісту тексту:
1. Joe Larrabee's dream was to become a pianist and even when he was six his
relatives said: "Joe will become a famous pianist".
2. Dellia dreamed of becoming a pianist, but her family hadn't enough money to
send her to Hew York.
3. Joe and Delli a met at a friend's house and in a short time they got married.
4. Dellia worked in a department-store and was very happy.
5. Joe did painting in the class of a great Magister.
6. Joe and Dellia had enough money to pay for their lessons and to have three
meals a day.
7. One evening Dellia came home with shining eyes and said, that she had got a
8. Joe wan very gla d to hear thi s news and sai d that he was
going to continue hi s studie s i n the clas s of the great KagiB-
9. Joe didn't like Dellia's idea of having pupil and he said, that he would get a job
as a mechanic or clean windows.
10. Dellia said that it would be better for him to work as a mechanic.
11. One day Joe asked: "Do you like your work in the laundry?"
12. Dellia said, that she had got a job ironing shirts in the big laundry on the 24 th
Street, because she didn't want Joe to stop taking lessons in painting.
13. Joe said that he worked in the engine-room of the same laundry"on the 24th
14. No service seemed too hard to Joe and Dellia because they loved their art.
15. No service seemed too hard to Joe and Dellia because they loved each other.
II. Дайте відповіді на наступні запитання:
1 . What did Joe Larrabee dream of?
2. Why did Dellia's relatives decide to send her to New York?
3. Where did Joe and Dellia meet?
4. What did they do after their marriage?
5. Why did Dellia begin to look for pupils?
6. Joe really was painting pictures in Central Park, wasn't he?
7. What happened one Saturday evening?
8. Why did the author call this story "A Service of love"?
III. Перекажіть зміст тексту, використовуючи запитання вправи II у якості плану:
A LITTLE ACCIDENT WHILE CYCLING
After Jerome K. Jerome
Harris in his early married days, made much trouble for himsel one summer while he was cycling with his wife through Holland. His wife sat on the tandom behind him. The roads were stony and the machine jumped a good deal.
"Sit tight", said Harris, without turning his head. What Mrs Harris thought he said was, "Jump off". Why she thought he said "Jump off",' when he said "Sit tight", neither of then can explain. Though they cannot find the explanation to this day, the fact is that Mrs Harris did jump off, while Harris pedalled away, under the impression that she was behind him.
She expected him to jump down when he reached the top of the hill, and wait for her. Seeing him, on the contrary, disappear down the other side of the hill, she was first surprised and then alarmed. Running to the top of the hill she shouted, but he didn't turn his head. Mrs. Harris sat down and cried. Having no money and knowing no Dutch, she found herself in, a difficult position. People passed and seemed sorry for her; she tried to make them understand what had happened. They thought that she had lost something, but could not understand what. They took her to the nearest village and found a policeman for her. He concluded from her pantomime that someone had stolen her bicycle. They used the telegraph, and in a village four miles off they discovered a boy riding a lady's bicycle. They brought him to her, but as she die not want either him or his bicycle they let him go.
Meanwhile, Harris continued his ride with much enjoyment. He suddenly felt himself a stronger and more capable cyclist.
He said to what he thought was Mrs. Harris: "I haven't felt this machine go so easily for months. It's this air? I think; it's doing me good".
He had covered about five miles when, as he explained it, a strange feeling began to grow upon him. He stretched out his hand behind and felt that there .was nothing behind him but a space. He jumped, or rather fell off and looked back up the road; nobody was here.
While he was thinking, a man passed, Harris stopped him, and explained to him that he had lost his wife. The man was neither surprised nor sorry for him. While they were talking, another farmer came along, to whom the first man explained the matter, not as an accident, but as a good story, at which they laughed.
Soon. Harris met two young women with one young man. He asked them if they had seen his wife. They asked him what she looked like. He didn't know enough Dutch to describe her properly; all he could tell them was that she was a very beautiful woman, of medium size. When Harris was asked how his wife was dressed, he could remember very little. I doubt if any man could tell how any woman was dressed ten minutes after he had left her. He recollected a blue skirt, and some kind of a belt. What sort of a blouse? Was it green, or yellow, or blue? Were there feathers in her hat or flowers? He dare not say, for fear of making a mistake. The two young women giggled. The young man suggested the police station at the next town. Harris made his way there.
The police gave him a paper, and told him to write down a full description of his wife, together with details of when and where he had lost her. He did not know when and where he had lost her, he said so.
The police looked suspicious; they were doubtful about three matters. Firstly, was she really his wife? Secondly, had her really lost her? Thirdly, why had he lost her? However, they promised to look for her, and in the evening they brought her to him, together with a bill for expenses. The meeting of Harris with his wife was not a tender one.
Mrs. Harris always has great difficulty in controlling her feelings. But at that time, she frankly admits, she made no attempt to hide them.
Завдання до тексту:
I. Перевірте чи вірно ви зрозуміли зміст тексту. Внесіть поправки до тих тверджень, що не відповідають дійсності. Їх чотири. Знайдіть їх:
1. Harris and his wife were riding two bicycles.
2. Harris and his wife were cycling through England.
3. Mrs. Harris jumped off, while Harris pedalled away.
4. Mrs. Harris knew Dutch perfectly well.
5. Mrs. Harris couldn't explain her position proporly to the policeman.
6. Harris could describe his wife's appearance easily.
II. Який варіант перекладу наступних речень ви вважаєте вірними? Запишіть номера вибраних вами варіантів перекладу:
on chance 2) спеціально
3) за щасливим збігом обставин
1) дивитись підозріло
to look suspicious 2) дивитись серйозно
3) мати підозрілий вигляд
1) віддавати собі звіт про свої почуття
to control one's feeling 2) володіти собою
1) визнати чесно
to admit frankly 2) визнати з каяттям
3) прийняти як само собою
III. Дайте відповіді на наступні запитання:
1) Where was Harris cycling?
2) Whom was he cycling with?
3) What did Harris say to his wife?
4) How did she understand him?
5) What did Mrs. Harris do?
6) Where did Harris disappear?
7) Was Mrs. Harris able to explain her position to the policeman?
8) How did Harris discover that there was nobody behind him?
9) Could Harris describe his wife's appearance?
IV. Перекажіть зміст тексту.
MY UNCLE TOM
My uncle Tom worked on the railway. It wasn't at a big station it was a little place called Lowton Cross. Only about two trains day stopped there, and Tom was station-master, chief porter all in one. In fact Tom did any work that came along. Lowton Cross was the pride of his heart; the waiting room was cleaned every day by the chief cleaner (Tom); the chairs were polished by the chief polisher (Tom); and the tickets were sold, and collected by the chief ticket-collector (Tom) - sometimes there were as many as four tickets a day, - and the money was counted every evening by the chief clerk (Tom).
That station was run well. The point is that Tom was very strict about rules. He knew what a passenger was allowed and was not allowed to do. He was there for 50 years and then he had to retire. That Tom did his work well is not strange; in all the 50 years he never missed a single day. So the Railway Company wanted to thank him for his job. A man from the head office was asked to go to Lowton Cross to do it.
Tom was thanked and was given a small cheque as a present. He was very pleased, of course, but he said to the man, "I don't need the money. But I want to have something that will remind me the happy days I have spent in Lowton Cross". The man asked him what he wanted. "Well, sir, could the Company let me have a part of an old railway carriage. It doesn't matter how old or broken it is. I want to put it in my garden, and every day I can go and sit in it".
And about a week later a carriage was sent and was taken into Tom's garden.
Tom worked at it, and it was cleaned and painted and polished. Soon we went to see Tom. It was a bad day for a visit. It began to rain as we got off the train, and by the time we got to Tom's house it was raining hard. We knocked but there was no answer. Tom wasn't in the house. We thought he was in his carriage. Sure enough, he was there, but he was. not sitting in the carriage; he was outside, on the step of the carriage, smoking his pipe. His head was covered with a sack. We asked him why he did not go inside the carriage. "Can't you see", said Tom, "the carriage they sent me was a nonsmoker".
Завдання до тексту:
I. Перевірте чи вірно ви зрозуміли зміст тексту. Внесіть поправки до тих тверджень, що не відповідають дійсності. Їх п'ять. Знайдіть їх:
1. Tom worked at a big plant.
2. The station where Tom worked was a small one.
3. Though the station was small many trains stopped there every day.
4. Tom did his work very well.
5. After 50 years of work Torn had to retire.
6. Tom was thanked for his work and was given a small cheque as a present.
7. The Railway Company refused to give Tom a railway carriage.
8. Bu t soon Tom go to the carriage without the permission of the Company and
put it in his small garden.
9. Tom liked to sit and smoke his pipe in this carriage, particularly when it rained
II. Випишіть номера тих варіантів, які вважаєте невідповідними змісту тексту:
Tom was a chief porter and a station-master all in one.
1. Том працював начальником станції та носієм на одній і тій же станції.
2. Том поєднував обов'язки начальника станції та носія.
The station was run well.
1. Станція була дуже жвавою.
2. Крізь станцію проходило багато поїздів.
3. Діла на станції просувались добре.
Tom received a non-smoker carriage as a present.
1. Том отримав в подарунок вагон для не паліїв.
2. Том отримав у подарунок незакінчений вагон
Tom was at the station for 50 years and then had to retire.
1. Тому що Тому було 50 років, він заморювався на роботі.
2. Том був вимушен піти у відставку, тому що йому вже було 50 років.
3. Том вимушен був піти у відставку, пропрацювавши на станції 50 років.
III. Дайте відповіді на запитання:
1. What was the name of the station where Tom worked?
2. Which work did Tom do at the station?
3. After what period of work at the station did Tom have to retire?
4. What did Tom ask the Railway Company to let him have as a present?
5. Where was an old carriage put?
6. Where did Tom's friends find him when they visited him?
7. Why was Tom smoking on the step of the carriage but not inside it though it
rained very hard?
Перекажіть зміст тексту.
EUGEHE WITLA WANTS TO BE AH ARTIST
(From "The Genius" by Th. Dreiser)
The city of Chicago! - Miles and miles of dreary little houses; miles and miles of wooden blockpaved streets, with gas lampsand wooden walks for pedestrians. Long lines of telegraph poles; thousands upon thousands of cottages, factory plants..
As the train rolled city-ward, Eugene for the first time realized what a great city it was. He had never seen a really lurge factory plant, and here was one, and another, all dark and hard in the evening air. At last the train stopped, and Eugene got out.
People were hurrying to and pro. Engines were hissing; bells clanging. Eugene had no friends, but somehow he did not feel lonely.
Later in the evening, in a little room he had taken for two dollars a week, he opened the window and looked out. Bright lights were burning in store windows. These people hurrying - how their feet sounded - clap, clap, clap. And it was all like this. It was like this everywhere, a big wonderful city. It was nice to be here. He felt that now.
But he was soon disappointed. Underneath was struggle – Eugene soon realized this. He wanted to be an artist although he did not know how to begin. Meanwhile he had to work.
He tried the newspaper first, but critical workers frightened him. One art director did see something in his three or four sketches, but he happened to be in a bad mood, and did not want anybody. He simply said no, there was nothing.
After ten days Eugene had spent almost all his money. He was ready to work an a bakery, in dry goods store, in a candy store. At last he found a job; but he lost it after three months.
He walked about the city, wondering at the sights he saw. The were streets with splended houses such as Eugene had never seen before. For the first time in his life he saw at a distance girls and women who seemed wonderful to him: they looked so beautiful in their dresses; he saw young men hurrying themselves with an air of importance unknown to him. It made him see for the first time what difference there was between a beginner like him and those who were at the top.
During these days he was very lonely. At last after nearly a month, he got a place as a driver of a laundry, which seemed very good because it paid ten dollars a week. He sketched now and then when he was not very tired, but what he did seemed useless.
All the time he dreamed of great pictures. His laundry work took him into strange and new parts of the city, where he had never been hefore, and introduced him to types of people he had never met. Here was real colour and life. Many times he took a sheet of paper and tried to draw them, but he could not; he could only think of them.
Once there was an exhibition of some of the war pictures of Verestchagin, a great Russian painter. Eugene saw them one Sunday afternoon and was struck with their truth and force. He stood ann looked, wondering how such things could be done. Ever afterwards the name of Verestchagin was like a great call to his imagination. He began to think of entering the Art Institute. He could join a night class in drawing, he thought. His interest in art was becoming eager. He wanted to know all about it - to do something himself.
And so one day he called at the Art Institute and consulted the secretary. As she was explaining everything to him, he felt as if he stood in an open doorway and looked out upon a new world.
And one Monday evening in October, armed with several sheets paper, he began his work…
Завдання до тексту:
I. Перевірте чи вірно ви зрозуміли зміст тексту. Внесіть поправки до тих тверджень, що не відповідають дійсності. Їх три. Знайдіть їх:
1. When Eugene Witla arrived in the city of Chicago, it didn't surprise him much,
because he had already seen many big cities.
2. He liked Chicago very much.
3. He hired ( зняв ) a little room for ten dollars a week.
4. His dream was to work as a driver and he easily found a job.
5. Eugene Witla walked about the city, wondering at the sights he saw, and feeling
6. He dreamed of painting magnificent pictures.
7. When Eugene began to work in the laundry his interest in painting ceased (
зменьшився ) and he stopped dreaming the carrier of an artist.
II. Прочитайте наступні речення. До кожного з них дані два або три варіанта пояснень, що розкривають цілі та мотиви вчинків головного героя прочитаного вами уривку оповідання. Випишіть номера тих варіантів пояснень, які ви вважаєте відповідними змісту тексту.
Eugene was soon dissappointed at his life in Chicago...
1) because the city appeared to be a filthy an! gloomy place where he couldn't find
anything interesting to look at.
2) because he realized that in Chicago there was a great difference between poor
people like him and those who were at the top.
Eugene was ready to do any job.
1) because he studied at the Art Institute in the evening and had to earn money to
pay for his education.
2) because it was very difficult to find job which he really liked and wanted to do.
Eugene's interest in art became stronger....
1) when he saw magnificent pictures of Verestchagin.
2) when he started to draw sketches for one of the newspaper
Many times Eugene wanted to draw those people whom he met in the laundry, but
1) because in those parts of the city where the laundry was situated he didn't see
real colour and real life.
2) because he had never met such types of people before and could only think of
them, twt could not draw.
Ill. Дайте відповідь на запитання
1. Where did Eugene Witla arrive?
2. Was he struck with the sights of Chicago?
3. Where did Eugene Witla live?
4. Where.did he try to find the work first?
5. Had Eugene Witla much money?
6. Where did he find the work at least?
7. What did Eugene Witla dream of?
8. What kind of exhibition did he see once?
9. Was his interest in art becoming eager
10. What did Eugene decide to do one Monday evening?
IV. Перекажіть зміст тексту:
TWO GENTLEMEN OF VERONA
After A. Cronin
One lovely day in Italy as we drove through the foothills of the Alps, the two boys stopped us on the outskirts of Verona. They were selling strawberries. My wife spoke to the boys, attracted by their brown skins, black hair and dark earnest eyes. She discovered that they were brothers, Nicola was thirteen; Jacopo was nearly twelve. Next morning in the public square there were our two young friends o f the previous afternoon. There, bent over shoe-shine boxes beside the fountain, they were doing a brisk business. They greeted us with friendly faces.
"I thought you picked fruit for living", I said. "We do many things, sir", Nicola answered seriously. "Often we show visitors different places of interest". "All right", I smiled, "you take us along".
In the week that followed we saw them frequently, for they proved extremely useful to us. If we wanted a special brand of tooth paute, or seats for the opera, Nicola and Jacopo could be relied upon to satisfy our needs.
What struck one most was their willingness to work. Once when I went over to the fountain to have my shoes shined, I said: "Nicola, the way you and Jacopo work, you must earn quite a bit. Tell me, what do you do with your money?" He coloured deeply under his sunburn, then grew pale.
"Yes, you are right. We should greatly like to have an education, sir. But at present we have other plans".
"Well", I said, "we are leaving on Monday. Is anything I can do for you before we go?"
Nicola shook his head, but suddenly Jacopo said:
"Every Sunday we make a visit to the country. Usually we use bicycles. But tomorrow, since you are so kind, you might send us in your car". I agreed to drive them myself. Driving out of Verona, I imagined that our destination would
be some humble dwelling. Bu t we drew up at a large red-roofed villa surrounded by a high stone wall. It was a hospital.
"We shall not be long, sir". The boys disapeared beyond the corner of the wall. I followed them and rang the bell. A pleasant-looking woman appeared and I saw that she was a nurse. "I just brought two boys here".
"Ah, yes, Nicola and Jacopo". We went upstairs. At the door of the room the nurse paused and with a smile invited me to look through the glass partition.
The two boys were sitting at the bedside of a girl about twenty.It was easily to see that they were her brothers. The nurse told me the story of two friends. Their father, a well-known singer at la Scala had been killed in a midnight car smash. He had left the children nothing but a mass of debts. The three children were thrown upon the street. The two boys especially despite their extreme youth refused to let poverty break their spirit. They faced it with dignity and courage.
"I can't tell you how they were doing when their sister fall sick...seriously. She is suffering from tuberculosis. They brough her here, persuaded us to take her into the hospital. In the twelve months she had made good progress. There is even a hope that one day she will walk ... and sing ... again. Every week Lucia's brothers make their payment". She added simply:
"I don't know what they do, I do not ask. But whatever it is, I know they do it well".
I left the hospital and waited outside until the boys rejoined me, then drove them back to the city. They sat beside me not speaking. For my part I did not say a word. I knew they would prefer to keep their secret. Next morning before we left for Venice I sent an envelope with some money to the hospita to be delivered to them. On it I wrote simply this: "For two gentlemen of Verona".
Завдання до тексту:
I. Перевірте чи вірно ви зрозуміли зміст тексту. Внесіть поправки до тих тверджень, що не відповідають дійсності. Їх три. Знайдіть їх:
1) The author of the story first met the two boys, Nicola and Jacopo, when they were selling strawberries.
2) The boys picked berries only for pleasure.
3) The author and his wife liked the boys very much and the boys helped them in
4) Nicola and Jacopo could do a lot of things and always worked with great
5) Though their father was alive he was a very poor man and that's why the boys
had to work.
6) The boy's sister was seriously ill and Nicola and Jacopo had to earn money to
pay for her treatment.
7) The boys told the author about their sister's illness and thanked him for the
money he gave them.
8) The boys were eager to study, but they couldn't because their father died and left
them only debts.
9) Nicola and Jacopo were very much devoted to their sister Lucia.
II. Прочитайте наступні речення. До кожного з речень надані два або три пояснення, що розкривають цілі та мотиви вчинків героїв роману. Випишіть номера тих варіантів, які ви вважаєте відповідними змісту тексту.
Every Sunday the boys made a visit to the country.
1) In order to have a rest there.
2) In order to visit their sick sister.
3) In order to pick strawberries.
The boys had to sell strawberries.
1) Because they had plenty of berries in their own garden.
2) Because they wanted to earn money.
The author and his wife saw the two boys frequently during their stay in Verona.
1) because the boys agreed to help them and show to them all the places of interest
2) because the boys had a lot of time to spare and liked to visit places of interest.
The author called the boys "gentlemen of Verora"
1) because they were always very nicely dressed and looked like real gentlemen.
2) because the boys were very polite and had very good manners.
3) bacause the boys proved to be kind hearted, modest and honest.
The author sent some money to the hospital.
1) because he had to pay for his wife's treatment.
2) because his daughter Lucia was seriously ill and was kept in the hospital
3) because he wanted to help Nicola and Jacopo.
III. Які варіанти перекладу наступних речень ви вважаєте вірними? Випишіть їхні номери.
The boys proved extremely useful to us.
1) Хлопці виявились надзвичайно корисними.
2) Хлопці довели нам, що вони насправді можуть бути надзвичайно
3) Хлопці дуже старалися довести, що можуть бути надзвичайно корисними
Nicola and Jacopo could be relied upon to satisfy our need.
1) Нікола та Джакопо змогли допомогти нам вдовольнити наші потреби.
2) Нікола та Джакопо прийняли на себе піклування по задоволенню наших
3) На Ніколу та Джакопо можна було покластись по виконанню наших
They refused to let poverty break their spirit.
1) Вони відмовились від дозволу мешкати в будівлі для бідняків.
2) Вони відмовились від надання коштів для бідних.
3) Вони не дозволили бідності зломити їхній дух.
For my part, I didn't say a word.
1) Я зі свого боку не вимовив й слова.
2) Я від свого ім'я не сказав жлдного слова.
3) Я не вимовий й слова в своє оправдання.
IV. Дайте відповіді на наступні запитання:
1. Where were Cronin and his wife travelling?
2. Who stopped them on the outskirts of Verona?
3. The boys were selling strawberries, weren't they?
4. What were the boys doing next day when the author met them again?
5. What kind of jobs did the boys do?
6. What favour did the boys ask of the author?
7. What was the boys' secret?
8. Why did the boys have to work so much?
9. Why does the author consider them to be real gentlemen?
V. Перекажіть зміст тексту, використовуючи запитання попередньої вправи.
POSTAL SERVICE IN THE PAST
"I have received a letter..." We never think that the letter came to us in many trains, that it flew through the air, over mountains and seas, that it passed through the hands of many people. It is so simple to send letters today that people never remember that it was once a very difficult and special task.
In ancient times "letters" were brought by runners - men who could run fast and far - and the "letters" they carried were not written, but were told to the receiver. Postmen in those days had to have a good memory, and they had to be honest. This was especially important: the "letter" often had important secrets in it, it had to reach only the ears of the receiver and without any change in it. Post runners were met everywhere with respect and honour. Nobody was allowed to stop them or to do anything against them. History has many stories about post runners and descriptions of what they did.
One of them, named Phidippides, ran 152 miles in two days. He carried the news that the persians had attacked Athens; the city sent him to Macedonia to ask for help. When he died a monument was put up in his memory.
Indian post runners in ancient Peru had postal stations every five kilometres. Four men lived in each station during peace time, eight men in war time. Half of them were on duty during the day, the other half during the night. As soon as the men on duty saw smoke from the nearest station, they made a fire, whose smoke could be seen by the next station. The runner told the letter to the next runner as they ran, without stopping for a minute. In this way, news was carried from one postal station to the next in the shortest possible time.
Post runners in ancient China had postal stations of the same kind; and the runner on duty got ready to start as soon as he heard the little bells tied to the clothes of his comrade running from the nearest station.
Traditions connected with the postal service were different in different countries. In Mexico, for example, after a battle the people knew by the runner's clothes whether the message he was carrying to the capital was good or bad. If he had on a white belt and if his long hair was tied with a red ribbon it meant that the
battle had been won; if he came from the battle-field with his hair untied, he carried the news that the battle had been lost.
Post runners sometimes had other duties besides carrying letters. Indian post runners in Mexico, where the postal service was very fast, were sometimes used to send - fish! Sea fish for the king's table. The capital was four hundred kilometres from the sea.
In the great days of Rome, carrier pigeons as letter carriers were well known. When a rich man went to the theatre, he took a carrier pigeon with him. If he wanted to tell his servants at home to do something, he sent the pigeon with a letter tied to its foot. The pigeon was taught to return to its master in the theatre;
perhaps he needed it to send another letter home. The heavy bag of the postman did not appear for a long time, even after postmen began to carry written letters. At first the letters were tied to a stick, which could be used to fight the dogs that attacked them wherever they went. In China, postmen had pass a special "night" examination, to show that they were brave enough not be frightened by night sounds or animals. Only the bravest and strongest were allowed to carry the postman's bell.
In places in the far north, postmen moved from house to house on skis; and where there were many lakes, which were free of ice summer, they travelled from place to place in boats. In the part of France called Vendee, a postman had to walk on stilts through the marshes and the high grass; without stilts a postman here was no better than a man without arms.
The postal service grew very slowly in all countries. There were no letter-boxes in Moscow a hundred years ago. When a person wanted to send a letter, he took it to a shop, where he knew that letters were taken for the city post-office. Postmen came to these shops three times a day to take the letters that had been left there. The postmen looked like soldiers: they had black hats and carried swords. If the letter was addressed to a person in another city, it sometimes took weeks to get to the receiver; because the roads were very bad, especially in rainy weather and in spring.
The postal service in Russia improved very slowly. Before the October Revolution there were no letter-boxes and no postmen in country places. People who lived in such places had to go to the post-office in the nearest town whenever they had a letter to send. Sometimes months passed before these people received the news of important things that had happened in other parts of the country - or even a hundred kilometres away.
The world today has not become smaller, but the postal service, the work of thousands of postal workers, brings the farthest cities and the smallest country places to our doors.
Завдання до тексту:
I. Які з наступних тверджень відповідають змісту тексту. Випишіть їх:
1. People used the smoke of fires to send messages at night.
2. People used the smoke of fires to send messages during the morning or
3. The runners in China had very heavy bells, so that everybody could bear that
they were coming.
4. Postmen in old times had to be honest; that was vory important.
5. Anybody, honest or not, could be a postman in old times.
6. A postman had to be young and strong. This was the main thing.
7. It was not enough to be young and strong to be a postman; he had to be brave
8. Post runners never had other duties besides carrying letters.
9. The heavy bag of the postman appeared many years ago and at first it was tied to
a stick which could be used to fight the dogs.
10. In the far north a postman had to walk on stilts through the lakes which were free of ice in summer.
Прочитайте наступні речення. До кожного з цих речень надані два варіанти пояснень, що розкривають цілі та мотивації вчинків героїв. Випишіть ті варіанти, які вважаєте відповідними змісту.
Postmen in those days had to have a good memory.
1. In order to remember the way to the next post station.
2. In order to tell the letter to the receiver without any change in it.
Indian post runners in Mexico were sometimes used to send, sea fish for the king's table.
3. Because Indians were keen fishermen.
4. Because they could run fast and far and the capital was four hundred kilometres
from the sea.
In ancient times nobody was allowed to do anything against post runners.
5. Because they were young, strong and had big sticks.
6. Because they were honourable.
When a rich man went to the theatre, he took a carrier pigeons with him.
7. In order to send pigeon home if be wanted to tell his servants to do something.
8. In order to show that he is a richman.
Before the October Revolution there, were no letter-boxes and no postmen in country places.
9. Because the postal service in Russia improved very slowly.
10. Because the people who lived in such places could neither read nor write.
III. Які варіанти перекладу наступних речень ви вважаєте вірними. Випишіть їх.
Postmen in those days had to have a good memory.
1. Поштарі тоді мали добру пам'ять.
2. Поштарі тоді повинні були мати добру пам'ять.
... the runner on duty got ready to start as soon as he heard the little bells tied to the clothes of his comrade..
3. Черговий бігун був готовий бігти так скоро, як і його товариш.
4. почувши звук дзіночків, що були прив'язані до одежи товариша, бігун вже був напоготові до старту.
The runner told tbe letter to the next runner as they ran, without stopping for a minute.
5. Бігун переказував лист іншому бігуну по ходу, не зупиняючись ні на мить.
6. … як тільки прибігав, не втрачав ні хвилини.
In Mexico the people knew by the runner's clothes whether the message he was carrying to the capital was good or bad.
7. В мексиці бігуни одягали одежу в залежності того, добра була погода в столиці чи ні.
8. В Мексиці за одягом бігуна люди взнавали про те, яку звістку несе бігун в столицю – добру чи погану.
At first the written letters were tied to a stick.
9. Перші листи прив'язували до тростини.
10. Вперше листи прив'язували до тростини.
(Retold from the story by 0. Henry)
Miss Martha was forty years old, and she wasn't married. She had a good heart and two thousand dollars in the bank: many women marry who have less.
Martha wasn't married, but she always showed a smiling face to the people who came every day to buy bread in her little bakery. She sold fresh bread and stale bread. Fresh bread cost five cents a loaf and stale bread cost five cents for two loaves; "two for five", as she said to the middle-aged man she had begun to be interested in.
He came to the bakery two or three times a week. He had light brown hair arid blue eyes. His clothes were not new, but always very clean. He always bought two loaves of stale bread, never fresh, and Miss Martha decided that he was very poor. He had long, very white hands; she could see that he wasn't a workman. "Perhaps he is an artist", she thought, "a poor artist, living in a cold dark room and painting beautiful pictures". She often thought of him when she sat down to her dinner of meat and vegetables, and bread and butter and tea and jam. She thought of him sitting alone in his cold dark corner, eating his dry, stale bread. How sorry she was that she could not invite him to have dinner with her! (We have told you that Miss Martha had a good Heart). Or perhaps he wasn't an artist. Perhaps he couldn't find any work and walked the streets all day long, looking for something to do. That was even worse. Miss Martha was ready to cry whenever she thought of it. She wanted to talk to him, to know more about him. But how? He never spoke to her, except to ask for two loaves of stale bread. At last she thought of a plan which, she hoped, would not only help her to discover his profession, but would let her begin a conversation with him.
In her room behind the shop, Miss Martha had a painting which she always liked to look at? It was a painting of a wonderful white palace on an island in a lake. There was a little boat on the blue water of the lake; and in the boat lay a beautiful girl, with one hand in the water. Miss Martha brought the painting from
her room and put it on the wall just behind the place where she kept the loaves of bread.
The next day the man came in, and said, as usual, "Two loaves of stale bread, please". As Miss Martha turned to him with the loaves of bread, her heart began to beat more quickly. She saw that he was looking at her picture: there was even a smile on his face.
"You have a fine picture here, madam", he said as she handed him the bread.
"I am glad you think so", Miss Martha answered. "It's my favourite picture". She turned and looked at the picture. "I admire art so much", she said, "and ..." she was going to say, "and artists", but she stopped: it was too early to say that, "... and paintings", she finished instead. "Do you think it is a good picture?"
The man looked at the picture again, this time more carefully, then said: "Yes, the picture isn't bad, not bad at all. But I'm afraid the proportions of the palace aren't quite right". He took the bread without saying anything else and left the shop.
Hiss Martha went to the window and looked after him. How nice he was! How his blue eyes shone behind his eyeglasses! How quickly he saw that the proportions in the picture were wrong! She was sure now that he was an artist. An artist - and living on stale bread! His life was so hard: it could be so much easier with her two thousand dollars in the bank, with her bakery, with her heart that understood... but she stopped herself. These were day-dreams, she had no right to think such things.
Often now, when he came, he stopped to talk a few minutes to Miss Martha. He seemed to like her smile, the sound of her voice, her conversation. But he continued to buy only stale bread. Hever a cake, never a loaf of fresh bread. He looked thinner, she thought, and unhappy. How she wanted to put something good into the parcel together with his stale bread! But she hadn't enough courage for that. She knew how proud artists were, how they hated gifts in any form.
Miss Martha began to wear her silk blouse in the shop. She was wearing it one day when her artist came in and asked, as usual, for two loaves of stale bread. Miss Martha had just turned to the shelf to get the loaves, when there was a great noise in the street, and fire-engines began to pass the house. The artist ran to the door to look, and at that moment the great idea came to Miss Martha's mind.
On the lower shelf there was a big piece of fresh butter that she had bought that morning. Hiss Martha took a knife, made a hole in each loaf of bread and put a big piece of butter in it. When the artist turned round, she had already made a paper parcel with the two loaves in it. When the artist had left after a very pleasant little conversation, Miss Martha smiled to herself, but her heart was beating faster than usual. She hoped the artist would not be angry when he discovered the butter. But no, how could he be angry about such a small thing? Nobody thought of butter as a gift!
She thought of what was happening in the artist's room. It was lunch time, her artist had stopped, painting and was looking at his beautiful picture, in which the proportions were quite right. Soon he would sit down to his cup of tea and dry bread. He would break one of the loaves - ah! - would he think as he ate, of the hand that had put the butter into that loaf? Would he...? The bell over the shop door rang loudly and two men came in. One of them was a young man she had never seen before. The other was her artist.
Завдання до тексту:
I. Які з наступних тверджень не відповідають змісту тексту. Випишіть їх:
1. Miss Martha was married, but in spite of it she was interested in the middle-aged man who came to her bakery two or three times a week.
2. As Miss Martha had a good heart she invited "an artist" to have a dinner with her.
3. He always bought stale bread and Martha decided that he was very poor.
4. She decided to discover his profession.
5. She asked him about it (his profession).
6. Once Miss Martha put a big piece of butter in a loaf of bread.
7. She was afraid "the artist" would be angry when he discovered the butter.
8. The "artist" returned the gift to Miss Martha.
II. Закінчіть речення, скориставшись варіантами, що дані праворуч.
1. Miss Martha was... a good heart and two
thousands dollars in
2. She always showed ... stale bread.
3. She thought that the
middle-aged man was… spoke to her.
4. He always bought ... .. would help her to
begin a conversation
with the middle-aged
5. He never ... ..forty years old.
6. She thought of a plan, which ... an artist.
7. Miss Martha had ... ... a smiling face to the
people who bought
bread i n her bakery.
II. Виберіть вірну відповідь на наступні запитання.
1. What did Martha do in the bakery?
a) she bought fresh bread.
b) she sold fresh and stale bread.
c) she sold only fresh bread.
2. Who came to the bakery two or three times a week?
a) an artist.
b) a workman.
c) an architect.
3. Why did Martha begin to wear her silk blouse?
a) because her brown one was too old.
b) in order to be to the artist's liking.
4. Why did she hope "the artist" would not be angry, when he discovered the butter?
a) she thought it was impossible to be angry about such a little thing.
b) she thought he was very poor and never had sufficient to eat
5. Why did he buy only stale bread?
a) he used it instead of a rubber.
b) he did not like fresh bread.
Photo printers: Are they worth the extra cost?
Digital cameras are great because they allow you to take lots of pictures without paying for film and to easily post pics on the Web. But what about when you want prints made? You could, of course, get prints from a professional developer. But if you're interested in doing it yourself, a photo printer is a viable option.
WHEN SHOPPING for a photo printer, the first thing you'll probably notice is that it can cost as much as $200 more than your average color inkjet. So what are you paying extra for? And is that a smart investment?
To get some answers, I talked to our resident printer expert, Robert Vamosi. He says the main things that distinguish photo printers from regular inkjets are the special ink cartridges they use. These inks are designed to provide better halftones, which are necessary to reproduce photographs. Standard inkjets, he says, "just aren't that sophisticated."
In addition, photo inkjets are better at reproducing detail and use more ink colors than standard printers; those extra colors will often include more than one shade of a basic hue, like black. Some also use specialized printer technologies that are optimized for photo output. Canon, for example, has begun to use dye-sublimation technology in some of its photo printers. This means the printer heats and applies layers of colored wax to the photo paper, instead of droplets of ink, creating a smooth, film-like look. The portable Canon CP-300 is one of the first models to use this technology. Another perk: Many photo printers come with media card readers so you can print photos directly from your digital camera.
Of course, if you don't need the extras, a standard color inkjet is capable of printing decent photos. A photo printer will just do a better job.
BEFORE YOU BUY a photo printer, make sure it's compatible with high-quality inks and papers. Premium glossy finish or heavyweight matte finish papers will produce the crispest images. Also, check that the printer churns out high-resolution prints; a good inkjet should have a resolution of 2400 dots per inch (dpi), while a dye-sub model should offer 300dpi.
But don't rely solely on the numbers. Because other factors (such as color gradation) affect how your photos will look, you should evaluate the image-quality of prints made on a particular model whenever possible, or see what our testers say about real-world results in our reviews.
Photo printers aren't one-trick ponies. They can output text and graphics, too. In fact, most photo printers pass our labs' text and graphics tests with flying colors. It should be noted, however, that printer makers consider photo models to be used primarily for-as their name implies-photos, so they don't place as much emphasis on how well text and other graphics perform.
As far as cost, the extra dollars for the printer are not all you'll spend. You'll also have to pay for paper and ink, which historically aren't cheap. But they have come down in price somewhat. According to Vamosi, you can print 4x6-inch images with a photo printer for between 32 to 56 cents per image – close to what you'll pay at drug stores and other commercial developers.
Завдання до тексту:
I. Increase your vocabulary:
- a chemical substance used for developing photographs
- able to continue to live, can work successfully
- an electronic printer, usually connected to a small computer
- a color or kind of colour to give something a different colour
- the process of changing a solid substance to a gas by heating it and then changing it back to a solid in order to make it pure
- acceptable and good enough
- not shiny
to churn out
- to produce large quantities of something
Read the text. Find the best way to complete the sentences:
Digital cameras are great because …
The main things that distinguish photo printers from regular inkjets are …
Photo inkjets are better at …
Many photo printers come with media card readers so …
A standard color inkjet is capable of …
Compress the following sentence:
In addition, photo inkjets are better at reproducing detail and use more ink colors than standard printers; those extra colors will often include more than one shade of a basic hue, like black.
Paraphrase the following sentences:
Because other factors (such as color gradation) affect how your photos will look, you should evaluate the image-quality of prints made on a particular model whenever possible, or see what our testers say about real-world results in our reviews.
It should be noted, however, that printer makers consider photo models to be used primarily for-as their name implies-photos, so they don't place as much emphasis on how well text and other graphics perform.
Summarize the text you have read. Use the following phrases:
The text reports on …
A detailed description is given to …
Much attention is given to …
It is claimed that …
It is pointed out that …
Nothing ordinary about Standard PDA
Noel Campion says Dells additions to the pocket PC market put rivals to shame in terms of performance and affordability.
PDAs (personal digital assistants), have been a hard sell right from the beginning when Apple first brought out the Newton. Although it would look big compared to the PDAs around nowadays, the Newton was far ahead of its time and that is probably why it was never a commercial success. US robotics were one of the first companies to make a breakthrough in the PDA market with their product, the original Palm, which is still one of the most popular.
Microsoft obviously saw the potential for a PDA-based Windows and Windows CE was born as a direct competitor to the Palm OS. However, Windows CE was a disaster despite a reasonable turnout of devices from top notch manufactures. A determined Microsoft, not willing to give up, re-engineered the OS which we now know as Pocket PC (Windows CE 3.0). Compaq (before the merger with HP) were the manufacturers of the first and really put the Pocket PC, PDA on the map with their iPaq.
The most recent landmark on the Pocket PC roadmap has to be Dell's entry into the PDA market with their feature-rich Axim X5. Dell has introduced two different models of the Axim X5 at a price that is exciting for consumers, but worrying for all the other Pocket PC manufacturers. The Standard Axim is € 249 plus VAT and the Performance is € 349 plus VAT.
Завдання до тексту:
I. Increase your vocabulary:
- an important new discovery in something you are studying
- a degree or level on a scale of achievement syn brand
- having a strong desire to do something
- to combine or join together to form one thing
- an event, idea, discovery that marks an important part of the development of knowledge
to bring out
- to produce … to be sold to the public
- a person, group, or organization that you compete with in business
to put sb/sth to shame
- to be so much better than someone or something else that it makes the other thing seem very bad or ordinary
You have read the article. Can you explain what PDA stands for?
Complete the following sentences with the information you have gained from the text:
US robotics were one of the first companies …
Window CE was born as …
A determined Microsoft re-engineered the OS. Which …
The most recent landmark on the Pocket PC roadmap has to be …
Summarize the content of the article. Use the phrases:
The article provides information on …
The paper discusses …
A careful account is given to …
A comparison of … with … is made.
It is assumed that …
European Airlines to Test Cell Phone Use
GENEVA (AP) – Two European airlines will allow passengers late next year to use their own cell phones on commercial flights within western Europe, a Geneva-based technology firm said Tuesday.
TAP Air Portugal and British earner bmi both have agreed to introduce OnAir's voice and text service for cell phones in separate three-month trial runs, Chief Executive George Cooper said.
The planes - which will be the first to allow passengers to make and receive calls with their own cell phones while onboard - will give OnAir the chance to assess its service ahead of its general release slated for 2007, he said.
"With both airlines, initially there will be a couple of airplanes - two or three airplanes - equipped with this system," Cooper told The Associated Press from Germany. "During that three months, we'll all be evaluating how it's going, what the usage is, how we handle the crew issues and so on." OnAir's system will be used by TAP on its Airbus 321 model and by bmi on its Airbus 320s, both single-aisle planes primarily used for flights within western Europe,
Users of mobile phones and other handheld wireless devices with roaming capability will be able to make and receive calls using a base station within the airplane. They will be allowed to turn their phones on after the plane reaches 10,000 feet, when other electronic devices such as portable music players and laptops are permitted, Cooper said.
"This trial will guide us on usage patterns and some of the social issues in using mobile phones on aircraft," said bmi Chief Executive Nigel Turner. "It will also help us to confirm the business case for rolling the service out across the remainder of the fleet."
Mobile phones are banned on existing aircraft for fear that they might interfere with a plane's navigation system as they attempt to log on to terrestrial networks.
OnAir's mobile communications system is based within the plane, which it says ensures that cell phones and other devices operate at lower transmission power and thus avoid affecting avionics. The company hopes to clear all regulatory hurdles for air traffic within Europe at some point next year.
OnAir - a joint venture of Airbus and Netherlands-based technology company SITA Information Networking Computing - is aiming to sell its services to other airlines, which could then use the technology in other plane models.
The technology should "add greatly to the quality of the time that our customers spend flying with us," said TAP Chief Executive Fernando Pinto. "We believe that business passengers flying within Europe will very much welcome this new capability."
Cooper said the surcharge for mobile phone use will be competitive with international roaming rates, at about $2.30-52.50 per minute. A text message should cost about 50 cents to send or receive.
Airline bmi, a subsidiary of British Midland PLC, flies primarily to destinations in Britain and western Europe and is London Heathrow Airport's second-largest flight operator.
TAP, Portugal's state-owned airline, flies to 43 destinations in 25 countries.
Cooper made the announcement in conjunction with the annual World Airline Entertainment Association Conference, which opened Tuesday in Hamburg, Germany.
Завдання до тексту:
I. Increase your vocabulary:
- to be expected to succeed
- to see how useful or valuable it is
- a group of planes (…) that are controlled by one company
- a problem or difficulty
- a new business activity that involves taking risks
- a company that is owned or controlled by another company
Check your understanding. Answer the following questions:
How will OnAir system benefit from testing cell phone use on commercial flights.
How long will it take European Airlines to try on air’s system.
Why are mobile phones banned on existing aircraft.
What is expected to achieve by this technology.
Change the following sentences in a simpler form:
The planes - which will be the first to allow passengers to make and receive calls with their own cell phones while onboard - will give OnAir the chance to assess its service ahead of its general release slated for 2007.
On Air's mobile communications system is based within the plane, which it says ensures that cell phones and other devices operate at lower transmission power and thus avoid affecting avionics.
Summarize the article using the following phrases:
The article provides information on …
The article reports on …
The objective of the system is …
It is assumed that …
It is recognized that …
The paper is of interest / no particular interest.
Verb for Shoe - very intelligent shoes!
December 15, 2004, MIT spin-off company Vectra Sense has announced a new computerized shoe named "Verb for Shoe" that provides on-the-fly computerised shoe adjustments according to the wearer's movements, a wireless link from the shoes to your PC and to other wearers of the shoes (creating an elite and exclusive community) and a software application which continuously and actively monitors the shoe's power usage, air bladder system performance, the user's motion analysis and the shoe's health and alerts when problems occur.
Verb for shoe is footwear that senses your activity level and automatically adjusts to improve comfort and performance. This is performed through an embedded computer that learns individual movement patterns and adjusts the shoe accordingly. This computer also allows for wireless data storage and information sharing.
A synthesis of high fashion style and cutting-edge technology, Verb for Shoe provides a completely different way of looking at shoes for style-conscious trend-setters. In an exclusive Hollywood preview, Vectra Sense took the town by storm with many celebrities calling Verb for Shoe the "next big thing."
Not surprisingly. Verb for Shoe offers the ability to option-up your shoes, with an optional Sports package, a Rich-Media package, and an Exotic materials package.
The key features of the shoe are as follows:
A wireless link that allow the shoes to link with your PC. Through a new computer peripheral, called a Think pod, the shoes can interface with your computer;
Think Share, a new feature that creates an exclusive community of Verb for Shoe users, who can exchange business cards and other information through wireless communication between their shoes;
Think Adjust, a feature that allows the air bladders in the shoe to be independently adjusted by the wearer;
Shoe Doctor, a software application which continuously monitors the shoe's health and alerts when problems occur. It actively monitors power usage, air bladder system performance, and motion analysis. When a problem does occur, Customer Support at Vectra Sense can connect to your shoes across the internet to assist in resolving issues;
"The revolution has begun with this new shoe," said Ronald S. Demon, inventor, and CEO of Vectra Sense Technologies, Inc. "Our focus is to provide a truly unique customer experience through pain-staking attention to quality, with each shoe handcrafted to order using only the finest materials available."
Verb for Shoe is a third generation computerized shoe product for Vectra Sense Technologies. Its first product, the Raven, was the world's first computerized adjustable shoe. The cost of the basic shoe is US$499.99, and fully loaded with all the options, the cost would be US$1000.
Demon noted that Verb for Shoe will not only impact the footwear industry, but also the emerging wearable computing industry, the mobile and wireless computing industries and to some extent the internet.
More details on this remarkable new shoe can be found at the company's web site, www.verbforshoe.com/.
Завдання до тексту:
I. Increase your vocabulary:
- to form a separate and partly independent company from part of an existing company
- a bag o skin, leather or rubber that can be filled with air or liquid
- to fix something firmly
the cutting - edge
- the most advanced
trend - setter
- someone who starts a new fashion or makes it popular
- to connect
- very careful
- skillfully made by hand, not by machine
- to have an important or noticeable effect on someone or something
- in an early state of development
II. Complete the following sentences with the information you have gained from the text:
Verb for shoe is footwear that …
This computer also allows for …
Verb for Shoe offers …
The key features of the shoe are …
Verb for Shoe will not only impact the footwear industry, but also …
III. Paraphrase the following sentences:
December 15, 2004, MIT spin-off company VectraSense has announced a new computerized shoe named "Verb for Shoe" that provides on-the-fly computerised shoe adjustments according to the wearer's movements, a wireless link from the shoes to your PC and to other wearers of the shoes (creating an elite and exclusive community) and a software application which continuously and actively monitors the shoe's power usage, air bladder system performance, the user's motion analysis and the shoe's health and alerts when problems occur.
Our focus is to provide a truly unique customer experience through pain-staking attention to quality, with each shoe handcrafted to order using only the finest materials available.
Summarize the content of the text. Use the phrases:
The article reports on …
The article covers such points as …
It is claimed that …
It is pointed out that …
It is shown that …
NEWSLETTER, ISSUE 03 2003,
On 5 November, Robowatch introduced publicly the OFRO in Frankurt/Main for the very first time. Before, the world novelty had only been presented to interested professional visitors at the security trade exhibition in Abu Dhabi. The OFRO is a highly technical security robot for deployment in large outdoor areas. With the OFRO we are consequently complementing our product range," says Managing Director Ulf Stremmel. "While MOSRO 1 taps in buildings and halls, OFRO will patrol the outdoor area - doing so in any weather." Robowatch is therewith the first supplier worldwide of an autonomously navigating security robot for outdoor areas. In future, OFRO will be used, for instance, to secure construction sites, storage areas, industrial plants, port or military facilities.
OFRO sports an impact resistant and weatherproof body. Underneath, two electric motors provide for the necessary power. Using a chain chassis, the robot reaches a speed of 2 m/s, negotiates any bumps of the terrain and is extremely agile. With a total weight of only 50 kg it can patrol up to 12 hours. OFRO endures temperature fluctuations between -15° to 50° Celsius. By means of the sensor head, which rotates 360° and integrated thermo camera OFRO recognises persons and events at night and in mist, rain and snow - in a distance of up to 100 metres. On-board DGPS receivers and two receivers for correctional data provide for accurate navigation. The robot's communication is ensured as a standard via WLAN and GSM transmission. As a matter of course, features such as the SMS system for information and remote maintenance and the Mobile Monitoring System also come into operation with the OFRO. Thus, OFRO is the ideal team player on the beat and on patrol duty. Via GSM radio communication, it can be controlled safely as well as time and cost saving. All relevant data used to estimate danger and alarm situation are transmitted directly to the control room. "With the OFRO we offer all known quality standards required for early detection of danger in an optimal and effective manner," Robowatch Chief Developer Dr Jens Hanke explains. Construction sites have a large demand of such surveillance systems. Between 1993 and 1997 alone, thefts of construction machinery on German construction sites have doubled. Every year, the total economic damage amounts to 0.5 to 1 billion Euros. With the OFRO the entire construction site is watched.
Завдання до тексту:
I. Increase your vocabulary:
- something new and unusual which attracts people’s attention and interest
- able to move quickly and easily
II. Check your understanding. Answer the following questions:
What kind of novelty had been presented at the security trade exhibition.
What is the difference between OFRO and MOSRO 1.
What types of occupation will benefit from the use of OFRO.
Identify features that come into operation with the OFRO.
III. Complete the following sentences with the information you have gained from the text:
The OFRO is a highly technical security robot for …
It will be used to …
The robot's communication is ensured via …
With the OFRO we offer all known quality standards required for …
IV. Summarize the article using the phrases:
The article reports on …
A comparison of … with … is made.
The results of … are presented.
It is assumed that …
It is shown that …
The article is of interest / no particular interest.
Навчання іноземної мови у середньому навчальному закладі відбувається в різноманітних сферах інтелектуального та побутового спілкування: в соціально-побутовій, громадсько-політичній, соціально-культурній та професійно-трудовій.
Методи навчання дають відповідь на запитання «Як навчати?» Поняття «метод» означає шлях до поставленої мети. В сучасній методиці навчання іноземних мов метод трактується в широкому і вузькому смислі. В широкому смислі метод означає систему навчання. У вузькому смислі метод означає спосіб упорядкованої діяльності вчителя та учня на шляху до поставлених цілей навчання. В цьому смислі метод – це спосіб, що забезпечує взаємодію учня і вчителя (в нашій роботі це – комунікативно-орієнтований підхід).
Для забезпечення навчальної діяльності учнів учитель застосовує такі методи-способи: демонстрацію (показ), пояснення та організацію вправляння. Методи – способи мають універсальний характер і використовуються у будь-якій методичній системі. Проте їх співвідношення та «наповнення» зумовлюються принципами навчання. Принцип комунікативності зумовлює переважне використання комунікативних вправ у процесі вправляння.
Навчальний процес з іноземної мови включає три основні методичні етапи:
етап презентації нового матеріалу;
етап практики в застосуванні засвоєного матеріалу у процесі спілкування в різних видах мовленнєвої діяльності.
На кожному етапі використовуються відповідні методи-способи.
На етапі презентації – це демонстрація (показ) нового матеріалу та способів оперування ним. Учитель демонструє зразки мовлення, показує їх функціонування в контексті. Така демонстрація може здійснюватися з опорою на малюнок, предмет, дію та ін. Учень в цей час знайомиться з новим матеріалом та способами оперування цим матеріалом.
На етапі тренування і практики вчитель організовує вправляння учнів у застосуванні засвоєного матеріалу в усному або письмовому спілкуванні. При цьому використовуються різноманітні вправи.
У свою чергу учні здійснюють операції вправляння в різних видах мовленнєвої діяльності.
Слід зазначити, що застосування методів як учителем, так і учнями, спрямоване не лише на організацію та реалізацію навчальної діяльності, але й на управління нею.
Управління навчальною діяльністю реалізується завдяки здійсненню учителем контролю за успішністю учнів в оволодінні іншомовною мовленнєвою діяльністю на кожному етапі навчання. Учні користуються самоконтролем та самокорекцією.
Методичні прийоми навчання пов’язані з конкретними діями вчителя та учнів. Це елементарні вчинки (дії), що спрямовані на виконання конкретного завдання на певному етапі уроку. Методи та прийоми – взаємопов’язані поняття. Образно кажучи, метод – це місткість, а прийом – це речовина, що наповнює цю місткість. До прийомів відносять, наприклад – прийоми семантизації нових лексичних одиниць, прийомив організації навчальної діяльності учнів в опрацюванні нового матеріалу, закріпленні набутих навичок та розвитку вмінь мовлення в ситуаціях спілкування шляхом виконання учнями різноманітних мовних (кросворди, пропуски, опис малюнків) та комунікативних (мовленнєвих) вправ (описати послідовність дій на малюнках, відповісти на запитання, рольова гра і т.ін.).
Засоби навчання є важливим невід’ємним компонентом навчального процесу з іноземної мови в середніх навчальних закладах. Визначення засобів навчання – це відповідь на запитання «За допомогою чого навчати?»
Засоби навчання іноземної мови розподіляються на: основні та допоміжні; комплект для вчителя, комплект для учня; технічні та нетехнічні.
В ідеалі усі засоби мають бути представлені в навчально-методичному комплексі (НМК), за яким проводиться навчання іноземної мови у даному класі середнього навчального закладу. В такому разі НМК і є основним засобом навчання у всій повноті його компонентів: підручника, книжки для вчителя, лінгафонного практикуму, комп’ютерних програм, комплекту слайдів, діафільмів, аудіо-, відеокасет, CD, DVD, таблиць тощо.
Принцип комунікативної спрямованості навчання забезпечує таку організацію навчального процесу, який веде до належного рівня практичного оволодіння іноземною мовою в усній і писемній формах.
Комунікативно-орієнтований підхід до вивчення іноземних мов передбачає реалізацію особистісно орієнтованого, діяльнісного та соціокультурного напряму у вивченні іноземних мов.
Пріоритет комунікативної мети у навчанні передбачає таку організацію діяльності, яка спрямована на оволодіння учнями спілкуванням в усній і писемній формах.
Діяльнісний характер навчання забезпечується особливими видами діяльності, які в умовах уроку дають змогу моделювати реальні ситуації спілкування. Це мовленнєві ситуації, рольові ігри, проектна діяльність, групова робота.
Соціокультурне спрямування процесу навчання дає змогу учневі комфортніше почуватись у чужомовному середовищі.
Мова виступає як засіб пізнання картини світу, залучення до цінностей, створених іншими народами. Одночасно мова – це ключ до відкриття унікальності і своєрідності, власної самобутності.
В самому змісті навчального предмета повинні бути закладені механізми, що розкривають можливість практичного використання іноземної мови як важливого засобу розвитку та задоволення інтересів учнів, в тому числі і немовних:
1. Де і як учень зможе використати іноземну мову у своїй майбутній професійній діяльності?
2. Яку користь знання іноземної мови здатне принести при виборі професійної діяльності?
3. Яким чином іноземна мова дозволяє долучитися до науково-технічного та культурного прогресу та традиціям країн, мову яких вивчають учні, поповнити свої знання у сфері точних чи гуманітарних наук?
Дуже важливо, щоб у самому змісті навчального предмета були чітко представлені бажані емоційно-оціночні відносини учнів до навколишнього середовища, один до одного, до навколишнього світу, до того, чим вони займаються в процесі вивчення іноземної мови.
Формування і розвиток мовної, мовленнєвої і соціокультурної компетенцій, необхідних і достатніх для спілкування, навчання нормам міжкультурного спілкування іноземною мовою, розвиток культури усного і писемного мовлення передбачає формування як чисто лінгвістичних навичок (лексичних, фонетичних, граматичних), так і їхнє нормативне використання в усному і писемному мовленні. Передбачені теми. Тексти, проблеми, мовні задачі орієнтовані на формування чотирьох видів мовленнєвої діяльності (говоріння, читання, аудіювання, письмо), розвиток соціокультурних умінь і навичок, що забезпечує використання іноземної мови як засобу спілкування, навчання, інструменту співпраці і взаємодії в сучасному світі.
Мета реалізації комунікативного підходу полягає не лише в тому, щоб навчити учнів вільного іншомовного спілкування, але також продемонструвати свою унікальність як творця і учня, і вчителя; за допомогою спеціально дібраних вправ стимулювати мотиваційну сферу учнів, активізувати їх резервні можливості.
В сучасній методичній літературі виділяють чотири основні підходи:
1. Біхевіористський підхід визначає оволодіння іноземною мовою як сформованість реакцій на іншомовні стимули.
2. Інтуїтивно-свідомий підхід передбачає оволодіння іноземною мовою на основі моделей в інтенсивному режимі з наступним усвідомленням їх значення і правил оперування ними.
3. Свідомий пізнавальний підхід спрямовує діяльність учня передусім на засвоєння правил використання лексико-граматичних моделей, на основі яких здійснюється свідоме конструювання висловлювань.
4. Комунікативний підхід передбачає органічне поєднання свідомих і підсвідомих компонентів у процесі навчання іноземної мови, тобто засвоєння правил оперування іншомовними моделями відбувається одночасно з оволодінням їх комунікативно-мовленнєвою функцією.
Реалізація комунікативного підходу в навчальному процесі з іноземної мови означає, що формування іншомовних мовленнєвих навичок і вмінь відбувається шляхом і завдяки здійсненню учнем іншомовної мовленнєвої діяльності. Іншими словами, оволодіння засобами спілкування (фонетичними, лексичними, граматичними) спрямоване на їх практичне застосування у процесі спілкування. Оволодіння уміннями говоріння, аудіювання, читання та письма здійснюється шляхом реалізації цих видів мовленнєвої діяльності у процесі навчання в умовах, що та моделюють ситуації реального спілкування. У зв’язку з цим навчальна діяльність учнів організовується таким чином, щоб вони виконували вмотивовані дії з мовленнєвим матеріалом для вирішення комунікативних завдань, спрямованих на досягнення цілей та намірів спілкування.
З позицій комунікативного підходу процес навчання іноземної мови будується адекватно реальному процесу мовленнєвого спілкування, тобто процес навчання є моделлю мовленнєвої комунікації, який має місце в реальному житті, оскільки навчання іноземної мови в середніх навчальних закладах відбувається в умовах рідномовного оточення. Тому йдеться тільки про максимальне зближення процесів навчання і реального спілкування за такими найважливішими параметрами як комунікативно-вмотивована мовленнєва поведінка вчителя та учнів і предметність процесу спілкування, що забезпечується ретельним відбором комунікативно-мовленнєвих намірів, тем, ситуацій, які віддзеркалюють інтереси та потреби учнів.
Прийнятий в сучасній вітчизняній методиці комунікативний підхід до навчання іноземних мов, згідно з загальноєвропейськими процесами інтернаціоналізації і глобалізації, зумовлює вибір цілей, згідно з якими визначаються принципи, зміст, методи, прийоми та засоби навчання.
У процесі оволодіння комунікативними вміннями цикли завдань розвивають комунікативні вміння і являють собою своєрідну спіраль-спектр, де кожен новий виток виводить учня на більш високий рівень. Тобто комплекс містить вправи від репродуктивних до продуктивних (творчих). Під час переходу на продуктивний рівень (після проходження всієї спіралі) перед учнем відкривається можливість спілкуватися.
Введення і закріплення нового матеріалу відбувається за допомогою сприйняття на слух. Якщо ж для введення матеріалу використовується підручник – то за допомогою говоріння і читання.
Завдання і тексти доцільно добирати залежно до інтересів, здібностей і рівня навченості учнів. Навчальний матеріал об’єднувати в цикли, що мають єдину структуру. У кожен цикл включати чотири аспекти, взаємопов’язані як тематично, так і за лексико-граматичним змістом.
Перший аспект – тематичний – розвиває уміння спілкуватися іноземною мовою на базі комунікативно-пошукових і комунікативно-пізнавальних завдань.
Другий аспект – граматичний – орієнтований на коригування та відпрацювання граматичних навичок учнів (комунікативно орієнтований підхід до систематизації та поглиблення граматичних знань).
Третій аспект – лексичний – спрямований на розширення тематично-лексичного запасу учнів і розвиток уміння працювати зі словником.
Четвертий аспект – творчий – надає учням можливості висловити своє індивідуальне сприйняття тематичного матеріалу творчо: за допомогою малюнків, есе, складання віршів, тематичних проектів, інтерв’ю, статей для шкільної стіннівки, літературних перекладів тощо.
В реальних процесах спілкування окремі види мовленнєвої діяльності функціонують, як правило, інтегровано – наприклад, розмова – це аудіювання і говоріння, а заповнення форми передбачає читання і письмо. На уроках спроба відділити те, що часто функціонує як інтегровані уміння (integrated skills), видається штучною. Аудіювання найчастіше веде до говоріння, і це часто трапляється тоді, коли учитель ставить запитання на розуміння і заохочує учнів говорити.
Чотири види мовленнєвої діяльності часто поділяються на дві групи: продуктивні (productive) – говоріння і письмо, та рецептивні (receptive) – аудіювання і читання. Розвиток продуктивних умінь говоріння і письма вимагає чимало підготовчої роботи і керованої практики. Завдання для розвитку навичок і умінь говоріння включають повністю контрольовані вправи, тобто тренувальні вправи (повторення слів чи фраз, пісні, вірші, декламації), напівконтрольовані, тобто умовно-комунікативні вправи (заповнення пропусків у словах чи реченнях, субституційні і трансформаційні вправи) і мало контрольовані вправи, тобто більш вільні форми висловлювання або творчі завдання (рольова гра, відкрите обговорення, ігри і міні-діалоги).
Говоріння забезпечує усне спілкування іноземною мовою в діалогічній формі (паралельно з аудіюванням) і в монологічній формі. Воно спрямоване до однієї особи або до необмеженої кількості осіб. Акт говоріння завжди має певну мету, мотив, в основі якого лежить потреба; предмет – думки того, хто говорить; продукт – висловлювання (діалог або монолог) і результат, який може виражатися у вербальній або невербальній реакції на висловлювання.
Слід зазначити, що у процесі навчання нас цікавлять не будь-які ситуації дійсності, а лише такі, які спонукають до мовлення. Такі ситуації називають мовленнєвими або комунікативними. Вони завжди містять у собі стимул до мовлення.
У реальному процесі спілкування комунікативні ситуації виникають як правило, самі собою. Це так звані природні ситуації. Їх можна використовувати у процесі навчання іноземної мови, але їх кількість надзвичайно обмежена (наприклад, спортивні змагання напередодні, спізнення учнів, тощо). Тому автори підручників і вчителі спеціально створюють комунікативні ситуації, моделюючи природні. Такі штучні комунікативні ситуації потребують певної деталізації зовнішніх обставин та умов, в яких має місце діалогічне спілкування, наявності вербального стимулу, визначення ролей, в яких виступатимуть комуніканти, стосунків між ними тощо. Навчальні комунікативні ситуації покликані стимулювати мотивацію, викликати інтерес до участі у спілкуванні, бажання якнайкраще виконати завдання.
Характерною особливістю діалогічного мовлення є його емоційна забарвленість, оскільки мовець передає свої думки, почуття, ставлення до того, про що йдеться. Це знаходить відображення у відборі лексико-граматичних засобів, у структурі реплік, в інтонаційному оформленні і т.д. справжній діалог містить репліки подиву, захоплення, оцінки, розчарування, незадоволення та ін.
Іншою визначальною рисою діалогу є його спонтанність. Обмін репліками відбувається досить швидко, і реакція вимагає нормального темпу мовлення. Це потребує високого ступеня автоматизованості й готовності до використання мовного матеріалу.
Також, діалогічне мовлення має двосторонній характер. Обмін репліками не може здійснюватися без взаємного розуміння, яке відбувається через аудіювання. Отже володіння діалогічним мовленням передбачає володіння говорінням та аудіюванням, що вимагає від учасників спілкування двосторонньої мовленнєвої активності та ініціативності. Виходячи з цього, в учнів необхідно розвивати вміння ініціативно розпочинати діалог, реагувати на репліки співрозмовника і спонукати його до продовження розмови.
Основою комунікативної компетенції є комунікативні уміння, розвиток яких неможливий без оволодіння мовними засобами реалізації усного або писемного висловлювання. Проте, знання лексичного і граматичного матеріалу ще не забезпечує становлення комунікативних умінь. Необхідні навички оперування цим матеріалом, а також використання його для породження і розпізнавання інформації у визначених сферах спілкування. Неможливим також є розвиток комунікативної компетенції без відповідних соціокультурних і соціолінгвістичних знань, умінь і навичок, які забезпечують входження особистості в інший соціум і сприяють її соціалізації у новому для неї суспільстві.
Кожний етап навчання (початкова школа, основна школа, старша школа) характеризується не тільки різною тематикою і обсягом навчального матеріалу для навчання спілкування, але й різноманітними методами, формами і видами навчальної діяльності відповідно до рівня розвитку учнів, їхніх інтересів і досвіду.
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