Culture is one of the most important components, which form every
nation. It is one occurrence that distinguishes and unites all the people
who live in the world. But it is impossible to imagine the culture without
music, a very big part of our life.
Every nation has one’s own music and I think that in music there are
all peculiarities of the nation, it contains the key for
understanding the soul of people.
Music is and always has been a vital part of life in Britain. The United Kingdom's diverse and vibrant music scene reflects its cosmopolitan culture, and has produced numerous talents in styles ranging from pop, rock, and hip hop to folk music, classical and opera.
As for folk music, there are four primary components of the United Kingdom, each with their own diverse and distinctive folk music forms - England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. In addition, there are numerous distinct and semi-distinct folk traditions from the Isle of Man, Cornwall and the Channel Islands, as well as immigrants from Jamaica, India, the Commonwealth and other parts of the world.
Traditional music is an extremely broad concept, as there is much variety between the different regions of England. Folk music varies across Northumbria, Kent, Sussex and Yorkshire, and even within cities like London. England's Martin Carthy was perhaps the most influential traditional English performer of the 20th century, alongside the Copper Family and the Waterson Family, who helped inspire a roots revival later in the century.
Of all the regions of the United Kingdom, Northern Ireland (and its neighbour, the Republic of Ireland) has the most vibrant folk traditions. The popularity of traditional instruments such as fiddles have remained throughout the centuries even as analogues on Great Britain died out. As of recently Northern Ireland has shown some of the most popular talent such as seen by the Bangor band, Snow Patrol and Ash. Such popular legends of Northern Ireland include Van Morrison.
Scottish folk music
Scottish folk music includes many kinds of songs, including ballads and laments, sung by a single singer with accompaniment by bagpipes, fiddles or harps. Traditional dances include waltzes, reels, strathspeys and jigs. Alongside the other areas of the United Kingdom, Scotland underwent a roots revival in the 1960s. Cathy-Ann McPhee and Jeannie Robertson were the heroes of this revival, which inspired some revolutions in band formats by groups like The Clutha, The Whistlebinkies, Boys of the Lough, Incredible String Band and The Chieftains.
Wales is a Celtic country that features folk music played at twmpathau (communal dances) and gwyl werin (music festivals). Having long been subordinate to English culture, Welsh musicians in the late 20th century had to reconstruct traditional music when a roots revival began. This revival began in the late 1970s and achieved some mainstream success in the UK in the 80s with performers like Robin Huw Bowen, Moniars and Gwerinos.
THE FOLK INSTRUMENTS OF BRITAIN
THE ENGLISH HORN
The folk instruments of Britain are not so numerous and very interesting. The most known of them are the English horn, the harp and the bagpipe.
The first type of reed instrument was created by the Egyptians in B.C times. The primitive form was barley straws pressed flat and placed in a small pipe. These Egyptian reed -pipes later had three to four holes added. They varied in length.
A short double-reeded instrument had been developed by the 12th century. It had a conical bore with a wide bell. It was brought to Europe during the crusades from the East. It was named the shawm.
The 14th century brought modifications and the discant shawm was invented. The treble shawm was soon produced. The oboe was developted from this instrument in the 17th century. It was made to be performed indoors.
The oboe was produced by the hotteterre family. It was first used in the court of Louis XVI. The original name was the French word hautbois, meaning high-wood.
The oboe was made of three sections with six keys and hole. Developments in the century included making different sizes. One such model was the oboe di caccia. This is the ancestor of the English horn.
More key mechanisms were developed in the 19th century. Nine keys were used by 1825 with the fingering similar to the flute and bassoon. The reed was also improved upon.
The cor anglais, or english horn, is a double reed woodwind musical instrument in the woodwind family.
It is a transposing instrument pitched in F, a fifth lower than the oboe, and is consequently approximately one-third longer. The fingering and playing technique used for the cor anglais are essentially the same as those of the oboe. Its sounding range stretches from the E below middle C to C two octaves above middle C.
Its pear-shaped bell gives it a more nasal, covered timbre than that of the oboe, being closer in tone quality to the oboe d`amore. Whereas the oboe is the soprano instrument of the oboe family, the cor anglais is generally regarded as the alto member of the family, and the oboe d`amore, pitched between the two in the key of A, is the mezzo-soprano member. It is perceived to have a more mellov and more plaintive tone than the oboe. Its appearance differs from the oboe in that the reed is attached to a slightly bent metal tube called the bocal, or crook, and the bell has a bulbous shape.
Reeds used to play the cor anglais are similar to those used for an oboe, comprising a piece of cane folded in two. Although the instrument itself is longer, a cor anglais reed is shorter than that of an oboe, and also slightly wider. Where the cane on an oboe reed is connected to a small metal tube partially covered in cork, there is no such cork on a cor anglais reed, which fits metal against metal onto the bocal, in a manner not dissimilar to the bassoon.
Perhaps the best know makers of modern instruments are the French firms of F.Loree, Marigaux and rigoutat, the British firm of T W Howarth, and the American firm Fox. Instruments from smaller volume makers, such as A. Laubinare also sought after. Instruments are usually made from African Blakwood or Grenadilla, although some makers offer instruments in a choice of alternative woods as well, such as cocobolo wood or violet wood, which are said to alter the voice of the cor anglais slightly, reputedly making it even more mellow and warmer. Fox has recently made some instruments in plastic resin.
GREAT HIGHLAND BAGPIPE
The Great Highland bagpipe is probably the best-known variety of bagpipe. Abbreviated GHB, and commonly referred to simply as "the pipes", they have historically taken numerous forms in both Ireland, England and Scotland.
A modern set has a bag, a chanter, a blowpipe, two tenor drones, and one bass drone. The scale on the chanter is in Mixolydian mode with a flattened 7th or leading tone. It has a range from one whole tone lower than the tonic to one octaveabove it (in pipers parlance: Low G. Low a, b, c, le, f, High G, and High A; the C and F could or should be called sharp but this is always omitted).Although less so now, depending on the tuning of the player, certain notes are tuned slightly off of just intonation(for example, the D could be tuned slightly sharp for sound effects),but again, today the notes of the chanter are usually tuned in just intonation to the mixolydian scale with a flattened 7th.The two tenor drones are an octave below the keynote (Low A of chanter)and the bass drone two octaves below.
This "A" of GHB is actually slightly sharper than B-flat, around 480 Hz, and within the realm of competive pipe bands ,seems to get slightly shaper each year. In the 1990s, there were a few new developments, namely, reliable synthetic drone reeds, and synthetic bags that deal with moisture arguably than hide or older synthetic bags.
The harp is a stringed instrument which has the plane of its strings positioned perpendicular to the soundboard. All harps have a neck, resonator and strings. Some, known as frame harps, also have a forepillar; those lacking the forepillar are refferred to as open harps. Harp strings can be made of nylon, gut , wire, or silk. A person who plays the harp is called a harpist or a harper. Typically, folk Celtic musicians prefer the term "harper", whereas classical/pedal musicians prefer "harpist".
Various types of harps are found in Africa, Europe, North, and South America, and a few parts of Asia. In antiquity harps are found and the closely related lures were very prominent in nearly all musical cultures, but they lost popularity in the early 19th century with western music composers, being thought as a woman's instrument after Marie Antoinette popularised it as a lady's pastime. There was no harp-exclusive museum until the North Italian harp-building firm of Victor Salvi started one in 2005.
The aeolian harp , the autoharp, and all forms of the lyre and Kithara are not harps because their strings are not perpendicular to the soundboard; they are all technically part of the zither family of instruments along with Piano and Harpsichord. The Blues harp or Harmonica is not even a stringed instrument; it is a free read wind instrument. The Laser harp is also not a stringed instrument, it is a harp-shaped electronic instrument with laser beams where harps have strings. The Harp guitar has extra unfretted bass strings like a theorbo.
Origin of the harp
Harps were most likely independently invented in many parts of the world in remote prehistory. It is often said that the harps origins may in the sound of a plucked hunter's bow string; the converse is equally possible. A type of harp called a bow harp is nothing more than a bow like a hunters, with a resonating vessel such as a gourd fixed somewhere along its length. To allow a greater number of strings, harps were made from two pieces of wood: this type is known as the angle harp.
The oldest depictions of harps are from 4000 BCE in Egypt and 3000BCE in Persia. While most English translations of the Bible feature the word 'harp', especially in connection with King David, the Hebrew word is actually kinnor, a type of lyre with 10 strings and not a harp at all.
Modern European harps
Playing style of the European-derived harp
Most European-derived harps have a single row of strings with strings for each note of the C Major scale (over several octaves).Harpists can tell which strings they are playing because all F strings are
black or blue and all strings are red or orange. The instrument rests between the knees of the harpist and along their right shoulder. The Welsh triple harp and early Irish and Scottish harps, however, are traditionally placed on the left shoulder (in order to have it over the heart).The first four fingers of each hand are used to pluck the strings; the pinky fingers are too short and cannot reach the correct position without distorting the position of the other fingers, although on some folk harps with light tension, closely spaced strings, they may occasionally be used. Also, the pinky is not strong enough to pluck a string. Plucking with varying degrees of force greater dynamics. Depending on finger position, different tones can be produced: a fleshy pluck (near the middle of the first finger joint)will make a warm tone, while a pluck near the end of end of the finger will make a loud, bright sound.
The pedal or concert harp.
The pedal harp, or concert harp, is large and technically modern, designed for classical music and played solo, as part of chamber ensembles, and in symphony orchestras. It typically has six and a half octaves (46 or 47 strings), weighs about 80lb (36kg), is approximately 6 ft (1.8m) high, has a depth of 4 ft (1.2 m), and is 21.5 in (55cm) wide at the bass end of the sound board. The notes range from three octaves below middle C (or the d above) to three and a half octaves above, usually ending on G.
The tension of the strings on the sound board is roughly equal to a ton (10kilonewtons).The lowest strings are made of copper or steel-wound nylon, the middle strings of gut, and the highest of nylon. This is not to say that strings in the higher register are not produced in gut or that middle strings are not produced in nylon. The middle gut string and high nylon string setting is mainly because gut strings usually carry a higher price than nylon strings; they also fray and break more frequently than nylon strings. However, gut strings produce fuller sounds than nylon strings do. The strings in the higher register are thinner and break more frequently. In the case of a broken string, replacing it with the same type (gut or nylon) is recommended, for a change in the type can be noticeable. For example, in a sequence of strings such as gut-gut-nylon-gut-gut, the nylon string's sound may stand out from the gut strings' sounds.
The pedal harp uses the mechanical action of pedals to change the pithes of the strings. There are seven pedals, one for each note, and each pedal is attached to a rod or cable within the column of the harp, which then connects with a mechanism within the neck. When a pedal is moved with the foot, small discs at the top of the harp rotate. The discs are studded with two pegs that pinch the string as they turn, shortening the vibrating length of the string. The pedal has three positions. In the top position no pegs are in contact with the string and all notes are flat. In the middle position the top wheel pinches the string, resulting in a natural. In the bottom position another wheel is turned, shortening the string again to create a sharp. This mechanism is called the double-action pedal system, invented by Sebastien Erard in 1810.Earlier pedal harps had a single-action mechanism that allowed strings to play sharpened notes.
Lyon and Healy, Camac Harps, and other manufacturers also make electric pedal harps. The electric harp is a concert harp, with piezoelectric pickups at the base of each string and an ampliffier. Electric harps can be a blend of electric and acoustic, with the option of using an amplifier or playing the harp just like a normal pedal harp, or can be entirely electric, lacking a soundbox and being mute without an amplifier.
FOLK FESTIVAL TIME IN BRITAIN
The United Kingdom also has a long and vibrant tradition of folk music. There are a number of popular Celtic and Gaelic music festivals in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Bands also regularly perform in pubs and clubs. One of the biggest folk and cultural festivals is the National Eisteddfodd in Wales that dates back to the 12th century.
The most important Eisteddfod is the National Eisteddfod of Wales, the largest festival of competitive music and poetry in Europe. Its eight days of competitions and performances, entirely in the Welsh language, are staged annually in the first week of August usually alternating between North and South Wales (see the National Eisteddfod article for a list of past venues). Over 6000 people competed at the 2006 National Eisteddfod with 150,000 visitors attending.
The International Eisteddfod is held annually in Llangollen, Denbighshire each year in July. Choirs, singing groups, folk dancers and other groups attend from all over the world, sharing their national folk traditions in one of the world's great festivals of the arts. It was set up in 1947 and begins with a message of peace. In 2004, it was (unsuccessfully) nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize by Terry Waite, who has been actively involved with the eisteddfod.
BASHKIR FOLK MUSIC TRADITIONS
Bashkir instrumental culture is the heritage, stretching its back into the deep antiquity. Its investigation has started comparatively not long ago (the first detailed investigation is just slightly more than one hundred years old and regular systematization of instrumental art of Bashkirs began only in 1920s- 1930s). But the first materials showed that the matter was the nationality, which, despite its centuries – old neighbourhood with great variety of other cultures, managed to preserve the ethnicon “Bashkort” and to avoid its dissimilation in other ethnic groups, inhabiting the region.
Folk musical instruments have an important place in the spiritual life of the Bashkirs. The history of the ancient musical instruments has been known from the early centuries. Some instruments such as the quray, kubyz, dumbira are still popular nowadays. Others such as the kil-kubyz, sornay, dungur, shakildak and yatagan are not used now. At the end of the XXth century musical instruments of European origin appeared: the violin, mandolin and accordion. At the 1930s and 1940s the bayan (kind of accordion) became popular.
Historically it happened so that from all accessible musical instruments Bashkirs were selecting melodic and the most meeting aesthetic needs of the national instruments, permitting to play furcated melodies. It seemed to be the main reason why the saltwort with its centuries – old history had become so popular, as well as later instruments – mandolin and violin and different sorts of accordions, observed in Bashkir’s life from the end of the XIXth century. As for impact tools, Bashkirs put just secondary emphasis on them and used household devices for these purposes.
What is your song about, quray? I think that everyone who listens to its melody will be deep in thought about something very personal. Music performed on this wonderful Bashkir national instrument is understandable and dear to all. Moreover it generates keen interest – both in professionals and laymen. This is testified by throngs of spectators attending concerts by the National Orchestra of Folk Instruments of the Republic of Bashkortostan, the band comprising ten kurai-players.
The quray is a long open endblown flute with five fingerholes and is the national instrument of the Bashkirs.
The quray is the best known and most popular musical instrument of the Bashkir people. The Bashkir folk tune “The singing crane”, performed only with the quray, has more than one thousand years of history. The quray is also the most popular musical instrument of the Bashkir people. The Bashkirs express all their feelings of happiness and sorrow through the quray. We have known about the quray since the earliest days. The Bashkirs say, “We remember the quray as long as we remember ourselves”.
The most widespread kind of quray is a quray made from the stem of the umbelliferous plant, called quray. The stem of a quray is 2 – 3 metres long. It flowers in July, then dries out in August – September. It is cut in September and kept in a dry and dark place. The length is found by measuring 8 – 10 times, the width of a palm encomassing the stem of the plant. The first hole must be done at four fingers distance from the top of the plant, the next three holes – at two fingers distance from each other, the fifth – at the back at three fingers distance from the fourth hole.
The length of a quray is about 510 – 810 millimetres. The diapason of a quray consists of three octaves. . The quray is used as a solo as well as an ensemble instrument.
Now quray can be made from veneer. It is more stable and its sound is similar to the natural quray’s sound.
Quray belongs to the sub-group of flutes, the sort of longitudinal flutes with five holes for playing. Similar musical instruments are widely spread all over the world but Bashkir quray has some specific differences, which let it to be considered to be a national instruments and an original visit card of the Republic.
When playing the anthem of Bashkortostan the quray tone is used and symbolic image of saltwort is presented on the state flag and on the emblem of the Republic.
Saltwort possesses original tone and repertoire and it is impossible to mix it with any other instrument.
Traditional quray is made of direct, dry and hollow stalk of umbellate arundinaceous plant under the same name. The demand in cane quray is great but artificial cane growing has not yet been mastered but quray – players are not afflicted with this fact and musicians use any tubular subject for making saltwort. There are well-known cases when Bashkirs used gun barrels as a quray without playing holes during the Great Patriotic War, they used metal pipes from fascist planes, brought down.
At present time a substitute of cane instrument from wooden contorted veneer is successfully used and both amateur players and professionals widely use it.
At present time a substitute of cane instrument from wooden contorted veneer is successfully used both by amateur players and professionals widely use it. The process of sound-making is rather complicated. Along with traditional solo melodies, played by one musician, there are melodies for a band. The most experienced players use special technique, when playing folk melodies called “uzliau”, slightly reminding solo throat singing among Turk and Mongolian nations, but having different sources and traditions. Quray repertoire includes practically all musical national genres.
In addition to a grass quray some other types of quray are known:
Sor-quray – a sort of quray made by the Bashkirs who lived in the steppe where the natural quray does not grow. It is made of steppe grass and its length is not more than one metre, but it is wider in its diameter. The specialists say it was used for calling signals.
Copper quray – a quray made from copper. However, specialists disapprove of using this kind of quray, because it is harmful for the health. But according to some legends, the skill of making a copper or silver quray was highly esteemed and the master was revered. But only a good quray – player can open the world of quray’s mystery. The art of playing the quray was saved and carefully handed down from one generation to another.
From folk sources three other variants of saltwort are known:
Hornai – a trumpet, possibly a horn with a mouthpiece;
Borgo – presumptively the same group of instruments, but made of wood;
Cane-quray – national version of Pan flute. A detailed description of external view of these instruments, as well as their repertoire, has not been discovered.
The names of outstanding quray-players – improvisers include Kubagush-sasan, Baik-sasan, I. Murzakaev, G.Arginbaev, Y. Icyanbaev, I. Dilmukhametov, G. Suleymanov, K. Diyarov, R. Rakhimov, Y. Gaynetdinov and A. Aitkulov.
But it would be wrong to limit Bashkir musical culture even so. Oral legends have preserved the names of forty-four musical instruments till nowadays.
The kubyz is one of the most ancient
musical instruments like the lip vargan. Archaeologists date the appearance of the kubyz from the late Neolithic Period. There is a legend about the appearance of the instrument: “Once a poor herdsman Bikbai made himself a kubyz from marple and learned to play it. Young fellows could dance folk dances. When young people went to the fields they danced and sang songs with the kubyz...” There were different kinds of kubyz made of bone or of geese feathers and even of camel hooves.
In Bashkortostan there are many types of this instrument:
a wooden kubyz with a reed and
a metal kubyz. The metal kubyz has different forms: bow-shaped, rectangular and a form of trapezium. The sounding element is the reed, and the sound is generated when the performer’s finger makes the reed vibrate. The vibrations produce a single main tone – the bourdon. The bourdon is formed mainly in the minor octave. The Bashkirs considered the kubyz as a children’s and women’s instrument. They performed the kubyz together with other musical instruments. In ensembles it is good to combine the kubyz and the dungur. Sometimes in folk ensembles they use a tray as a kind of percussion. The performer chooses a rhythm, setting its pattern with thimbles on his fingers. The more recent years there have been new original types of kubyz created in Bashkortostan.
The instruments modified by the performing kubyzist R.Zagretdinov, have a wide diapason. This instrument, previously considered pleasant but monotonous and weak in tone, is now seen in a new light due to Zagretdinov’s performance on it. As a solo musical instrument with its strong and rich sound qualities, it now enjoys equal rights among other instruments. The specialists consider the other type of the kubyz – the stringed kubyz to be the most ancient one. It was called kyl-kubyz and it is considered to be a predecessor of the violin. This instrument was made of wood and had a shape of a pear. It was about seventy centimetres long. This type of kubyz was placed on the knee of the performer. The stringed kubyz was in use until the beginning of the XXth century. The violin took over the srtinged kubyz and the Bashkirs began to play in it at the second half of the XIXth century. The Russian scientists and collectors of the Bashkir folk songs L.Lebedinsky and S. Rybakov wrote about the virtuoso – performers of the violin M.Burangulov and S. Ismagilov. The violin has now gained an omportant position in the professional music of Bashkortostan. Talented amateur musicians perform at concerts alongside highly qualifiedprofessionals such as M.Shvainshtein and R. Karyumov, National and Honoured artists of the Republic of Bashkortostan.
Metal kubyz design
The kubyz as all other kinds of the vargan is a reed-and-plucked instrument, which combines certain distinctive features of reed, plucked and wind musical instruments. Earlier, it was classified as a self-sound-producing plucked instrument (according to E. Hombostel and K. Sachs), however, investigation of the vargan acoustic and design features and the ways of sound-production shows that the kubyz is outside the above classification. The kubyz (vargan) does not produce any sound unless the performer makes it do so. The whole range of its tones is sounded not only by the vibrating reed but also by the force of the performer's respiratory and articulatory organs.
A traditional Bashkir metal kubyz consists of a curve-shaped body (round grip), two slightly tapering bars or arms that serve as "sounding boards" and an elastic steel reed. The reed base is attached to the inner side of the round grip so that the reed plate is between the "sounding boards", the narrow part of the reed is bent at the right angle; the reed tip is in the shape of a "scroll". The small hole in it is often filled with tin or lead the amount of which determines the reed vibration frequency and therefore the pitch of the main (fundamental) tone.
1. Round grip of the body
2. Tapering arms
3. External edges
4. Internal edges
The sounding element is the reed, and the sound is generated when the performer's finger makes the reed vibrate. The player uses his own articulation system as a resonator: mouth cavity, lips, teeth, tongue, respiratory ducts, larynx, pharynx, diaphragm, and scull. Sometimes, an additional resonator is formed with the rounded left palm in which the instrument base is placed An air stream depending on the performer's breathing and therefore on his articulation system serves to amplify the sound. Besides, the sound loudness depends on the strength with which the performer strikes the reed.
The reed vibrations produce a single main tone - the bourdon. Its pitch is determined by the size of the instrument (the smaller is the instrument, the higher is the pitch), the thickness of the reed and the reed tip. The bourdon is formed mainly in the minor octave (less often in the major octave and the first octave). When the larynx cavity is open, the tone is echoed by a sound which is an octave lower and is generated in the performer's throat when the jaw muscles are relaxed and the mouth cavity is filled with air.
In addition to the main tone, the kubyz pitch range includes overtones - the attendant higher tones, or the so called partial tones, of the main tone.
The numerals for each overtone designates what part of the reed generates the sound. The plate vibration produces the main frequency, which to an inexperienced ear may appear the only one but when listened to more attentively, the human ear can also recognise the attendant tones. Using special playing techniques one can enforce the loudness of a few other harmonics of the lower row of the overtones scale. The lower the kubyz is tuned, the wider is the overtones range. The loudness level of the harmonics totally depends on the performer's techniques and skills, his ability to change the volume of the mouth cavity and the intensity of the air stream while breathing. The kubyz may have various tuning. It is easy to play melodies that way. Experienced performers-improvisators use kubyzes tuned lower. These instruments have a wide range of attendant overtone shades.
Together with the other musical instruments of the Bashkir people the dumbira has one its own well-deserved position. A dumbira is an ancient stringed instrument played by plucking. The modern wooden dumbira has a pear- shaped or an oval form. The length is about 80 centimetres. There are three metal or tendon strings. A performer strikes all the strings at the same time. The upper string performs the bourdon tone and the lower string performs the melody. A dumbira is used as a solo as well as an ensemble instrument. The information about the dumbira has come to us from ancient times. In the XII – XVIII centuries the dumbira was used by the Bashkir sasans to
accompany their poetic legends and kubairs. There are some lines about a dumbira in the epic poem “Zayatulyak and Hiuhiliu” However, by the beginning of the XXth century, the performing a dumbira was forgotten. The names of the famous dumbira performers were forgotten, too.
The scientists have made a link between the disappearance of the dumbira and the Bashkir insurrections. The sasans were the main ideologists of the insurrections. Their poetic words inspired the Bashkirs to fight with their colonizers. So, when the colonizers put down a rising, they punished the sasans and destroyed their dumbrias. But people in the far villages saved the dumbira and kept the secret of making the instrument. They used birch or willo wood and goat’s guts to make the dumbira. The Bashkir dumbita is shorter than the Kazakh dumbira and has only three strings. Nowadays, the performer V.Shugayupov works on the revival of the dumbira.
Music is an important part of culture of all peoples. Learning about folk musical traditions and instruments we learn a lot about history and traditions of the country. Music is the great occurrence in our life. It does not have any limits and however it tries to unite the people in the world. Music is the universal language, because this language can be understood by everyone. If one wants to understand a foreigner he should listen to his native music to see his true soul.
In this work we tried to tell about the folk musical instruments of Great Britain and of Bashkortostan. We believe that musical instruments of the peoples of Britain are a theme of special interest both for those who learn the language and who are interested in music and traditions of other countries. It is very important to know the culture and traditions of the place you live in. No matter if it is the culture of your own nation.
Our research shows that though there is definite similarity between musical instruments of the British and the Bashkirs (the material the instruments are made of, their types and the way of performing), the differences are great. And it is natural as they reflect the national character and peculiarities of the peoples.
The best known national musical instrument of Britain is Great Highland Bagpipe – a woodwind instrument which is played both for community dance music and in military bands.
The most popular Bashkir musical instrument is the quray – a sub-group of flutes which is played both as solo and as an ensemble instrument.
But the main part of these two instruments is reeds.
Flutes among the folk instruments of Britain are represented with the English horn or oboe – a double reed woodwind musical instrument.
In our research we not only enumerate the folk instruments, we write about their peculiarities and history, their place in the traditions of the people which are so different and so much alike.
What is extremely important – these traditions do not vanish. They are alive and they are respected, admired and loved by people nowadays as they were respected and loved many centuries ago.
Preface……………………………………………………………… page 1
Folk music of the UK………………………………………………. page 1
The Folk Instruments of Britain. The English Horn……………… page 2
Great Highland Bagpipe…………………………………………….page 4
Folk Festivals in Britain…………………………………………….page 8
Bashkir Folk Musical Traditions……………………………………page 9
Quray……………………………………………………………… page 10
Kubyz……………………………………………………………… page 14
List of Literature ……………………………………………………page 21
THE LIST OF LITERATURE
Musical Instruments of the world. An Illustrated Encyclopedia by Diagram Group Srerling Publishing Co., Inc. New York, 2001
History of the Scottish Bagpipes. www.sconemac.com
Электронная энциклопедия музыкальных инструментов.
Энциклопедия для детей Аванта. Искусство. Том 7., М., 2003.
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