Научная работа на тему «English idioms and their Kazakh equivalents»
«English idioms and their Kazakh equivalents»
Differentiation of phraseological units based on the Kazakh and English languages. Language is the most important means of human being. Language is changeable, but there are unchangeable things in the life of any language – phraseological units: proverbs and sayings. Nowadays, many scholars are interested in two languages through scientific methods. Phraseological units: proverbs and sayings are one of the most researchable branches of Lexicology, at the same time, demanding a deeper investigation comparing two languages. From this, it follows that comparison of phraseological units of the English and Kazakh languages is very actual. Phraseological units or idioms as they are called by most western scholars represent, what can probably be described as the most picturesque, colorful and expressive part of the language’s vocabulary. In folklore among all the variety and richness of its poetical significance and form it is difficult to find more interesting and researchable genre than phraseological units: proverbs and sayings. It was the subject of deep study of scientists in most different ideological branches. Proverbs were not only the person's point of view but also general people's outlook is expressed. Proverbs play important role in language. They give emotionality, expressiveness to the speech. They have certain pure linguistic features that must always be taken into account in order to distinguish them from simple sentences. Proverbs are brief statements showing uncondensed form of the accumulated life experience of the community and serving as conventional practical symbols for abstract ideas. They are usually didactic and image bearing. Many of them become very polished and there is no extra word in proverbs. Summarizing above mentioned, information the following definition can be given to proverbs: they are stable word-groups with partially or fully transferred meanings, they cannot be made in the process of speech, they exist in the language as ready-made units that people had created for centuries in their social and historical life. The same as words proverbs express a single notion and are used in a sentence as one part of it. American and British lexicographers call such units «idioms». We can mention such dictionaries as: L.Smith «Words and Idioms», V.Collins «A Book of English Idioms» etc. In these dictionaries we can find words, peculiar in their semantics (idiomatic), side by side with word-groups and sentences. In these dictionaries they are arranged, as a rule, into different semantic groups. V. H. Collins writes in his «Book of English idioms»: «In standard spoken and written English today idiom is an established and essential element that, used with care, ornaments and enriches the language.» «Used with care» is an important warning because speech overloaded with idioms loses its freshness and originality. Idioms are ready-made speech units, and their repetition sometimes wears them out: they lose their colors. Therefore, idioms are used as ready-made units with fixed and constant structures.
Most Russian scholars today accept the semantic criterion of distinguishing phraseological units from free word-groups as the major one and base their research work in the field of phraseology on the definition of a phraseological unit offered by Professor A. V. Koonin, the leading authority on problems of English Phraseology: «A phraseological unit is a stable word-group characterizing by a completely or partially transferred meaning».
Writers use a lot of phraseological units in their works, because they supply informative and descriptive functions. The study of the Kazakh and English proverbs is very important, especially, for interpreters of these languages. The correct usage of phraseological units while translating any other work of art we should pay close attention to this point, and that is the reason of the study of the theme we have taken under discussion. So, we expressany idea or plot of the work in translation as in original that demands a person's high skill and deep knowledge. A translator ought to know the rules of translation, furthermore the history, slang, life style, customs and traditions of the people whose language he / she translates into.
To study the proverbs and find differentiation and similarities between two non-related languages, to distinguish the cultural features in every language are the most important point for us. We mainly discuss the Kazakh proverbs and their translation into foreign languages.
Russian scientists N.N. Amosova, A.V Koonin and others have done great contributions to phraseology of the English language. So, phraseological units or idioms represent the most colorful and expressive part of the English language vocabulary. Despite differences of opinion, most authors agree upon some points concerning the distinctive features of phraseological units, such as:
Integrity (or transference) of meaning means that none of the idiom components is separately associated with any referents of objective reality, and the meaning of the whole unit cannot be deduced from the meanings of its components;Kazakh
Similar topics of both languages
husband and wife,
America( about their country),
Therefore, the Kazakh and English proverbs have equivalents such as:Туған жердей жер болмас,
Туған елдей ел болмас
Тhere is no place like home.
Қимас досың сұраса,
A friend in need is a friend indeed.
Екі жақсы қосылса,
өлгеніңше дос болады.
A hedge between keeps friendship green
Қадіріңді білгің келсе,
Көршіңнен қарыз сұра.
At need one sees who his friend is
Жүз тиын болғанша, жүз досың болсын.
Having friends is better than having money.
Жаңа дос келгенде,
Ескі достың көзінен жас шығады.
An old friend is better than two new ones.
Мың жолдас жақсы,
Мың жолдастан бір дос жақсы.
Two is a company, three is a crowd.
Білімдіге дүние жарық
Learning is light, and ignorance is
Білімсіздің күні кәріп.
Күш – білімде, білім – кітапта.
Knowledge is power.( ФренсисБекон)
Бірінші байлық – денсаулық.
Health is wealth
Тәні саудың – жаны сау.
A sound mind in a sound body
Ауырып ем іздегенше,
Ауырмайтын жол ізде.
Prevention is better than cure
Еріншектің ертеңі бітпес.
Never put off till tomorrow what you can do today
Жақсы бастама – істің жартысы.
Хорошо начатое наполовину сделано.
Жаман іс жоқ, жаман ісші бар.
A bad workman quarrels with his tools.
Істеу қиын, сынау оңай.
Easier said than done.
Жалқаулық – жаман ауру.
An idle brain is the devil's workshop.
Шын бір сөз, өтірік мың сөз.
Truth does not need many words.
Inconsequence of the fact that there are proverbs with similar meaning in two non-related languages, meanwhile there are also many differences between the Kazakh and English proverbs. Firstly, the Kazakh proverbs are mostly based on the topics such as: Motherland, people (population), heroism (knights), unity, relationship between parents and children, marriage, youth-old age: relationship between young people and old people, respecting of older people, hospitality, for example: Отан – елдің анасы, Ел – ердің анасы; Отансыз адам – ормансыз бұлбұл; Пәлен жерде алтын бар, өз жеріңдей қайда бар; Халыққа қарсы жүру – ағысқа қарсы жүзу; Халық қатесіз сыншы; Батыр туса – ел ырысы, Жаңбыр жауса – жер ырысы; Шын орақшы орақ таңдамайды, шын батыр құрал таңдамайды; Болат қайнауда шынығады, Батыр майданда шынығады; Бірлігі жоқ ел тозады, Бірлігі күшті ел озады, Алтау ала болса, ауыздағы кетеді. Төртеу түгел болса, төбедегі келеді; Ананың сүті – бал, баланың тілі бал; Ата – бәйтерек, бала – жапырақ; Ананың көңілі балада, баланың көңілі далада; Ағайын – алтау, ана – біреу; Атаңа не қылсаң, алдына сол келер; Адам болатын бала алысқа қарайды; Кәріге құрмет – балаға міндет; Ақылды қария – ағып жатқан дария; Қонақ келсе құткелер.
All these themes or topics are strongly connected with national peculiarities, national values, stereotypes, social life, way of life of the Kazakh people, patriotic feelings and with the roots of ancient descendants. Therefore, it is necessary to point out that exactly this branch of Lexicology shows a basic cultural level of the actual language.
Also, it can be proved that proverbs are closely connected with the national peculiarity of the country, moreover, a proverb represents the experience of nation which had acquired throughout centuries. In proving, it is proper to state, the Kazakh people have a long tradition of peace, tolerance and co-existence. Children learn hospitality and respect from a very young age, and this is reflected in the wonderful hospitality offered to all guests. That is why most of the kazakh proverbs are devoted to hospitality, respecting of people and unity.
The data that mentioned above means that proverbs are used as the way of expressing people’s wisdom and nation’s spirit. The proverbs of two non-related languages have difference in themes and it depends on the national values. Proverbs are generalizations of human experience. Above all, they are the fruit of observation and inductive reason of each nation. They were created according to peculiarities and distinctions of the definite nation and were passed from mouth to mouth, from generation to generation.
All these themes or topics are strongly connected with national peculiarities, national values, stereotypes, social life, way of life of the Kazakh people, patriotic feelings and with the roots of ancient descendants.
Therefore, it is necessary to point out that exactly this branch of Lexicology shows a basic cultural level of the actual language.
DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES BETWEEN ENGLISH AND KAZAKH IDIOMS
Every nation keeps its own unique culture, tradition, history and religion. They are an integral part of the national personality, and reveal its basic nature. To explore these all things we must learn their language deeply. As it reflected and influenced in their mother language. Idiom is a certain unique regular expression way of language form in the course of using. The idiom of this paper is broadly-defined including idioms, proverbs, truncated witticism, allusion, etc. English-Kazak bilingual history is long, including a large number of idioms. They are impeccable, humorous, serious, refined. They are not only compendious, but also it is vivid, they can give somebody a kind of beautiful enjoyment. Because of the geography, history, religious belief, living custom, etc. the difference of the English-Kazakh idiom is bearing the weight of the people's national culture characteristic and culture information. In this study I'm going to show English-Kazakh proverbs, idioms and sayings about livestock, also find differences and similarities between them and try to answer to these questions: why the camel is more respectful in Kazakh landscape than it is in England? Why meaning of the saying 'black sheep' have good meaning in Kazakhstan and bad meaning in England?
Also I'm going to discus historical and cultural meaning of having a profound respect for horses and role of livestock in both countries.Historical and cultural meanings of livestock in Kazakhstan and in England are vivid and very important for each country. Through history pages Kazakh people had traditional nomadic life and a livestock-based economy was dominated in the steppes. Still, livestock is one of the most important agricultural goods. In the past each type of livestock (there are four types: camel, sheep, horse, cow) was transport, food, clothes and riches. An immense experience accumulated by generations' everyday practice, is referred to in popular expressions, such as: Tuye - bailyk, Camel is fortune, Koi -myrzalyk, Sheep is prevalence, Zhylky - sandik, Horse is beauty,
Siyr — aktyk. Cow is abundance. For European people livestock are also having importance. Evidence for these things we can say such idioms: On the sheep's back - it means that someone live on sheep breeding or wool trading because in Australia sheep breeding is one of the main field in agriculture Also, Salt the cow to catch the calf- to achieve your goals in around about way Kazakh people are very rich for traditions and customs. Nomadic way of life had been influenced to creating of these things. For example traditions related with livestock, called 'Bes zhaksy' which means five valuable things. "Bes zhaksy' was traditionally gifted to the most respected people, bais, myrzas (lords), batyrs, and biis as an evidence of respect and friendship. LBes zhaksy' included: 1) a camel - 'kara nar'; 2) a fast racer - 'zhuirik at'; 3) an expensive (Persian) carpet - 'kaly kilem'; 4) an expensive sword - 'almas kylysh'; 5) a sable fur coat - 'bulgin ishik'.Kazakh people are not counted goats for livestock, since Kazakhs dislike them: Eshkinin eti et bolmas, Goafs flesh will not be meat, Saudager kisi dos bolmas. Trader cannot be a friend.
The same in England's animal husbandry: Separate the sheep from the goats -to distinguish the good (sheep) from the bad (goat)The animals' meat is the main means of nourishment among the Kazakhs. When winter comes a horse is in for it as its meat is considered the best energy provider during the cold season. A young bull's meat is considered the best dish for spring, and ram's meat is available all year through. Their meat tastes particularly good in summer, when they are being kept on herb meadows and are practically fattened. As it expressed in Kazakh idiom: Zhylky suti(kumys) sheker, eti bal Horse's milk is sugar, meat is honey Or in Kazakh saying: The first treasure is fitness , The second is heart's first treasure is fitness, The second is heart's mistress, The third is some milksheep. For European people meat of horse or any type of livestock not very bright expressed in language than it is in Kazakh language: Salt horse -salted / corned beef; Three times the galley had been washed out, and the men... contented themselves with hard tack and cold salt horse. (J.London, "The Mutiny of the 'Elsinore" A herd of brown camels scattered on the steppe, from time to time a yurt as well -... before his eyes horsemen rushed by, many of them still with pointed caps as in times of old' hingis Aitmatov. Camel has always played an important role in the life of pastoral nomads who migrated in the Steppe. Its usefulness, primarily as a transportation animal, was so immense that there seems to be no aspect of everyday life in which it is not involved. There is no end to linguistics demonstrating this. All caravans were moved by camel on the tracks of the Silk Route. In Abdizhamal Nurpeiisov's novel 'Kanmenter' (blood and sweat), he also emphasizes the importance of amels.
Tuye 60 kun ashtykka Camel can survive in 60 days 30 kun sholdikke shydaidy ithout food, 30 days without water. Tuye - dala kemesi Ship of the desert is the amel Europeans have the same idiom with different meaning; when walking, the
camel moves both feet on one side of its body, then both feet on the other. This gait suggests the rolling motion of a boat, explaining the camel's 'ship of the desert' nickname Or: He ship of the desert - it was doubtless an ingenious idea to call the camel the ship of the desert... (G. Eliot, 'The Millon the Floss', book H) Also: Strain at gnats and swallow camels - to criticize other people for minor offences while ignoring major offences. Plain as the hump on a camel – obvious Or: 'A camel's hump is an ugly lump, which well you may see in the zoo..." Richard Kipling's quote. But in Kazakh steppes camel has much more importance, because of nomadic way of life which was related with yurts, made by boiled camel's wool, and using camel as a transport. As it beautiful described in such saying: Zhatqan zheri daladai, When lying, it occupies a field, Eki orkeshi baladai. Two humps of it, like two boys, Azu tisi qaladai, Its teeth, like a fence's sticks, Quiyrygy kamshydai, With a tail, like a whip, Bura soigan ne sumdyq! When slaughtered, how much it is! Also camel's milk is used in treatment, as the best remedy called shubat. It proves in Chingis Aitmatov's one of the best novel 'Borandy Bekef, main
character Kazangap underline the shubat's gorgeous quality. From ancient time Kazakh people have a profound respect for horses. Kazakhs worship the horse as the noblest and majestic creation of Mother Nature. It drinks only clean water and eats only good grass. Its smell is dearest to a true steppe man. The horse bears no negative associations, being an ideal animal, the affectionate mutual understanding and coherence between man and horse is amazing. Horse is one of the seven kazyna(treasure). Also: At erdi saktaidy Horse saves a man At adamnyn - kanaty Horse is wing of a human Zhylky - tulik patshasy Horse - leader of livestock The history of the horse in England is inseparable from the history of the English eople. Horses influenced the way the early inhabitants of Great Britain worked, traveled, and fought. The monarchy, soldiers, and invaders influenced the bloodlines, size, and speed of the animals. Therefore, to examine the horse's history, human history must be examined simultaneously. To ride the high horse - to act pretentiously so in the 14th century persons of high rank were mounted on "high" horses meaning they rode the heavy chargers used in battle or tournament. Man of horseback —
strong, powerful person. Look a gift horse in the mouth - having bad manners when accepting a gift. One can tell how old a horse is by looking into it's' mouth - it is equivalent to looking for the hallmark sign on the back of a greeting card. The same meaning in Kazakh saying: Maldyn tisine karap, zhasyn ait By looking to teeth of beast, say his age. Sheep have had a strong presence in many cultures, especially in areas where they form the most common type of livestock. In the English language, to call someone a sheep or ovine may allude that they are timid
and easily led, if not outright stupid: Gentle as a lamb - describes a gentle, harmless personality or person refers to the non-aggressive disposition of sheep. uiet as a lamb - as quiet as a lamb, e.g. film 'The silence of the
lamb' Directed by Jonathan Demme, actors Jodie Foster and Anthony
Hopkins. In Kazakh, sheep has much stronger importance and good
meaning than it is in English: Mal osirsen, qoi osir, Of livestock - sheep is the best,
Paidasy onyn kol-kosir Its goodness and benefits are blessed. Or: Qoidin suti korgasyn Sheep's milk is a lead .Europeans have ugly, foolish and stupid association with black sheep, because they have old belief that black sheep hallmark with devil: Black sheep of the family - an ostracized, most troublesome or badly behaved member of a family or group. But Kazakh people have absolutely different meaning of “black sheep”. In the past nomads use black sheep's meat for
reducing energy of women after childbirth(it's called kalzhalau). In South
part of Kazakhstan people say: Qara qoi - qazaqy qoi Black sheep - Kazakh sheep.
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