Научный проект: "Идиомы как фразеологическая единица в английском языке".
Муниципальное бюджетное образовательное учреждение
Средняя общеобразовательная школа № 69
Московского района г. Н. Новгорода
учитель английского языка
1.What is the idiom.......................................................2
1.1. The history of the origin of idioms.............................2
2.Classification of idioms……………………………..4
3.Idioms in Russian and English languages...............
4. The practical part.....................................................
Today's modern readers of English literature are faced with: full possession of grammar, having a good vocabulary stock, they, nevertheless, are not always able to understand the content of the text. Most often it is due - due to ignorance of idioms.
There is no doubt that in addition to regular replenishment of your vocabulary, you need to seriously worry about the enrichment of his speech stable combinations - the target language idioms. Idioms, phrasal or seam exist in any language, and English is no exception. Therefore, the study of English idioms very urgent problem today.
What should I do for this, based the following:
Object: discover the history of the origin of English idioms and use them in speech.
1. To form the ability to work with different sources of information.
2. To develop an interest in the history of the English language.
3. Expand vocabulary horizons.
4. Understanding English idioms and the frequency of their use in speech.
1.1 What is the idiom?
Idioms are expressions whose meaning is not equal to the meaning of their component words. If to translate idioms literally, to be nonsense. For example: "You are pulling my leg!" Literally it would be translated as: "You pull my leg!", but actually correctly it will sound like "You messing with my head!". In Russian there are idioms. For example: "You are carelessly!" foreigner may not understand what this expression means.
1.2 The history of the origin of idioms
In order to learn how idioms occur, consider this process.
In the beginning before us is the usual suggestion that everybody understands, although, like any other, contains some other sense.
Later in the language disappears or changes a word. This leads, on the one hand, to a slight change in the meaning of the whole combination, and on the other hand is the word enriches (in semantic terms) this expression creates a metaphor that poetry finds one person becomes public domain. It is a figurative expression - proverb, in which is hidden a hint of very many situations.
Especially incomprehensible becomes the original meaning of these idioms, if the composition of the old expression were some of the ancient grammatical words.
Also there is another process of occurrence of idioms, which is much lighter than the previous. See it on the example:
In English there is an expression "As mad as a hatter", which became known through the literature. It means "crazy as a trader hats". But you ask why the dealer hats insane? This is all easily explained. "Insane" has become both producers and sellers of hats is no accident, for a long time in the production process attractive hats were used mercury metal, which is caustic. And then only Lewis Carroll in "Alice in Wonderland" showed the madness of the Hatter in the case.
In idiomag, sometimes only in them, so a lot of meets old, now obscure words, and without them will crumble idiom as a complete unit, already in itself will mean nothing. Idiom is the end result of the development of the value of entire phrases. They disappear entirely - all idiom. Not separate its component words
In order to study it, many researchers are turning to the classifications. Idiom - is peculiar to a given language collocations whose value is not determined by the value of its words taken separately. Due to the fact that the idiom can not be translated literally (defeats the purpose) often have difficulty translating and understanding. On the other hand, such idioms give a vivid emotional language.
The study of phraseological units is of great theoretical importance, since they are fixed various morphological and syntactic and semantic language model. They expressed particular imaginative thinking peoples certain ages. Learning and knowledge of these features allow historical research and to make generalizations.
Idioms arise from the free combination of words, which is used in a figurative sense. Gradually portable forgotten, erased, and the combination becomes stable. Depending on how the component values are erased phraseologies so strongly in their figurative meaning.
Some idioms have special properties. Other idioms are common and logical combinations of words, bearing in mind their grammar and vocabulary. Due to the special properties of some idioms, we have to study the idiom as a whole, and often we can not change any of its components (except, perhaps, of the verb). English language is very rich in idioms. It is difficult to speak or write in English without using idioms. A native speaker is often unaware that he uses the idiom; maybe he does not even seem to realize is that this idiom grammatically incorrect. Studying the same language believes that the proper use of idiomatic English one of its main objectives, and the fact that some idioms are illogical or grammatically incorrect, gives him a lot of trouble. Here can only help the careful work on idioms. It is impossible to explain why the result of an unusual combination or choice of words there was one or the other, the idiom. Idiom is formed as a result of long-term use - and sometimes it can be seen from the dictionary. For example, the idiom to buy a pig in a poke means "to buy what not previously inspected and that costs less than paid for." The word 'poke'- is the old name of the bag' sack '. In modern English «poke» with this value is only found in this idiom. Therefore, it is clear that this idiom is used for much longer than individual words.
Idioms take different forms and have a variety of structures. They can be very short or quite long. A large number of idioms is a certain combination of nouns and adjectives, such as: cold war, a dark horse, a snake in the grass. Some idioms are much longer: to fish in troubled waters, to take the bull by the horns.
Idiom may be right, wrong, or even grammatically incorrect structure. Idiom I am good friends with him is wrong or illogical on its grammatical structure: am a friend of his. A native speaker is not aware of inconsistencies. Therefore, this phrase is an example of an idiom with the wrong form, but clear content. Another type of idioms is the correct form, but it is unclear significance. To have a bee in one's bonnet is the correct form, but the meaning of this idiom is not obvious. In reality, it means someone - that is obsessed with what - that idea. If you do not consider this phrase as an idiom, it is impossible to understand its meaning.
Whether idioms of the English language? It usually depends on where and how to use English. Stock up on idioms of the English language on all occasions will fail, and without a strong knowledge of English grammar is hardly possible to do: even the media cannot talk some idioms. English phraseology is of great difficulty for language learners and translators. However, idioms are very beautiful and original, they reflect the thoughts and feelings of the people, so we chose them as the subject for this work "".
2.Classification of idioms
It should be noted that in the English and American linguistics more commonly used is not the term "phraseological unit" (phraseological unit), and the so-called "set-expression", which means in essence is the same, along with the latter also used the concept of "idioms" (id-iom). In English linguistics it has no specific phraseological fusion and indicates all stable expression in General.
The most common classification of English phraseological units is thematic. Within its framework, different scientists distinguished group of phraseological units in semname composition values. The classification has the basic types, formed by the presence of the main arisumi (for example, to feel emotions), which are further divided into more specific groups (such as excitement, fear, indifference, and so on).
It is also used in classification by correlation idioms with certain parts of speech (so-called semantic classification). The basis of separation is the accessory of the main word expressions to any part of speech. There are the following sections (Kunin, A. C., Arnold I. C., and p. P. Litvinov 2001: 129):
1. verb sustainable combinations: to come to a head, to pull somebody's leg, to put one's foot down, etc.
2. stable combinations with adjectives: a good heart, a naked eye, a green eye, a cool head and other
3. stable combinations with nouns: in the neck of time, at the heart of something, to lose one's legs, all legs and other
4. sustainable expressions with prepositions: at first hand, to be sick at heart, to look over one's shoulder at and other
The disadvantage of this classification is that the criterion for the selection of core words remains unclear.
Semantic classification Vinogradov centuries has been redesigned according to English language Caninum Century A. He has consistently developed a structural aspect of English phraseological units. Also Kunin A. C. developed, in addition to the above classification of phraseological units in correlation with parts of speech, and classification of English idioms from the point of view of their origin. He highlighted the following categories: proper English (which he divides time of occurrence in old English, middle English, new England) and borrowed (including bibleis: Achilles’ heel, one's own flesh and blood, grecism and so on). (Kunin, A. C. 1967: 1253-1255)
Smirnitsky A. I. divides English set phrases:
1) those who have a vivid expression and emotional martirovannoj (imaginative, expressive & emotional) and 2) those who are deprived of it, stylistically neutral. (Smirnitsky A. I. 1978: 156)
For example: 1) soft in the head, a long head and 2) an apple of one's eye, give a free hand, on the other hand.
Alekhine A. I. highlights semantic phraseological series and models on the basis of semantic proximity (but not synonymy), for example, on the basis of relations General concepts to specific. While the linguist takes into account the structural features of stable expression. So Alekhine allocates special verb structural-semantic model with the verbs to be, to feel, to have, and so on, grouping them in certain semantic series, for example, feeling, condition, existence, etc. (Alekhine, A. I. 1982: 7-15).
Arnold I. C. divides English idioms on the so-called set-expressions, semi-fixed combinations & free phrases that generally corresponds to the classification Vinogradov centuries on phraseological fusion (to be neck and neck), unity (in thetwinkling of an eye, get the upper hand) and combinations (one's own flesh and blood), respectively. (Arnold I. C. 1966: 182-184) Most in the English language are phraseological unity.
Thus, the classical classification of phraseological units Vinogradov centuries are also applicable to English material, although the most represented in the literature is the structural classification of English stable expression in correlation with parts of speech. Each author defines its own criteria for matching one or another of multicomponent phraseological unit with one or another part of speech.
In our work, we decided to consider the most common classification of English phraseological units subject classification.
Having studied Anglo-phraseological dictionary A. C. Kunin, we came to the conclusion that there are several idiomatic groups that are associated:
-with human and his character;
-with parts of the body;
- with the money;
-with school and learning.
- with the weather.
In our work we have studied English idioms, which are part of the body, animals, colors, flowers and funny idiomatic expressions related to school and learning, reviewed their meanings in Russian. Of course, it is impossible to learn absolutely everything idioms of the English language. And therefore, we have included in this work only 10 idioms and expressions, which, in our opinion, are the most interesting.
Idioms related to body parts
1.Give / get the cold shoulder
Дословный перевод: холодное плечо.
In order to understand the origin of this idiom, we will have a little to understand the intricacies of cooking. In English, the word shoulder in addition to the traditional us values "shoulder" is just another translation is "Chuck carcasses". Now imagine that in England welcome guests was usually served hot, freshly prepared dish. How, then, welcomed the uninvited guests? The British, apparently, could not afford to leave them quite hungry, so I gave it to them cold mutton shoulder - cold mutton shoulder.
Значение: холодно, безразлично отнестись.
Например: I really needed his advice, but he has given me the cold shoulder.
Перевод: Мне очень был нужен его совет, но он проявил полное равнодушие ко мне.
2. Let your hair down
Дословный перевод: позвольте своим волосам упасть.
I think this idiom is especially close will be girls, and here's why. Far in the 17th century the women wore a variety of hairstyles, collecting and killing the hair. In the evening, in a calm and relaxed atmosphere, the usual procedure was blooming and combing hair. Now the expression let your hair down was used in a slightly different value.
Значение: расслабиться, вести себя непринужденно.
Например: I had extremelly hard day at work and need to let my hair down now.
Перевод: У меня был ужасно тяжелый день на работе и теперь мне нужно расслабиться.
Idioms related to animals
1. It’s raining cats and dogs
Дословный перевод: дождь из кошек и собак.
There are many assumptions about the origin of this idiom. In some of them it's hard to believe, others, perhaps, were invented by fans of colorful stories, I will offer a third option. In the distant 1500-ies, when modern architecture was still very far away, the roofs were covered with a thick layer of straw, which made them particularly attractive place for cats, dogs and other small animals (probably due to the fact that this material is better retain heat). During heavy rains, the animals were sometimes slipped and fell down, and the British began to associate rain with falling cats and dogs, hence the expression " it's raining cats and dogs.
Значение: лить как из ведра.
Например: I will stay at home! The weather is terrible! Just look, it’s raining cats and dogs.
Перевод: Я остаюсь дома! Погода отвратительная! Ты посмотри, льет как из ведра.
Дословный перевод: заячья лапка.
Do not worry if someone promised You a Birthday present to “rabbit''s foot”.This means that Your friend just wants You to choose a mascot for good luck.
Значение: талисман на удачу.
Например: Do you possess something that is a rabbit’s foot for you?
Перевод: У вас есть что-нибудь, что является для Вас талисманом?
Idioms related to school and learning
1.To count noses
Дословный перевод: подсчитывать носы.
Each English teacher begins the lesson by counting noses, which means that he believes the number of students.
Значение: подсчитать количество учеников.
Например: It was hard for a teacher to count all the noses because all kids were bustling and were not on their seats.
Перевод: Учителю было сложно пересчитать детей, потому что все они суетились и не были на своих местах.
Дословный перевод: резать урок.
Yet in addition to diligent students and veteran teachers in the classroom there are those who do not want to learn and cut classes every day. Closest in meaning to this idiom perfect Russian expression "band" class.
Значение: отлынивать от занятий.
Например: I'm going to cut my English class because I haven't done my homework.
Перевод: Я собираюсь "закосить" английский, потому что не сделал домашнее задание.
Idioms related to man and his nature
Дословный перевод: занятое тело.
In English such a person is also called nosy ("too curious", lit. "big nose"), and he often resemble: mind your own business ("take care of your business, stay out of it").
Например: My aunt is such a busybody – she’s always asking nosy questions about my love life.
Перевод: Моя тетушка такая сплетница: она всегда задает слишком любопытные вопросы о моей жизни.
Дословный перевод: халявщик.
But the "greedy-beef" in English is greedy-guts (lit. "the greedy belly").
Значение: Скряга, жадина.
Например: John bought his mother a $5 gift for her birthday. I can’t believe what a cheapskate he is!
Перевод: Джон купил своей матери на день рождения подарок за 5 фунтов. Подумать только, он такой скряга!
Idioms related to clothes.
1. Tighten your belt
Дословный перевод: засучить рукава.
(Both literally and figuratively); to live on a more limited resources.
Значение: начать экономить.
Например: The people at city hall will have to pull in their belts a notch unless they want to raise taxes.
Перевод: Работникам мэрии придется затянуть потуже пояс, если только они не хотят поднимать налогов.
2. Ants in your pants
Дословный перевод: муравьи в штанах.
If a person can not sit still, he squirms around on the chair, nervous, chattering leg, tapping his fingers and simply finds no place, this phrase will just in time.
Например:You seem to have ants in your pants!
Перевод: Да ты просто не находишь себе место!
3. Idiom divided into several types:
1. phraseological seam (= idiom) - a figure of speech, the meaning of which is not determined by the value of its words, where you can not rearrange the words in some places or change them to any other. Quite often the grammatical form and meaning of idioms do not reflect the realities of the present, then the idiom is archaic (outdated, save as phraseologies coalescence of words from the past, where it was the literal meaning (eg "twiddle" is now understood as "this nonsense" or "laze "In the past meant" to split a log into blanks for the manufacture of wooden household items. "
2. Phraseology unity - a steady turnover, which preserves the signs of separateness of its components. Idiomatic expression is characterized by imagery, every word, its constituent has its value, but together they become a figurative sense. Often examples phraseological unities are various stylistic devices and expressive means, in particular metaphors, such as "granite science", "rise to the bait." Phraseological unity in the same indivisible, replacing the word (even synonymous with it) leads to the destruction phraseologies or change settings ("granite science" → "basalt science" or "rise to the bait" → "to get into the network").
3. Phraseological combinations (collocation) - kind of phraseological units, combination, which included the words, may be as a free value, and with the non-free (ie. E. Used only in a particular combination). The value consists of a combination of idiomatic meanings of his words. Phraseological combinations partially divisible, in contrast to previous types of phraseology: one part is constant, while the other - a replacement (for example, from a combination of "burn with envy", you can create another - "burn with love", replacing the word "envy" with the word "love ").
4. The final view is frazemy phraseological expressions - is a stable structure which is chlenimoy and consists entirely of words with a free value. Expressions that are reproducible - they are used as a ready-made units of speech with constant composition, often complete sentences with a specific instruction, or moral precept. Typical examples of phraseological expressions are proverbs and sayings, aphorisms and catch phrases.
4. Idioms in Russian and English languages
Comparison of Proverbs (sayings and idioms of different Nations shows, how much have these people that, in turn, contributes to their better understanding and rapprochement. In English and Russian languages are the same idioms and Proverbs. Many sustainable momentum and sayings easily translated into Russian language, others need to be explained. Also in English meet idioms and Proverbs, which when translated into Russian language sound different, but their meaning remains the same. But exactly who who have borrowed this expression is not clear.
Here's a similar idioms: "parents hand everything on a silver platter", which literally translates as "all served on a silver platter". Our expression "on a saucer with blue rim" is virtually the same in English.
Difficult, but still possible to guess what the meaning of the expression "is in the soup" (lit. "in the soup"). Similar in value to be Russian "to sit in a puddle", i.e. get in trouble or not agile position.
"busy as a bee" is literally translated as "busy as a bee". In Russian language there is a similar expression "busy as a squirrel in a cage"
You cannot learn how to disassemble English idioms, they can only be learned. Although some idioms of the English language have analogues in the Russian language (for example, "take the bull by the horn" is literally translated as "to take the bull by the horns" and has the same meaning, and their meaning is clear, yet many English idioms have no analogues in the Russian language. Sometimes it is not difficult to guess the meaning of the phraseological unit, while in English the same idea, most likely, would have been expressed differently. For example, the English idiom "get up on the wrong side of bed" literally means "to stand on the wrong side of the bed", and is not difficult to understand its meaning, taking the analogy of the Russian phrase "to stand on the wrong foot". However, such cases are rather the exception, and, as already mentioned, the majority of English idioms and idioms literally do not disassemble. For example, without knowing in advance what is the meaning of the phrase "wear more than one hat", you can fall into the trap of hearing her voice or seeing the letter, and started to translate it literally "wear more than one hat", while actually it means "to perform multiple duties."
4. The practical part
Research understanding English idioms students and the frequency of their use in speech.
Objective: to assess the level of understanding of the meanings of English idioms, as well as the frequency of their use in speech.
To identify the understanding of the meanings of English idioms, as well as the frequency of their use in speech, we conducted a survey among students 9 and 10 classes. The number of respondents was 30 people.
Investigation of understanding English idioms students.The meaning of set expressions are very difficult to grasp, despite the fact that they are familiar translations of all compound words. To this end, we conducted a small study.To clarify the understanding of the importance of English idioms, as well as the frequency of their use in speech. We gave the students a few idioms that are popular and common and asked to write their values.
A hot potato - данная идиома означает неприятный вопрос.
Piece of cake - данная фраза означает что что-то выполнить легко.
Costs an arm and a leg - данная же фраза означает, что что-то “стоит очень дорого”.
Break a leg - эта фраза означает “ни пуха ни пера!”
Hit the books - данная фраза означает “учиться”.
Let the cat out of the bag - идиома означает “открывать секрет, выдавать тайну.”
Hit the nail on the head - данная идиома означает, что какое-то высказывание абсолютное точное.
When pigs fly - идиома означает что-то крайне нереальное.
You can’t judge a book by its cover - “Не судите о книге по ее обложке”
Bite off more than you can chew - идиома означает, что не следует пытаться делать что-то, что существенно превосходит ваши таланты.
See eye to eye - сходиться с кем-то во взглядах, мнениях.
Kill two birds with one stone – убить сразу двух зайцев, то есть одним действием решить сразу две проблемы.
To talk about the origins of idioms endlessly, finding more and more interesting and funny stories. Our main goal was to show that expression, which at first glance there is no logic, miraculously get her, if you look at them more closely. This perhaps is one of the secrets of success in learning any foreign language is to ask yourself the question "why?" and try to find the answer. I hope that some of the stories will help you to remember and learn favourite idioms. After all, the possession of at least one foreign language in our day is a necessity. Often the level of English speaking is characterized by the use in the speech of English idioms, as they do not have analogues in the native language. On the one hand idioms reinforce the uniqueness and individuality of the language, but on the other hand the use of idioms complicates the understanding and translation from a foreign language. But still, the knowledge and use of idioms in speech indicates a high level of foreign ownership, decorate it, make it shaped. The results of the research, our work has shown that the students in our school do not use in his speech, English idioms, they simply don't know.
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