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Инфоурок / Иностранные языки / Конспекты / Научно- исследовательская работа по теме: «The Problems of Aral Sea»
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Научно- исследовательская работа по теме: «The Problems of Aral Sea»

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The role of academic research in solving the ecological problems of the Aral Sea region

I will discuss three key ecological problems for the Aral Sea basin:

1. the rationalization of water use,
2. the need to improve water quality,
3. the need to protect and re-create valuable landscapes and ecosystems.

I will show through these examples how wide-ranging data systems and extensive academic research can play an important role in solving these problems.

The National Academy of Sciences of Kazakhstan has been working on the development of a complex programme for the improvement of the ecological situation in the territory of Kazakhstan. In this programme, most attention is centred on the ecological crisis in the Aral and Caspian Sea regions and the nuclear testing site at Semipalatinsk in Kazakhstan, as is introduced by Tsukatani and Sultangazin (1996). About 20 research institutions of the Kazakhstan Academy of Sciences have been involved in the development of this programme. I would like to concentrate on the most significant aspects of this programme.

The first problem is the rationalization of water use based on the comprehensive analysis of regional social and ecological factors. Unfortunately, during the Soviet period, economic decisions were often made without taking into consideration the importance of protecting the environment and the social and economic welfare of the regions involved. For example, a root cause of the "Aral Sea Problem" was the short-sighted economic view of those involved in the development and management of extensive irrigation projects. Driven by the potential for high profit, the environmental consequences of irrigation development were often ignored. This situation still exists in some of the Central Asian republics situated in the upper regions of the Syrdarya watershed. The task of the scientists is to reveal the underlying processes of agricultural and economic development and its impacts and to give qualitative or quantitative forecasts of the consequences of large projects.

The five countries of Central Asia have adopted a plan to solve the ecological problems of the Aral Sea and its adjacent regions. In order to realize this plan it is necessary first of all to determine the optimal distribution of water resources among industries. For this task, we will require information on the economic framework of the republics, the priorities of various industries, population projections, regional geographical information systems (GIS), and watershed management data. We will then be able to use some systems analysis methods to address the problem of the optimal distribution of water resources. Such an approach was introduced in the paper by Sultangazin and Tsukatani (1995), which deals with the distribution of water resources in the Syrdarya basin.

The information system for environmental control comprises three levels: first, monitoring and processing; second, modelling of the environment-economic system; third, environmental control. The scheme for the optimal control of industries in the Syrdarya basin takes into consideration the ecological interests of the Aral Sea. The main constraint is the request for a minimum volume of inflow to the Aral Sea. Other constraints are imposed by the level of technology available to the agricultural sector.

The second problem is how to improve water quality by means of sewage treatment and disposal, and the limitation of waste discharges and of mineral fertilizer use. The uncontrolled use of mineral fertilizers and pesticides has a negative impact on the environment and especially on human health. In the growing season, pollution of Syrdarya's waters by pesticides reaches 12 MPC (maximum permissible concentration); for nitrates it amounts to 46 MPC. Mineralization of water in the Syrdarya (previously fresh) reached 3g/litre, which is 10 times the recommended health standard.

In view of these conditions, the evaluation and control of environmental quality and economic activities in this area should be included in the emergency programmes of the region's policy makers. It has become important to determine priorities for regional environmental policies and to reform the structure of agriculture. Environmental systems are generally considered as multi-objective systems. Optimal standards for environmental quality and economic activities include many conflicting goals. In Sultangazin and Tsukatani (1995) some mathematical models were constructed for the evaluation and management of regional environmental systems. Waste disposal planning is defined at two levels in our models.

The need to protect and re-create landscapes and ecosystems

The degradation of vegetation is occurring over practically the whole of the Aral Sea basin. This is primarily caused by the salinization of soils, resulting from irrigation and salt-dust storms. The number of salt-dust storms has increased with alarming frequency. At present the area of dried seabed is 36,000 km2 and it is located mostly along the eastern part of the Sea. Every year about 150,000 metric tons of dust and salt are lifted into the atmosphere. If we don't stop this process in future, then the active desertification of adjacent territories and the merging of the newly created Aral desert (the Aralkum) with the Karakum and other deserts in the region may lead to the creation of a new desert of Saharan proportions at the centre of the Euro-Asian continent, which can have only negative consequences. Therefore, first of all it is necessary to create artificial landscape ecosystems in the river deltas and in the dried-up bottom of the Aral Sea. Some results of scientific investigations of phytomelioration prepared by the Academy of Sciences can be used for the creation of artificial ecosystems.

The Kazakh Academy of Sciences has made considerable strides toward solving the problems of natural resource usage in the republic. The research and development activities of a number of institutes during the past 10 years have covered a wide scientific spectrum of the dynamically changing nature of Kazakhstan. For example, the Institute of Hydrology and Hydrophysics is monitoring and investigating the state and environmental condition of groundwater resources in the territory of the republic. The Institute of Geography is investigating the hydro-ecological stability of the Aral and the Caspian Sea basins and is studying the anthropogenic influences on deserts and other geosystems. The Institute of Soil Sciences is investigating the ecological disturbance to soils in southern Kazakhstan (in the valleys of the Syrdarya, Chu, Ili, Talas, Karatal, etc.) and in the region of the Aral Sea, and disturbances on the slopes of Kazakhstan's Tien Shan mountain range. The Institute of Botany is developing phytomeliorative for the arid areas of the exposed seabed and is conducting investigations into the productivity of pastures and into the biology and ecology of plants in the Aral region. It is also developing maps of plants and of desertification for the territory of Kazakhstan. The Institute of Zoology is studying technogenic factors and agricultural activity that adversely influence the flora and fauna of the republic. At the Institute of Zoology, the state of ecosystems has been analysed, based on surveys of the whole of Kazakhstan. This research has shown that the coastal regions of the Aral and the Caspian Seas are in fact in a state of total degradation.

In spite of rich data obtained by the various institutes of the Academy of Sciences, it is still difficult to obtain an accurate and comprehensive representation of the state of the national environment and the trends of change. Ground-level monitoring is carried out in only a limited number of areas and the extrapolation to other regions is often approximate. Therefore, the application of remote sensing may be very useful for future research and monitoring of environmental changes in Kazakhstan. In applying remote sensing, investigations carried out through test sites by the institutes will be of great importance when deciphering aerospace imagery. The system of environmental monitoring of the territory of Kazakhstan is projected as a set of instruments oriented to resolving existing problems. The system will be developed and new problems will be included in the package. For example, for the atmosphere the following very important problems can be highlighted:

dust storms in the Aral Sea region, when millions of tons of salt are spread over a large area causing desertification;

gaseous emissions as a result of accidental breaks in pipes;

the state of snow cover and icecaps in the Pamir Heights and Tien Shan mountains.

the transfer of water vapour to Central Asia from other regions.

Concrete tasks for other media will also be developed. Work on complex analyses, using mathematical models, is under way. Information obtained at three levels (space - air - ground) passes through the following stages: data acquisition, transmission, and reception, primary data processing, archiving, and the proposal of solutions to applied problems. The project envisages accomplishing all of the stages. Observations from space will be provided by satellites. Aerial observations are to be carried out on flying laboratories in aircraft. Surface-based observations will be conducted primarily on the testing ground in the Priaralie (the area immediately adjacent to the Aral Sea) and in the neighbouring regions of Almaty.

Some recommendations

First, a geographical information system should be created for the optimal control of the distribution of water resources and of waste disposal, taking into consideration the social and economic interests of the republics in the Aral Sea basin. This can be achieved through the application of the information system described by Sultangazin and Tsukatani (1995), and by mathematical models of the environment and economy.

Secondly, in order to undertake research into global environmental problems of desertification and global warming of the atmosphere and to evaluate the regional environmental situation, it would be valuable to establish an International Centre for Central Asian Ecology in Almaty.

It is planned to implement the project in cooperation with the International Fund for Saving the Aral Sea (IFAS), created in the nineties by Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.

The Aral problem has affected the north of the country in Turkmenistan. The Dashoguz region suffered the negative effects of an environmental catastrophe resulting in pressing problems associated with the provision of clean drinking water and with salinization control of arable land. IFSA was been granted observer status at the UN General Assembly on December 11, 2008.

The new Ashgabat project provides for a large amount of work on the greening of Botendag Hill located in the Dashoguz region, on the eastern shores of Lake Sarykamysh. Deciduous trees, saxaul and other shrubs and plants will be planted here, in an area of ​​20,000 hectares that will become a barrier and protection from strong winds blowing in from the Aral Sea. It will help combat desertification and soil salinization.

According to the local TV media, the creation of a large forest area will be beneficial to the ecological conditions in the area, improve the microclimate, enrich the flora and fauna, and create favourable conditions for migratory and local birds. In addition, there will be new pastures which will allow more intensive development of agriculture.

The project is approved by President Gurbanguly Berdymuhamedov. He stressed that "tens of millions of dollars are directed at improving the environmental situation in the Aral Sea adjacent territory and in particular in Dashoguz. A set of large investment projects including improvement of the water supply, landscaping and land reclamation and treatment of the subterranean water table is being implemented."

It isn't possible to implement the tasks of sustainable development in Central Asia without solving the problem of the Aral Sea, the Turkmen leader said at the UN Conference on Sustainable Development Rio +20, held in Brazil.

Official Ashgabat proposes to create a special UN programme for the Aral Sea, and to establish an interregional centre to address issues related to climate change in cooperation with the UN specialised structure. The Turkmen side is ready to provide the entire necessary infrastructure. 

On March 12, 2008 more than 200 experts and scholars from over 20 countries of the world – the international and regional organizations, financial institutions, local and foreign scientific centers busied in addressing the problems of ecology, climate change and water resources management participated at the international conference “On problems of Aral: impact on the gene pool of population, flora and fauna and international cooperation for mitigating the consequences” initiated by the President of Uzbekistan Islam Karimov. 
The welcoming address by President of Uzbekistan to the participants of conference has prompted a big resonance in which the Uzbek Leader has called on the international community to pay a serious attention to the existing complex of ecological, social, economic and demographic problems in the area adjacent to Aral which are of an international and global nature in terms of their origins and implications. The presidential address has also appealed to use the water resources of transboundary rivers of the region in a reasonable and equitable way. 
During the conference the participants discussed the reasons and consequences of today’s tragedy of the Aral Sea and opportunities of surmounting its serious consequences on the gene pool of population, flora and fauna of area adjacent to Aral. 
Some of the delegates to the conference shared their opinions and impressions. 
Thus, noting the high level of organization of conference Momoko Chiba, the professor of International University of Health and Welfare of Japan, has said that subject of the conference has had a global nature and existing problems had to be resolved in a global scale. “The ratification of international conventions cited in the address of President of Uzbekistan to the participants of the conference as well as the rational use of waters of transboundary rivers of Amudarya and Syrdarya by all states of the region are very important,” – Ms. Chiba has further said. 
Executive Director of Institute for Central Asia and Caucasus Research of Japan, Professor Tetsuji Tanaka said: “I was highly impressed by the address of President Islam Karimov to the participants of the conference. Today when more than 50 million people live in the Central Asian region it is important to reasonably use the existing water resources”. 
Kwon Kiwon of the Korean Environment Management Corporation has positively assessed the outcomes of the conference. In particular, he said that he was deeply impressed by the catastrophe of the Aral Sea the scale of which he personally eye-witnessed by visiting the city of Muynak in the Republic of Karakalpakstan on March 11. Mr. Kiwon noted that initial tasks set by the leader of Uzbekistan on resolving the Aral tragedy reflect the readiness of Uzbek side to address the problem in cooperation with other states of the region based on international norms. 
The head of Water and Climate Change Center at the Wageningen University of Netherlands Wim Kofina has underscored that this conference became the first serious step to a comprehensive resolution of the Aral problem. 
The Director of Center of Russian Studies at the Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences Pan Davey has said: “Coordination of approaches and cooperation between the countries of Central Asia is necessary condition to address the water and energy problems in Central Asia. 
The participants of the conference have also dwelled on the importance of further improvement of system of managing and using the water resources of the Aral basin in the framework of existing interstate agreements with taking into consideration the universally accepted international norms and regulations.

Kazakhstan tried to use the OSCE's potential to solve the problem of the Aral Sea - Director of the OSCE Department of the MFA of RK

ASTANA . December 21, 2010 . KAZINFORM / Askar Bimendin / - Kazakhstan as OSCE chair , tried to exploit the potential of the Organization for brighter lighting problem of the Aral Sea. This was announced today at a press briefing at the Foreign Ministry of Kazakhstan on Kazakhstan's chairmanship in the Organization said Ambassador at Large , Director of the OSCE foreign minister of Kazakhstan Sergent Abdikarimov .

" The most important event in this area was a special donor conference on 9 and 15 December in Almaty, organized in collaboration with the International Fund for Saving the Aral Sea (IFAS ) , Economic Commission for Europe , the OSCE, the central authorities of the European Union and other international organizations .The main outcome of this special donor conference on the Aral Sea was the adoption of the ASBP -3 (Third Aral Sea Basin Program ) , as well as the joint declaration - said the special envoy C. Abdikarimov . - The program is planned to implement 300 projects combined into 45 clusters in 4 directions . For these purposes, donors , chief among which is the World Bank allocated about $ 800 million . In addition, with the Member States IFAS expected budgetary investments of 2 billion U.S. dollars. "

According to him, these funds will be invested in addressing the problem of the Aral Sea and the implementation of the ASBP-3 .

Aral Sea Basin Program ( ASBP ) is the only long-term regional program aimed at sustainable development, improvement of water management and environmental protection . It consists of national and regional projects , whose main purpose - efficient use of water resources in the basin .










The international scientific-practical conference «Modern ecological condition of the Aral sea, prospects of the decision of problems»


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On October, 7th, 2011 in Kyzylorda there has passed the International scientific-practical conference «Modern ecological condition of Aral sea, prospects of the decision of problems». As organizers of this forum RSE «Institute of microbiology and virology» Committee of a science of the Ministry of Education and a science of Republic of Kazakhstan and Kyzylorda state university of name Korkyt-Ata have acted. The conference was attended by experts of RSE «Gosexpertiza».
At conference discussions on themes have been lead:
- Aral Sea environmental problems;
- Biological approaches to the decision of actual problems of protection and environmental health;
- Biotechnology of creation of new biological products for an agriculture, medicine, environment.
To participants were distributed the materials of the conference, containing clauses of reports about last achievements of researches of various directions in the field of ecology, biotechnologies, microbiology and virology.
Conference was opened akim Kyzylorda area B.Kuandykov and rector Kyzylorda state university of a name Korkyt Ata K. Bisenov.
In the plenary session of the conference was attended by the Institute of geography professor of Z.Dostay, head of laboratory of Institute of biochemistry and physiology of microorganisms of a name of G.K. Skryabin Russian academy of sciences of L.Golovlyov, professor of the Tashkent Agrarian university A.Dosahmetov, the head of a department of microbiology of Institute of microbiology and virology S.Aytkeldieva, director of LLC «Taza Su» D.Idirisova, general director of LLC «Kazakh scientific research institute of rice» S.Umirzakov, director of Aral-Syr-Darya Department of ecology of S.Nogaev, head of a department of virology of Institute of microbiology and virology V.Berezin, general director of the Central laboratory of biocontrol, certification and preclinical tests I.Kolbay, professors Kyzylorda state university of a name Korkyt Ata A.Nurgazinov and T.Karlihanov

Japan's leadership , headed by Prime Minister signed an agreement on the allocation of Uzbekistan grants worth $ 66.3 thousand for the rehabilitation of the Aral region Funds allocated under the program of the Government of Japan grant aid social small-scale projects . In particular, the means by which you plan to purchase tractors, plows, disc harrows , nursery equipment to build on sandy soils of the dried bottom of the Aral Sea , are designed for the " agricultural equipment facilities for protective afforestation area of the Aral Sea ." The Government of Japan , since 1995 , implemented in the republic social program grant aid small-scale projects that target education, health and social status of women. Within 14 years, Uzbekistan has been implemented 261 projects totaling more than $ 15 million .. The Aral Sea, located on the border of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan before 1960 was considered one of the biggest lakes in the world . By size and location Aral Sea in those days took a solid 4- place . Over the past 40 years Sea has shrunk by almost half , the water level dropped by 18 meters, the volume of water in the sea has decreased fivefold. Aral Sea region is recognized by the world community ecological disaster zone

October 18, 2011 in Kyzylorda , Kazakhstan Executive Board of the International Fund for Saving the Aral Sea Republican plans to hold a conference on " Assessing the current state of the Kazakh part of the Aral Sea basin and the way embedded

Project Name:

Conference on "Assessing the current state of the Kazakh part of the Aral Sea Basin and ways to implement integrated water resources management (IWRM) "

October 18, 2011 in Kyzylorda , Kazakhstan Executive Board of the International Fund for Saving the Aral Sea had a Republican conference on " Assessing the current state of the Kazakh part of the Aral Sea and the ways to implement integrated water resources management ."

Conference held IFAS Executive Directorate in Kazakhstan together with the OSCE Centre in Astana.

The Conference was attended by representatives of ministries and departments, diplomatic missions accredited in Kazakhstan , coordinators and managers of national and regional projects funded by international organizations, research institutes, experts , local organizations , NGOs, etc.

During the Conference discussed topical issues of integrated water resources management and management of wetlands , toward biodiversity conservation approaches for the implementation of sustainable management and use of water resources and wetlands .

Areas of work of the Conference :

the current state of biodiversity and habitat Aral Sea basin and environmental safety - as a basis for sustainable development;

water and other resources and the role of local communities in sustainable management ;

presentation part of a joint project IWRM ED IFAS and the OSCE;

Presentation of the projects executed and international organizations.

Kazakhstan tried to use the OSCE's potential to solve the problem of the Aral Sea - Director of the OSCE Department of the MFA of RK



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Conclusion

It is the most global problem.

Nature warns people about what they are overworked . Nature punishes people for their unwillingness to admit their mistakes , but in fact, often anger of nature - it is the consequences of human activity. Nature corrects human error , if a person does not interfere with nature ... Yes, if a person does not interfere with nature!

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Aral Sea

The Aral Sea ... was

Scientists of the world are sounding the alarm , warning about global warming, which is already by 2080 could cut in two habitats mostly plants and more than a third - of animals. Cause for panic began calculations of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States and scientists from the University of East Anglia, according to which , already in 2100, the average ambient temperature will rise by 3.9 degrees. This factor will cause a mass extinction of flora and fauna , and even the ordinary and common types fall into the zone of risk of extinction. The main reason for the " experience " of scientists regarding global warming - it is ever-increasing growth in the use of fossil fuels , burning it. Coal, gas, oil and its derivatives , used by mankind so thoughtlessly that the results of burned organic compounds too intense and aggressive affect the environment . Adapt to global climate change for several decades , tens of thousands of species of flora and fauna , are not able to .



The Aral Sea was dry

Aral Sea today

A good example for humanity can serve the story of the Aral Sea . Once , a huge lake , which because of their size respectfully called "sea" , was not only an accumulation of water - Aral created a unique climate , was not only a source of food for animals, but also for people . Since the early 60 - ies of XX century , the Aral Sea problem began , the world's fourth largest lake , the sea . And the reason for the disaster was the fault of the individual - from the Amu Darya and Syr Darya began to take water for irrigation ... and to this day continue to intensively river water used for watering the fields. Today, the Aral Sea is a nothing but a wilderness , which has even come up with the name - Aralkum . Someone I argue that borders the Aral Sea dramatically changed the history of its existence ... Yeah, right , me ... this process took place thousands of years , and the animals and plants able to adapt to this kind of climate change. Now , for the last 28 years, have changed not only the borders of the Aral Sea - the climate has changed , gone is the flora and fauna, which half a century ago believed Aral their shelter . But the most affected person himself , or rather the people who live in the Aral Sea region . Sharply increased performance of the larynx and esophagus diseases , respiratory diseases, anemia , eye disease , kidney and liver . Increased mortality among children. Unemployment is frightening their performance since the 80 - ies of XX century ... And if the Soviet Union still trying to restore the Aral Sea , now the problem is at the end of the list of all the problems of the former Soviet Union. Diversion of water from the Amu Darya and Syr Darya is only increasing . More than 92 % of the rivers take for themselves farms . Aral becomes unfit for human life on the shores of its scarce .

But do not despair and grief . History of the Aral Sea - a warning to mankind that it unnecessarily active and unreasonable activities harm the person. I believe that will be the Millennium and borders the Aral Sea , ie Aralkum desert , full of life-giving water ... After all, nature corrects human error . A striking example can be Glass Beach , which nature has created in California , the site of the city landfill . Until 1967, this place was a waste bins in Fort Bragg. After authorities removed a large garbage dump on the site was still " not cleaned " trash like broken glass . Nature hewn into smooth glass " pebbles " and 1980's former landfill becomes a landmark in the city , which attracts tourists with pleasure to look at " this miracle of nature" ... In 2002, the landfill accepted part of the national park MakKerriher . Now Glass Beach clean wage workers .

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Glass Beach in California

Glass Beach in California

But this does not mean that people concluded and tend to be different . People still stubbornly and persistently continues to commit reckless acts , playing with patience nature. People hope that nature will correct their mistakes , forgetting that nature gladly corrects what people had done when the person is not a hindrance when no man ... absolutely! Yes, albeit slowly , but nature will correct all that messed up person, but this person will never be able to see. To the world will look very different fauna !































Plan





  1. Introduction:

Ecological Disaster of the Aral Sea”

  1. The main part:

  • Degredation of Aral Sea.

  • Dry seabed.

  • Hope for northern small Aral Sea.

  • The Plan for the south big Aral.

  • Ways to solve the environmental problems of the Aral Sea.

  • The role of academic research in solving the ecological problems of the Aral Sea region

  • The need to protect and re-create landscapes and ecosystems

  1. Conclusion:

It is the most global problem.”











































Южно-Казахстанская область

Мактааральский район, город Жетысай,

КГУ «Школа –гимназия №1 им. М. Горького».









Научно- исследовательская работа

по теме:

«The Problems of Aral Sea»









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Исполнитель: Халмирзаева Л.

Руководитель: Шамсуллина А.









Жетысай 2013г.




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