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  • Иностранные языки

Научно - исследовательская работа с использованием технологии метода проектов "Преимущества системы воборов в Парламент Великобритании"


Муниципальное общеобразовательное учреждение -

Средняя общеобразовательная школа №13


по английскому языку

«Парламент и парламентские выборы Англии.»


Ковалёв Сергей



Оксана Викторовна

Клин 2013.



2.Основная часть........................................................................................................3

2.1. История происхождения парламента..................................................................................................................4

2.2.Общая организация парламента.........................................................................5


2.4. Три лидирующие силы.....................................................................................10

3.Парламентские выборы в Великобритании.......................................................12


5.Список использованной литературы и электронных ресурсов........................22


English Parliament - one of the few representative bodies , which continued to operate successfully during the widespread decline of such institutions and is clearly a trend towards the formation of an absolutist regime in Europe. His role in the state and political system determined by the fact that this body was a public forum , to promote regular dialogue between the authorities and society, the meeting place for the social and political elites of different levels, which are given the opportunity to discuss pressing policy issues and find solutions to pressing problems . Active legislative activity of the parliament allows local communities , professional corporations and individuals to realize their needs , transforming this institution into an important mechanism to ensure the stability of the political regime. History of Great Britain has shown that the lack of a constitution can be a definite advantage as it may seem paradoxical . [1] Great Britain is the birthplace of modern parliamentary democracy. Form of government - a parliamentary monarchy. Organization of local government of England is very complex , with the distribution of functions depending on local orders. Legislative basis of the British government established by the Parliament and the Government of the United Kingdom, as England does not have its own parliament . Highest level of division of England are nine regional government or government of the European Union regions . One region , Greater London , has its own elected assembly and mayor since 2000 after support this issue in a referendum in 1998. It was assumed that other regions will also receive their regional assemblies but the rejection of that in the North East of England in a referendum in 2004, stopped this idea. Below the regional level is either the county council , and then the district councils or unitary councils , London also has its own system of 32 London offices. The council members are chosen by the majority system .

Organization of local government of England is very complex , with the distribution of functions depending on local orders. Legislative basis of the British government established by the Parliament and the Government of the United Kingdom, as England does not have its own parliament . Highest level of division of England are nine government regions or

Government regions of the European Union . One region , Greater London , has its own elected assembly and mayor since 2000 after

support this issue in a referendum in 1998. Below the regional level is either the county council , and then the district councils or unitary councils , London also has its own system of 32 London offices.

[1 ] http://ru.convdocs.org/docs/index-117712.html

Study of the principles and procedures of the organization and conduct of elections in the UK , as well as analysis of the compliance of the British electoral law and international electoral standards -European , are extremely important and fruitful for the time being . The oldest European parliamentary democracy is extremely codified norms suffrage. A number of regulations , which seemed from the depths of the centuries a real breakthrough in the field of democratic parliamentary representation, now seem not just outdated, but also , at times , blatantly contrary to basic democratic standards and human rights standards in the field of electoral law and the electoral process. British themselves justly called a parliament beating heart of political life of the country . All cabinet ministers are members of one of the Houses of Parliament and responsible to him for their actions and for the actions of their subordinates. Any government can stay in power only as long as it provided support for the House of Commons , which owns the exclusive right to review all bills. [2 ]

 The aim of my project is

-Study of the main body of the supreme legislative authority of Great Britain

- Deepening of the political culture of the United Kingdom.

- Analysis of the content and nature of contemporary political processes in the UK, in the middle of them was a political struggle between the Conservative and Labour parties.

To be objective results , I conducted a study of the most important elections. But above all , it is necessary to study the peculiarities of elections and their organization.

Provenance Parliament

One of the oldest parliaments of the world is the English Parliament , which dates back to the birth of the 13th century. , When at the request of the rebel lords landless King John signed the Magna Carta . She put on the monarch to establish a duty to tax the General Council of the kingdom. In the UK, the concept of Parliament as a proper name was used to refer to the national representative body . This form of government there is as much as the State itself , ie since the beginning of the 9th century , when the first of seven united warring kingdoms (was , however, the 11-year dictatorship of Cromwell break Republican from 1649 to 1660 . ) . In the

[2 ] http://www.cmdp-kvorum.org/democratic-process/602

English public- legal doctrine accepted to put on the first place in the system of state bodies of the monarch, who is head of state and recognized as a source of sovereign power . British parliamentary system was formed immediately. Initially, the House of Lords ( peers ) going all the representatives of the English titled nobility (later when combined England and Scotland in the UK , many Scots nobles acquired British titles as Scottish titles were not given the right of hereditary peers to sit in the House ) . In addition , there was the practice of appointing a king lifelong Lords and Lords positions (for example, the bishops ) . In the House of Commons were elected in two knights ( untitled nobles) from each county and two from each city dweller . Note that the system of parliamentarism in the West emerged as a denial of absolutism of state power in the face of the monarch, the first person in the omnipotent state. But the parliamentary system and then in crisis . Often kings sought to restore absolutism , for example, Charles I did not convene Parliament for over 10 years , and only in 1640 went for it because of lack of funds in the treasury . During the XVIII century of 658 MPs small towns and villages , even the " rotten boroughs " ( abandoned villages ) chose 467 deputies. In fact, this representation of noble landowners controlled using a special procedure . Voting was open. Deputies called in advance ( did local landlords ) , and those who do not support them , punished. It is estimated that about 424 MPs out of parliamentarians were actually allocated to local landowners . Manchester, Sheffield , Leeds , which became industrial centers in England , were not represented in Parliament . London with half the population had an office in four deputies , while in sparsely populated and abandoned villages , the so-called " rotten " or "pocket boroughs ", lived 3-4 voters per parliamentary seat . Parliamentary seats often haggling , estimating it at about 2 thousand f. Art. However, the growth of new cities , the growing influence of industrial policy and trade and financial classes, as well as reformist activity Whig closer holding the long overdue electoral reform , which is what happened

in 1832. [3]

The overall organization of the Parliament

Body supreme legislative power of Great Britain - Parliament - consists of three parts - the Queen, the House of Lords and House of Commons election . For the passage of the law requires the consent of all three parties . Since there is no constitution, which limits the legislative power of the Parliament , it may adopt or amend any law . It can also extend its validity beyond the usual (5 years) without the consent of the people. However, in practice the parliament does not. The legality of an act adopted by the Parliament can not be discussed in court. The House of

[3 ] http://knowledge.allbest.ru/political/3c0a65625a2bd68b5d43a88421316c36_0.html

Commons is responsible for passing laws to the people , and in the 20th century House of Lords recognized that the House of Commons has superiority over her . Party system in the government intended to Parliament to make laws , looking at the people chose it . The maximum validity of Parliament - 5 years , but in practice the general election is held to maturity. Validity of Parliament was extended only twice - in the First and Second World Wars .

Officials :

House of Commons officials are Speaker and his three deputies . Parliament also constantly working clerks , police sergeants , library, administration , etc.


Britain is divided into 659 constituencies, each of which elects one member of the House of Commons. Each voter can vote once , usually at the polling station . Participation in elections is not required. The voting system is one : the candidate is selected if he won more votes than any other candidate in this constituency.

Candidates :

British citizens and citizens of other Commonwealth countries, as well as citizens of the Republic of Ireland can take part in elections 21 years of age , with the caveat that they are not disqualified for any reason . The candidate is also required to put in the bank of £ 500 , which he returned , if he gets more than 5 % of the vote . The maximum amount of money that a candidate can spend on the campaign trail - 4330 pounds plus 3.7 pence per each member of the electorate in the urban constituency or 4.9 pence for each member of the electorate in the rural constituency.

Party :

Party structure - the basis of all activities of the organization and the House of Commons . The two major parties to form officially recognized parties in the House of Commons - government majority and the "official opposition to Her Majesty ." The party won elections , a majority and therefore forms the government . The leader of this party becomes the Prime Minister. Supporters of the winning party to form a government majority in the House . Party , the second the number of seats becomes the official opposition and its leader - a leader of the opposition. Position of leader of the opposition in a normative form in 1937 , when he was assigned a salary of two thousand pounds a year ( it currently receives 48,148 pounds). For the opposition, the character but a state of readiness to take power from the government majority . Opposition leader forms of leading members of the faction " shadow cabinet " and assigns " shadow ministers " to be entrusted to act in the parliament on certain issues of public policy.

Even the location of the deputies in the House of Commons reflects its division into majority government and the official opposition party . Right from the speaker located benches of the government majority on the left - the opposition. Chamber members - ministers sit on the front benches and opposition leaders - in front of them . Accordingly, they are called " front-benchers" and " rear - back-benchers ."

Relationship between the parties in the House of Commons subordinate ¬ Xia some unwritten code or rules of "fair play." Government majority leadership must act in accordance with the principle of responsible government . Opposition must be responsible and constructive .

Leaders of the ruling party and the opposition sit on the front benches on opposite sides of the House of Commons and their supporters ( members of their parties ) sit behind them. Inside Parliament parliamentary parties run organizers and their assistants , who are selected within the party. Annual maintenance from the budget helps the opposition parties to do their work in parliament. It is paid only to those parties whose members had received at least two seats in parliament or one place and 150,000 votes. Amount of subsidies - 2250 pounds for each received place plus 5.1 pounds for every 200 votes.

Drafts of laws take the form of Bill Parliament. Most of the Bill dealing with the functioning of society and the legal system as a whole. Private Billy consider personal , corporate or local interests . Proposals to change the laws are published in the government's " White Paper " . Draft law is given in the first reading in the House of Commons without debate , followed by a detailed discussion of the main provisions of the law in the second reading , after which he studied in detail and make any necessary changes before submitting to the third and final reading in both chambers of parliament . Billy must be taken in both chambers. After the adoption of the law by both chambers it enters the approval of the Queen. In practice, this is a formality .


Standing committees are discussing and examining the changes in the bill to committee stage and , in certain cases , to discuss the second reading . Regular standing committees do not have names and are usually referred to the Standing Committee A, B, C, etc. , to discuss each new Bill to be appointed new members of the lower house of parliament . Each committee consists of 16 to 50 members , and in their composition as possible observed value of parties in parliament . Elected committees are appointed , usually for the duration of Parliament to examine certain issues , obtaining oral and written evidence . After a closed discussion , they report on its findings and make recommendations . Elected committees include the Committee on European law, the Committee on Science and Technology and the Committee on interest.

Formation of Government :

Prime minister appointed by the Queen , and all the other ministers are appointed by the Queen on the recommendation of the Prime Minister . Most ministers - members of the House of Commons , although the House of Lords gets a lot of portfolios. The Lord Chancellor is always a member of the House of Lords. When forming the government ministers and the number of the names of some government agencies may vary.

By tradition, the prime minister appointed by the Minister of State Treasurer and the State Civil Service . Prime Minister's Office is in d.10 at Downing Street in central London.

Ministry performing work through an extensive system of committees , which carry the main workload. The doctrine of collective responsibility means that the cabinet acts consistently , even when the ministers do not agree on a particular issue .

Privy Council :

The main purpose of the Privy Council - approve laws issued by decree of Queen and passed without a hearing in parliament. All ministers must be members of the Privy Council and bring oath of office.

Courts in general:

Judicial and executive power independent of each other ; court decision directed or controlled by ministers. Prime Minister recommends the queen candidates to the highest judicial ranks .

Lord Chancellor - Chairman of the Department of Justice and the Supreme Court head everywhere except Scotland. His responsibilities include working vessels and management.

Voting is done by means of newsletters. Going to the site , the voter registrar accesses and calls his name. At the same identity documents is not required. If the name is in the list, the voter issued a bulletin , a mark which shall appear in the sealed booth

Features .

UK electoral system was reformed repeatedly , and as a result has developed several simultaneously operating its models.

1. Majoritarian system of relative majority .

Operates on a national level . Founded on the principle of "first gets the job ." Each of the 659 constituencies represented in Parliament by one deputy . While winning candidate who receives the highest number of votes (regardless of whether he will score more than 50 % of the vote or not). A party that wins the most seats in the House of Commons forms the government . This system is also used in local elections in the United Kingdom (except Northern Ireland).

2 . Supplementary vote system .

This system is used on the London mayoral election , in which voters are eligible to vote in the two order of preference. The bulletin contains two columns. First - for the primary selection , and the second - for the extra. Voters decide to populate the second column or not. During the counting, the candidate receiving the first column of more than 50 percent . votes shall be deemed elected . If no candidate receives more than half of the votes , the two candidates remain , with the highest number of votes. Then the votes cast for each of them in the second column , summed with the voices of the first . The winner is the candidate who received the most amount of votes.

3 . The voting system indicating the candidates in order of preference ( the single transferable vote.

It is used in elections to the Northern Ireland Assembly and local elections and European Parliament elections in Northern Ireland .

STV system for each constituency is represented by not one but several candidates (usually three to six ) . Voters assess candidates in order of preference , affixing numbers next to the names of candidates . Thus , the voter is able to choose not only parties , but individual candidates. For example , a voter who wishes to in Parliament were better represented women can vote for all women on the ballot , regardless of their party affiliation .

4 . The system lists.

This system is used in the UK for the European Parliament elections . Is a classical form of proportional electoral system .

5 . The system of additional membership.

Under such a system elected Scottish Parliament , Welsh Assembly and London Assembly . Each voter is given two votes. The first voice he gives a representative of the constituency . The second voice - for the party . Thus, half or more of the seats in the elected body occupy candidates elected under the majority system of relative majority . The remainder of the seats are distributed among parties on party lists and independent candidates .

Historically, in the UK there is no single , centralized system of bodies that will be responsible for the organization and conduct of elections - a task assumed the central and local authorities . First specialized bodies appeared only in the XX century . Today it becomes more and more visible role , established in 2000 the Electoral Commission . It is an independent public authority accountable to Parliament.

In accordance with the Act on the House of Commons in 1944 , established four parliamentary commissions of constituency boundaries for England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Order of their activities and powers was clarified in the Act on Parliamentary constituencies in 1986 The composition of each committee consists of four people, including a meeting should take part three .

In the area of ​​local elections leading role belongs to the local authorities .

Division of constituencies to the polls , the definition of voting places , the appointment of chairmen of sections provided the councils and other officials of the local administration. When this additional remuneration for such work they do not get as election activities included in their duties .

Bureau of Voter Registration Board shall be established in each constituency . Voter registration is done by compiling annual lists for each polling station on the basis of information provided by the owner. Voter registration method varies in different parts of the country , but the procedure is similar to the census. Person responsible for the registration , sends forms to provide information about the persons residing or visiting them in person . The information collected is a single annual register of voters , which is subject to publication . [4 ]

[4 ] http://bibliofond.ru/view.aspx?id=529320

Three leading forces

Labour (Labour Party) - the ruling party of the United Kingdom , has been in power since 1997. Leader ( 2007 ) - British Prime Minister Gordon Brown (Gordon Brown, 59 years) .

The Labour Party was founded in the early twentieth century , with the active participation of representatives of left-wing labor movement ("labour" translated to English means "labor" , " labor " ) . For years, Labour took the left side of the political spectrum the UK. Unions have continued to play a prominent role in the party.

Labour in favor of preserving the necessary role of the state in the economy , the elimination of social inequality and social support programs in education , health and the fight against unemployment, the availability of limited economic needs immigration, minority rights and an active European integration.

Conservative Party (Conservative Party), political and conversational colloquially also known as " Tory " ( the title of old games , from which grew the modern conservatives ) . Since 1997 - the largest opposition party, the United Kingdom. Leader ( 2005 ) - The head of the "shadow " cabinet minister David Cameron.

After retiring from the high politics of the charismatic leader of the conservatives of the twentieth century - " Iron Lady " Margaret Thatcher , the Conservatives have not the best period in its history : the low ratings , frequent change of leaders in search of a bright personality and attempts to reform the party's program .

Conservatives in the formation of lists of candidates for the 2010 elections , followed by the other parties have relied on equality and diversity, primarily to increase the proportion of women , ethnic and other minorities.

Liberal - Democratic Party - the third largest political party and the influence of the UK. The name is often shortened to the word " libdemy ." Leader ( 2007 ) - Nick Clegg.

The Liberal Democratic Party was formed in 1988 through the merger of the Liberal and Social Democratic parties. In the British political spectrum " libdemy " occupy the centrist position with a slight slope to the left. Party leader Nick Clegg has a more centrist position than most of his colleagues in the party leadership .

Liberal Democrats since 1997 consistently improved their results in the election, and many commentators assign them a key role in the event that none of the two leading party will win an absolute majority and a situation arises " hung parliament "

In his campaign slogan Liberal Democrats combined the basic promises of the Labour and Conservative parties - " Change that works for you : Building a fairer Britain."

Parliamentary elections in the UK

Parliamentary elections in the UK in 1929 took place on May 30. Majoritarian electoral system, 615 deputies were elected to the House of Commons. One of the most important issues discussed during the campaign , was the problem of high unemployment. In the history of elections in the UK for the first game , which received more votes in the House of Commons held a smaller number of its MPs than the party with a lesser number of votes .


Following the elections , none of the parties failed to achieve a stable majority in the House of Commons ( formed so-called " hung parliament "), but a minority government led by the Labour leader and former Prime Minister James Ramsay MacDonald . Complex balance of power in the House of Commons had a negative effect on the ability of Great Britain to combat the effects of the global economic crisis. In 1931, early elections were held , and shortly before them in batches of Liberals and Labour splits occurred .





The Conservative Party

Stanley Baldwin

8 252 527


Labor party

Ramsay MacDonald

8 048 968


Liberal Democrats

David Lloyd George

5 104 638


Communist Party of Great Britain

47 554


Parliamentary elections in the UK in 1931 took place on October 27. Majoritarian electoral system, 616 deputies were elected to the House of Commons. The key issues discussed during the election campaign , there was a problem of the global economic crisis - increasing unemployment and falling living standards . The Labour government has failed to deal with the consequences of the crisis , while the Conservatives proposed to introduce protectionist tariffs , are not typical for traditional open British foreign trade. Elections were held in conditions of a split in the Liberal and Labour parties (in particular, of the Labour Party for the idea of ​​an alliance with the Conservatives was expelled Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald ) , which resulted in the victory of conservative candidates in most constituencies UK.





The Conservative Party

Stanley Baldwin

11 377 022


Labor party

Arthur Henderson

6 339 306


Liberal Democrats

Herbert Samuel

1 346 571



The Conservatives won a landslide victory in the elections and received a record majority of seats . Despite this, the Prime Minister was

ex - a Labour leader created shortly before the election of the National Labour Organization Ramsay MacDonald . At the same time , his government was a coalition - it was attended by the national Labour , Conservatives , Liberals , national liberal faction "National Government ".

Parliamentary elections in the UK in 1945 - the democratic elections held on 5 July 1945 the main part of the UK. These were the first parliamentary elections since 1935 , which was caused by the conduct of hostilities in Europe during World War II. The Labour Party , led by Clement Attlee won a decisive victory by a wide ; background: #ffffff; border-; border-; border-; border-;line-height: 0.2in"> Electioneering

Labour built his campaign around the issues of the post-war economic recovery , creating full employment and the organization of the national health system. Prime Minister of the Government of National Unity , Conservative Winston Churchill had hoped that his personal popularity , which he acquired during the war, the Conservatives will win , so that virtually led the campaign and soon went to the Potsdam conference ( after the counting of votes , he had leave the conference , and was replaced by Clement Attlee ) . Before the election, Churchill spoke negatively about the program Labour , claiming to meet their requirements in the UK Labour create the Gestapo. Also influenced the outcome of the election voters to distrust the political and economic policy of the Conservatives , they performed before the war.

Election Results






Labor party

Clement Attlee

11 967 746



The Conservative Party

Winston Churchill

8 716 211



Liberal Democrats

Archibald Sinclair

2 177 938



Parliamentary elections in the UK in February 1974 - the democratic elections of February 28, 1974. In the elections the Conservatives won by number of collected votes (11,872,180 vs. 11,645,616), but their candidates won only 297 electoral districts against 301 in the Labor Party. Prime Minister after the elections intended to become Edward Heath, who planned to conclude an alliance with the Liberals, but the talks failed, and became Prime Minister Harold Wilson. But the lack of a stable majority in the House of Commons forced Labour to hold early elections in October.

Voting took place during the economic crisis and stagflation, when neither the Conservatives nor the Labor Party nor the Liberals could not offer effective and painless measures to combat the crisis. The answer to this was the distrust of voters and the emergence of mass protest electorate. The total percentage of votes cast for the Conservatives and Labour, decreased from 89.5% in the previous election to 75.1% in the February elections. Distrust of the leading political forces in the face of the Conservatives and Labour resulted in an almost threefold increase in the number of votes for the Liberals (from 2,117,035 to 6,059,519), and twice - for the Scottish National Party (from 306 802 to 633 180). Nearly 7-fold increase in the number of votes cast for the British National Front. A significant number of seats in the House of Commons received minor parties: the Scottish National Party, the Party of Wales, the Ulster Unionist Party, Social Democratic and Labour Party, "Vanguard", as well as independent candidates.






The Conservative Party

Edward Heath

11 872 180



Labor party

Harold Wilson

11 645 616



Liberal Democrats

Jeremy Thorpe

6 059 519



Parliamentary elections in the UK in October 1974 - the democratic elections of October 10, 1974. Were organized in advance, as in previous elections, no party has failed to form a government that would have enjoyed a stable majority in the House of Commons. In the elections the Labour Party led by Harold Wilson received 50.24% of the seats in the House of Commons and off-led Conservative Edward Heath in 42 places.

October elections, as well as the February, took place in a difficult economic environment characterized by activity and protest electorate. One of the most famous games for which the protest electorate voted - British National Front - received 113,843 votes. Scottish National Party skillfully took advantage of the rise of nationalism in Scotland. Properly used mood in society and in the course of the race used the slogan "It's the Scottish oil." SNP attracted record for a 839 617 votes and was able to spend 11 deputies in the House of Commons.

Election results






Labor party

Harold Wilson

11 457 079



The Conservative Party

Edward Heath

10 462 565



Liberal Democrats

Jeremy Thorpe

5 346 704



Parliamentary elections in the UK in 2005 - elections that took place May 5, 2005. The Labour Party under the leadership of Tony Blair won the election, but the Conservatives managed to close the gap to 90 seats (from 247 to 158).


Among the main issues raised during the campaign, there was a war in Iraq, the legitimacy of its beginning and its consequences, which is opposed by Labour opponents, particularly the Liberal Democrats. Question about the war in Iraq was the main question posed by organized BBC election debate April 28 leaders of the three major parties. Other important issues to leaders of political parties were the Liberal Democrats plans to reform taxation program conservatives to tighten immigration and Labour plans to reform the health care system.

During the election campaign, on April 12, the leader of the Liberal Democrats Charles Kennedy had a son that was an additional possibility of his party to attract attention. Also in April, two current members of the House of Commons and a candidate for the elections have changed their party affiliation: Gender Morsden announced his return from the Liberal Democrats in the Labour Party (he left it in 2001 in protest against the war in Afghanistan), and Brian Sedgemoor moved from the Labour Party to the Liberal Democrats in protest against the war in Iraq and education reforms.

Election results






Labor party

Tony Blair

9 562 122



The Conservative Party

Michael Howard

8 772 598



Liberal Democrats

Charles Kennedy

5 981 874



Parliamentary elections in the UK in 2010 took place on May 6. Majoritarian electoral system, the election was elected 649 deputies out of 650, in the district elections were held on May 27 due to the death of one of the candidates. 306 deputy mandates Conservative Party won 258 - Labour Party, 57 - Liberal Democrats. 28 seats went to other parties. Following the elections, none of the parties has a majority in the House of Commons and is unable to form a single-party government, which requires that the leading political forces complex negotiations to create a coalition. Green Party of England and Wales and the Party "Alliance" first entered parliament.

Before the elections

For all pre-election polls until mid-April 2010 elections were considered favorites for the Conservative Party led by David Cameron. After the publication of the electoral programs of political parties and election debates, which, according to the polls, the Liberal Democrats won [1], significantly increased ratings of the Liberal Democrats. However, in the conditions of existence of the majoritarian electoral system accurate predictions difficult.

On May 2, 2010 the Conservative Party was in first place by rating (it was supported by 37% of the population), the 2nd place were Labour and the Liberal Democratic Party, for the support which made 27% of the population. Other parties received 7% of the vote.





The Conservative Party

10 706 647 (36,1%)



Labor party

8 604 358 (29,0%)



Liberal Democrats

6 827 938 (23,0%)



Consequences of the elections

According to the results of elections , no party won an absolute majority (more than half) of the seats in the House of Commons : the Conservatives won 306 seats ( 97 seats more than in the 2005 election ) , the Labour Party - 258 seats ( minus 91 seats compared to the past elections ) . Thus ,the country was a hung parliament situation, May 7, 2010 Brown said he did not intend to resign . Observers noted the special role of the monarch in the resolution of the political crisis emerged .

May 8, 2010 , after a meeting of parliamentarians of member of the Liberal Democratic Party , it was stated that the strategy of Mr. Clegg on coalition negotiations in the first place with the Conservatives , received the " full support " from the faction. Negotiations between the Conservatives and the Liberal Democrats continued in the first half of May 10.

Evening, May 10, 2010 Prime Minister Brown announced his intention to resign in order to allow his party to form a coalition with the Liberal Democrats.

May 11, 2010 David Cameron was appointed by Queen Elizabeth II 75th Prime Minister of Great Britain , 12 May 2010, for the first time in the postwar history of Britain , was formed a coalition government , the Liberal Democrat leader Nick Clegg became Deputy Prime Minister. May 25, 2010 the grand opening of the newly formed parliament. [5 ]


Conclusion .

The British Parliament is a representative example of a bicameral body composed of the House of Commons and House of Lords. And Parliament is considered an integral part of the British monarch .

Decisive role in the formation and conduct of party politics belongs to the Labour faction in the House of Commons of the British Parliament. Working body of the party - the National Executive Committee , elected at the annual autumn party conference . But the real power is in the hands of the party leader , who if he wins the election becomes the head of government , as happened , for example, in 1997, 2001 and 2005 after 18 years of rule by the Conservatives in 1997, the Labour Party came to power by winning the majority in parliament. Labour's main rival - the Conservatives ( the informal name - burn ) . They institutionalized in 1867, although some elements of the party structure and ideology existed since the end of the XVIII century. This respectable and influential party in the last century was in power more often and over a longer period than any other : it is enough to mention the names of popular Tory politicians B. Disraeli , Winston Churchill and Margaret Thatcher. Originally Conservative Party expressed the interests of the big landowners and the clergy , and subsequently wide circles of colonial banking and big industrial bourgeoisie . She preaches the traditional right-wing conservative ideals and values ​​, but taking into account the " specificity of the British ." The Conservatives have a strong position in parliament, regional authorities and municipalities . Enormous power in the party has its leader , who in case of victory for the parliamentary election as Prime Minister . He is not obliged to obey the decisions of the annual conferences of the party. Great influence on the policy of the party has a faction of the Conservative Party in the House of Commons - the largest in Parliament. June 2010 - is the ruling party . [6 ]

Each party is focusing on certain socio- economic sphere of human activity . Reasons for the victory of a party depends on the time and socio- economic conditions in which the country is located , as well as demand in the right reforms. It is noted that the party or alliance of parties that after the vote received the highest number of seats in parliament will form the next government.

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Метод проектов на уроках английского языка как способ развития творческой активности школьников.

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Бесчисленное многообразие методов обучения лишь подтверждает принцип: ни один из них не подходит для всех обучающихся. Успех учащихся в освоении того или иного материала в значительной степени зависит от того, насколько их способности соответствуют методам обучения. Как известно, основной проблемой при изучении иностранного языка является то, что вне занятий обучающиеся не имеют возможности пользоваться полученными знаниями.

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Американский философ и педагог, профессор Колумбийского университета Джон Дьюи (John Dewey, 1859-1952) ввел понятие “обучение посредством деланья”. Эта концепция развилась в 1920-е годы в метод проектов в сельскохозяйственных школах США в связи с развивающейся там идеей трудовой школы. Общий принцип заключался в установлении непосредственной связи учебного материала с жизненным опытом учащихся. Т.о. Джон Дьюи утверждал, что ребенок усваивает материал не просто слушая или воспринимая органами чувств, а как результат возникшей у него потребности в знаниях, и, следовательно, обучаемый является активным субъектом своего обучения.

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Метод проектов, зародившийся ещё в 19 веке, является одной из технологий, обеспечивающих личностно-ориентированное воспитание и обучение, а также практически вбирает в себя и другие современные технологии, такие, как обучение в сотрудничестве. Положительная специфика данной технологии заключается в следующем:-она основывается на самостоятельной работе учащихся в школе и дома (Учащемуся в ходе работы над проектом необходимо самому вместе с другими учащимися организовать и планировать свою работу, чтобы добиться положительного результата. Учитель лишь выступает в роли консультанта, косвенного руководителя проекта.)-побуждает их к поиску новой информации из любых доступных для них источников.

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При обучении английскому языку метод проектов используется в контакте с учебной программой. Тема проекта должна не только входить в общий контекст обучения языку, но и быть достаточно интересной для ребят. Выбор темы проектной работы очень важен,именно тема проекта в конечном счете может определить успешность и результативность проектной работы в целом. Так, например, УМК для 4-го класса в 4 четверти предлагает тему «MFM for Stars» — «Современный модный магазин для звезд». Тематика очень интересна младшим школьникам, ребята с большим энтузиазмом воспринимают предложение подобрать одежду для звезд, одновременно выступая в роли одного из героев учебника. Школьники при участии учителя обсуждают содержание и характер проекта, его цели. Таким образом, содержание проектной работы оказывается основанным на логическом продолжении содержания тематики учебника.

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Типы проектов: исследовательский, творческий, игро-ролевой, информационный. Творческие проекты. В данном случае следует договориться о планируемых результатах и форме их представления. Это могут быть проблемы, связанные с содержанием какого-то произведения, статьи, фильма, жизненной ситуации. Это может быть фантастика. Оформление результатов проекта требует четко продуманной структуры в виде сценария видеофильма, драматизации, программы праздника, плана сочинения, статьи, репортажа, дизайна и рубрик газеты, альбома и т.д.

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Игро- ролевые проекты. Участники принимают на себя определенные роли, обусловленные характером и содержанием проекта, особенностью решаемой проблемы. Это могут быть литературные персонажи или выдуманные герои, имитирующие социальные или деловые отношения, осложняемые ситуациями, придуманными участниками.

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При реализации метода проектов в начальной школе учитываются следующие этапы:1.Начальный этап. На этом этапе очень важно не только сформулировать тему и конечную цель проекта, но и необходимо подготовить проведение проекта:разумно определить временные рамки (здесь необходимо учесть, что школьники быстро утомляются);продумать какие материалы и источники могут использовать учащиеся;обсудить план написания сочинения и создания иллюстрации;выбрать оптимальную форму презентации результатов; составить и обсудить примерный план работы

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2. Организационный этап:- формирование микрогрупп- распределение заданий в микрогруппах- практическая деятельность учащихся в рамках проекта.При выполнении проекта происходит совершенствование и расширение лексического запаса, развиваются навыки письменной речи на английском языке, построения предложений для передачи своей идеи любому человеку, владеющему английским языком.

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На данном этапе идет индивидуальная работа учителя с учеником. Обсуждаются достоинства и недостатки по каждой работе. Даются советы, ставятся наводящие вопросы учителя, на что следует обратить внимание, какие моменты дополнить, обсуждаются предложения что-то изменить, может быть, что-то добавить или убрать… В итоге ребенок приходит к осознанию того, как много он знает и как много уже он может рассказать своим друзьям на английском языке.Важным условием эффективной работы над проектом является поддержание доброжелательной обстановки, располагающей к общению и позволяющей детям испытывать чувство успеха.

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3. Завершающий этап:- промежуточный контроль (длительный проект)- обсуждение способа оформления проекта- документирование проекта- презентация результатов проекта всей группе (мероприятие или семинар)- подведение итогов выполнения проекта: обсуждение результатов, выставление оценок.

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4. Этап практического использования результатов проекта (в качестве наглядных пособий, докладов, выставки и т.д.)

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Основными преимуществами метода проектов перед традиционными методами обучения являются:повышение мотивации учащихся при изучении английского языка,наглядная интеграция знаний по различным предметам школьной программы,простор для творческой и созидательной деятельности.

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Проектная методика характеризуется высокой коммуникативностью, активным включением учащихся в учебную деятельность, принятием личной ответственности за продвижение в обучении.

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Одной из главных особенностей проектной деятельности является ориентация на достижение конкретной практической цели – наглядное представление результата, будь это рисунок, аппликация или сочинение.

Дата добавления 05.05.2015
Раздел Иностранные языки
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