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Научно-исследовательская работа "Англицизмы в современном русском языке"

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материалов


Муниципальное образовательное учреждение

средняя общеобразовательная школа №20 имени Н.З. Бирюкова











Научно-исследовательская работа

по английскому языку на тему:

«Англицизмы в современном русском языке»










Выполнила: ученица 9 класса «Б»

Кузнецова Е.

Руководитель: учитель английского языка

Рябцева Л.С.








2015-2016 уч. год

Table of contents:



Introduction……………………………………………………………………..3


Head 1. Borrowing as a natural process of the development of a language…..5


1.1. History of borrowing……………………………………………………5


1.2. The reasons for borrowing………………………………………………6


1.3. Methods of borrowing………………………………………………….7


Соnclusion for Head 1…………………………………………………………8


Head 2. The usage of Anglicisms in different areas of human life………...9


2.1. Justified and unjustified usage of Anglicisms……………………………..9


2.1.1. Unjustified borrowing of Anglicisms……………………………….9


2.1.2. Justified borrowing of Anglicisms………………………………..10


2.2 A survey conducted in the secondary school №20 named after Burjukov…11


Соnclusion for Head 2………………………………………………………..13


Conclusion…………………………………………………………………….14


List of used literature………………………………………………………….15


Application…………………………………………………………………….15

Appendix 1……………………………………………………………………

Appendix 2………………………………………………………………….

Appendix 3…………………………………………………………………..

Appendix 4……………………………………………………………………







Introduction.


The proposed research work sanctifies one of the actual themes on this period. Moral and social development of a person does not stay still and new words appear in our vocabulary day by day. Have you ever thought about that, where new words come from?

The theme of my work is "Anglicisms in the modern Russian language".

Quite recently, I have paid attention to the point. Exploring Dictionary of English words and observing the similarities of English and Russian words, one begins thinking about borrowing words from other languages.

The actuality and practical significance of the research. Currently, the English language has acquired the status of language of international communication for people, so more and more people decide to study this very language. The position of the English language in the world is determined historically: the expansion of trade and economic ties, the dominance of the United States in the world economy and politics, the development of international tourism, etc. The development of new information and computer technologies, the emergence of the global Internet has also been influenced by the popularity of the English language. Moreover, increased students' interest in the English language is because the opportunity to visit the English-speaking countries.

      Another source of promotion of the English language is the so-called popular culture. Passion for popular music of different genres, English movies, led to the fact that the majority of Anglicisms enter the Russian language without any barriers and used by most of the population, regardless of sex, age, and social status.

Purpose of the work is identify the reasons for the borrowing of English words and the need to stay in the Russian language.


Basic tasks:

1. Identify the causes of borrowings of English words in the Russian language.

2. To analyze the theoretical materials related to the borrowings.

3. To consider the methods of formation of Anglicisms.

4. To find out the necessity of presence of Anglicisms in the Russian language.

5. To define the popularity of using the English words among the pupils of the secondary school №20 named after Birjukov.






































Head 1. Borrowing as a natural process of the development of a language.


    1. History of borrowing.


The process of borrowings is rather common for the development of any language. However, the intensity of their penetration and dissemination can be different according to the period and reasons of borrowings.

The beginning of English borrowings into the Russian language dates from the 16th century. The amount of English borrowings was increasing continuously during the 16-20 centuries. Since the 16th century Russian adopted many words concerning science, political and social life, finance and trade, sport, information technologies, art, literature, etc.

The most intensive period of English borrowings is the 90-ies of the XX century. At this time, the intensive process of borrowing began as people needed words for no corresponding concept in the base of language (for example, computer terminology (shredder, plotters, scanners) and business vocabulary (default, marketing, dealer)). And so they began replacing Russian lexical units by the English ones to express positive or negative connotations, which are absent in the original language (pub, killer).

In addition to direct borrowing of the vocabulary from the English language into the Russian language and the process of word formation false Anglicisms - neologisms denoting concepts or phenomena that are new to the language of the receptor, while not found in the source language began appearing. Such compounding Anglicisms can be formed as the British bases (shopping tour, which has no equivalent in English), and the composition of the British and Russian bases (fur coats tour).

A large number of casual Anglicisms may contain the translation of people who do not know the language properly and who cannot own a well-established Russian terminology in this area.

The lexicon of members of the Russian-language diaspores is rich in the words of English-language countries. Constantly confronted in daily life with different names, Russian speakers can borrow them in their idiolect and actively use in everyday speech, even if these words have equivalents in the Russian language.


    1. The reasons for borrowing.

Nowadays in politics, economy, technologies there are such conditions that make our society adopt many new foreign words. These words help people give precise and laconic information in different areas of life so it is natural to use such many foreign words in our speech.

There are many reasons for the borrowing of English words in the Russian language:

- the strengthening of information flows(copypaste, provider);

- the introduction of the worldwide computer network Internet(account, browser);

- the expansion of the interstate and international relations(innovation, franchisees);

- the development of the economy and information technology market(separator, barter);

- the popularity of foreign tourism(weekend, reception,chillout);

- naming of new subjects, concepts, phenomena(player, motherboard);

- the lack of conformity in the native language(shareware, render);

- the need to express the multivalued descriptive turnover in one word (remake – instead of «a new version of a film»);

- the refill of the Russian language with more expressive meanings(exclusive, charisma);

- the perception of foreign words as more prestigious(VIP, laksheri);

- specializing the concepts in particular areas (a “burger” is a common word, but there are such words as “fish burger”, “hamburger”, “chicken burger”);

- the necessity to show the change of social role (“office” instead of «контора»).




    1. Methods for forming Anglicism

The process of borrowing new words is rather quick, because a language reacts rapidly to the needs of the society. Borrowings become the result of constant interrelations of peoples and states.

On the methods for forming Anglicisms it is possible to distinguish the next groups of borrowing :

1. Direct borrowing: words exist in the Russian language in their original forms. They are words like “уик-енд” - the weekend; “блек” - Negro; “мани” – the money.

2. Hybrids: these words are formed by adding a Russian suffix or a prefix to the English words. In this case, it changes the value of a foreign word: “аскать” (to ask - спрашивать), “коннектиться” (to connect – связываться, соединяться)

3. Tracing: foreign words used with the preservation of their phonetic and graphic appearance. It is words like “menu”, “the drive”, “the virus”, “the club”, and “the sarcophagus”.

4. Semi paper: word, obeying the rules in the grammatical development of Russian grammar with the addition of the suffix. For example, “drive” in the meaning of "energy, power."

5. Exoticism: words used to characterize specific cultural phenomena of another country describing non-Russian reality. These words do not have synonyms in the Russian language. For example, “чипсы” (chips), “хот-дог” (hot-dog), “чизбургер” (cheeseburger).

6. Foreign-language blotches: words that usually have lexical equivalents, but stylistically are different from them and secured in a particular field of communication. For example, “окей” (OK); “вау” (Wow!), “хэппи-енд”(happy end).

7. Composites: word composed of two English words, such as “секонд-хенд” (second-hand – магазин, торгующий одеждой, бывшей в употреблении), “хит парад” (hit parade - список самых популярных мелиа-продуктов);

8. Jargonisms: words emerged as a result of any distortion of sounds, such as “крезанутый” (от crazy - сумасшедший), “паренсы” (parents – родители).



Conclusion for Head 1.

Language is a living organism and it changes and develops together with its carriers. Borrowings take root in the Russian language, and some of them are not clear and others are for most people.

On the one hand, the emergence of new words expands the vocabulary of the Russian language, on the other in connection with the use of a huge number of unnecessary borrowing occurs clogging of the Russian language, it is losing its originality and unique beauty. However, do not forget that some of the loans have analogues in the Russian language, which does not concede to Anglicisms in their semantic and expressive properties.

















Head 2. The usage of Anglicisms in different areas of human life.


2.1. Justified and unjustified usage of Anglicisms.

Recently one can hear a great amount of foreign words such as саммита, брифинг, инаугурация, дефолт, эскалации конфликтов, призыв к транпарентности, консолидация, консенсус, etc. Young people nowadays like using words like юзать, апгрейдить, саппортить, аська, мыло, etc.

Young people use Anglicisms to be fashionable. Adding in his speech the British borrowing, young people in a certain way are attached to the American and English culture, lifestyle. Older people, on average, are less tolerant to foreign words than youth. Anglicisms, employed by the youth, are estimated in some quarters higher. Foreign words in young people speech can play the role of original quotations: the term belonging to a specific field can be even cited. However, are these borrowings justified?

Considering the topic of borrowing in the Russian language, all the words can be divided into two groups: justified and unjustified.


2.1.1. Unjustified borrowing of Anglicisms

Unjustified borrowing is a word that is introduced into the language from a foreign one as a synonym for the definition of a concept that already exists in the language-receptor.

However, many people believe that these words, on the contrary, enrich the Russian language. Than why don’t’ we borrow a synonym for every Russian word in different languages and "enrich" the Russian language in a thousand times. I think there won’t be many people who will like it.

Unnecessary uses of Anglicisms are now everywhere: in politics, on radio and television broadcasters, in everyday life. In a young people speech one can count about 1,000 unreasonably-used English words, such as "pressure", "nickname", "goalkeeper", "divide", "username", "training", etc. Even foreigners, who speak Russian well, are surprised by the vast number of foreign words in our press, magazines, books, advertising. (Appendix 1)

Listening to the speech of my classmates, acquaintances, friends (peers and adults) I can find many English words pronounced in the Russian manner, and they cannot express the same words of the native language quite often.


      1. Justified borrowing of Anglicisms

       Borrowing is justified, when it expresses the concept, that didn’t exist in the language earlier. For example, concepts such as "chocolate", "rubbers", "phone", and many others, didn’t exist in the Russian language. These items are included in our vocabulary to denote things we didn’t know about. Basically, there are reasonable borrowing in medicine, science and technology.

       The people or the state, from whose language the words are taken is considered more advanced than the one that borrow words from other languages. It may be well illustrated by the following examples.

       As soon as the Soviet Union launched the first satellite in the world history of the Earth, the word "companion" immediately became world famous, and has entered into many languages.

       Just after the invention and introduction of tank by the British during the First World War, the word "tank" was transferred into all languages ​​of the world, where it is still used.

       Thus, a reasonable borrowing fill the empty niche in the language, they denote those concepts, for which words in a language not yet invented. (Appendix 2)

However, the Russian language, which is considered a rich one, can use foreign words expressing something new but at the same time, it should introduce words for these new concepts in the Russian language.





2.2 A survey conducted in the secondary school №20 named after Burjukov.


The English language is the most popular one in the schools of Russia and pupils often use words of English origin in their speech sometimes even without understanding them.

That is why I decided to conduct a survey among the pupils of my school (grades 8-10) and made a questionnaire.

The purpose of the survey:

1. Identify popularity of Anglicisms among students.

2. Identify the vocabulary of English origin, which is used in their speech.

3. Identify the preferences of the students.

4. Identify the necessity of finding words for English-speaking students.

5. How pupils understand the meaning of words that are used.

The questionnaire contains five questions (Appendix 3):

1. Do you often do you use English-language words in your speech? (with possible answers: yes, no, no answer)

2. Give an example of English words that you use in your speech. Try to suggest some areas of life (for example: the economy, sports, media, life)

3. What are the words you prefer to use in your speech, the English-language or Russian?

4. Do the English-language words help you and are you satisfied with their appearance?

5. Fill the table.

The results of the survey.

78 people took part in this survey. I obtained the following results:

On the first question about the popularity of Anglicisms 52 people answered positively, 19 people - negatively, 7 people were undecided.

The second question has shown great interest in using English-speaking words. Noteworthy, the students added to the given list of borrowed words their own previously unknown to us. Among them:

"Пати" - a party

"Раша" - Russia

"Айс" - good

" Пиплы " - people

"Сюрпрайз" - a surprise

"Тролить" - mock

"Хайер" - hairstyle

"Мэйк ап" - makeup

"Френды" - friends

"Бай" - yet goodbye

"Шузы" - shoes

"Бутсы" - shoes

"Сидюшник» - CD-Rom Drive (drive laserdisc)

"Юзать" - to use

"Тичер" - teacher

On the third question of the preference of students 43 pupils prefer to use English-language words, and 35 pupils - Russian word.

On the fourth question of the necessity of English-speaking words 69- answered positively and only 9 – negatively.

The fifth question was the most difficult for students, because not everyone can accurately determine the value of English words and specify the scope of their use.

As a result, I can say that young people do not see anything wrong with using Anglicisms and they do use them in their speech. However, despite the popularity of these words, not everyone knows the value of words of English and cannot use them correctly.








Conclusion for Head 2


Nowadays it is very important to research the problems of borrowing foreign words, because many researchers express apprehensions concerning great amount of borrowings in the Russian language that spoils it and leads to its death. We do not have to exclude all foreign words from our vocabulary, because they are important for expressing many phenomena, but foreign language words should be used appropriately without exaggeration.

































Conclusion


In general, foreign language terminology is an interesting linguistiс phenomenon, the role of which in the Russian language is very important. English-Russian linguistic interaction has consistently attraсted the attention of research aimed at the study of the total inflow of foreign language voсabulary in the Russian language.

Using the knowledge on the topic and researching the speech of my school pupils, I have succeeded in doing the tasks:

  • identified the causes of borrowings of English words in the Russian language;

  • analyzed the theoretical materials related to the borrowings.

  • considered the methods of formation of Anglicisms.

  • found out the necessity of presence of Anglicisms in the Russian language.

  • defined the popularity of using the English words among the pupils of the secondary school №20 named after Birjukov.

I hope that my wоrk will help for better understand this tоpic and оpen оur eyes tо the extrаordinary beаuty of the native language. After all, Russian lаnguage is rightly cоnsidered оne оf the mоst beautiful аnd rich language.
















List of used literature

1. Bozhenko LN Loanwords in modern Russian

2. Grunitskaya TV Anglicisms in modern Russian // Russian language and literature. - 1998. - №4,5.

3. AS Pushkin Selected Works (vol. 2) - M .: "Fiction", 1978.

4. Sologub OP Mastering foreign language structural elements in the Russian language. (Science. University. 2002. Proceedings of the Third Scientific Conference. - Novosibirsk, 2002. - S. 130-134).

5. Dictionary of foreign words. - M .: "Russian language" / Ed. Pchelkina VV 1988.






Аpplication


1. http://www.school61.ru/Science/krivoruchkok_angl/krivoruchkok_angl.htm

2.http://festival.1september.ru/articles/410377/

3.http://www.philology.ru/linguistics2/dyakov-03.htm

4.http://nauchforum.ru/node/1569

5.https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/






















Английское слово

Заимствование

Перевод, он же прямой русский аналог

businessman

бизнесмен

деловой человек

case

кейс

корпус; портфель

chat

чат(иться)

болталка, беседка; болтать (на специальном узле в Сети)

click

клик(ать)

нажатие, щелчок; щёлкать (мышью)

elite

элитный

для избранных

limit

лимит

предел, ограничение

list

лист

список

login

логин; залогиниться

имя (пользователя); войти (в систему)

mouse

маус(е), маузер, мауз(е), муся

мышь

notebook

ноутбук

портативный компьютер 

offline

оффлайн

внесетевой

offtopic

оффтопик

(сообщение) не по теме (в конференциях, форумах и группах новостей)

online

онлайновый

сетевой

password

пассворд

пароль

player

плеер

проигрыватель

promotion

промоушн

популяризация, продвижение, раскрутка, рекламная кампания

provider

провайдер

поставщик, оператор

reception

ресепшен

приемная

reply

реплай, реплэй, реплюй

oтвет; отвечать

run

ранить

запускать (программу)

shopping

шопинг, шоппинг

покупки, идти за покупками

site

сайт

страница, узел, ресурс

skip

поскипать, скипануть

пропустить

slang

сленг

жаргон

surfing

сёрфинг

просмотр страниц (в Сети; обычно без определённой цели), шатание по страницам

tag

таг, тег

метка 

teenager

тинэйджер

подросток

trouble

трабла

проблема

upgrade

апгрейд(ить)

обновлять

usability

юзабилити

удобство [использования]

web

веб

Сеть, Паутина

weekend

уикенд

выходные

Appendix 1


Appendix 2


Английское слово

Заимствование

Перевод, он же прямой русский аналог

account

аккаунт

счёт; учётная запись (пользователя)

ambivalent

амбивалентный

противоположный, противоречивый, двойственный

attachment

аттач(мент)

приложение (к письму)

bookmark

букмарк

закладка

default

дефолт

умолчание

device

девайс, девица

устройство, приспособление

destructive

деструктивный

разрушительный

dissident

диссидент

инакомыслящий

extradition

экстрадиция

выдача (преступника)

feature

фича

особенность, возможность, функция (программы), характеристика

file request

фрекнуть

запросить/забрать файл

gate

гейтить(ся), гейтовать(ся)

обеспечивать или налаживать межсетевую связь

hack

хакать, хакнуть, хачить

взламывать

plugin

плагин

надстройка; также модуль, штепсель

promotion

промоушн

популяризация, продвижение, раскрутка, рекламная кампания

provider

провайдер

поставщик, оператор

script

скрипт

сценарий; программка

scrollbar

скролбар

полоса прокрутки

smiley

смайлик

рожица (обычно из двоеточия и скобки, для выражения эмоций автора, непередаваемых текстом)

soft

софт

ПО, программное обеспечение, программы

software

софтина, софтвер, софтварь, софтварий; софтверный

программное обеспечение, программы, программа, приложение; программный

spellchecker

спелчекер

проверка правописания

summit

саммит

встреча (на высшем уровне)

virmaker

вирьмейкер

вирусописатель

volatility

волатильность

неустойчивость







Appendix 3


An interrogation of students on the theme "Using of English words in the modern Russian language."

  1. Do you often do you use English-language words in your speeсh?

    A) Yes

    B) No

    C) No answer

2. Give an example of English words that you use in your speech. Try to suggest some areas of life (for example: the economy, sports, media, life)

3. What are the words you prefer to use in your speeсh, the English-language or Russian?

4. Do the English-language words help you and are you satisfied with their appearanсe?

5. Fill the table.

Sex____ Сlass_____ Age _____


Meaning of angliсisms




Sсope of using

1. Forward




2. Racket




3. Price list




4. Interpreter




5. Summit




6. Concern




7. Mac-Nazi




8. Spreads Christmas




9. Heytriotizm




10. Shoklog




11. Garage Mahal




12. Banner




13. Upgrade
























Appendix 4

The survey results.



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