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Научно-исследовательская работа на английском языке New Brits? Migration and settlements in London
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Secondary compulsory school №22
Migration and Settlements in London.
Student of the 10th form
The teacher of English
2. Migration and Integration……………………………………….….....3
2.1Methods of researching and summary…………………..…..…3
2.3 The nature of contemporary migration in London……………4
2.4 Short points of migration history……………………………..5
2.5 London’s demographic landscape…………………………….6
2.6.1 Integration themes……………………………………7
2.6.2 Key findings…………………………………….……9
2.7 The census of London’s population 2011……………………..9
2.7.1 Key points…………………………………………….10
3. The riots in August 2011 in London…………………………………..11
4. Changes in Migration policy in 2012………………………………….13
We know London to be a vast city with a highly-developed economy, culture, health care and public relations. We also know the British to be well-mannered people, proud of their traditions and a conservative way of life. On this background it becomes odd to watch news about riots in London, to see buildings burn and streets full of aggressive people.
So, why did disorders and pogroms take place in the capital of the United Kingdom? The recent affairs made me think of reasons of the riots. May be those people who were crashing every window and starting fires were not natives? Perhaps London has faced problems of immigration? This report is a part of the answer. The aim of the paper is to research migration as a phenomenon of globalization on the example of London. The tasks are to show the scales of migration in London; to find reasons and to analyze consequences of the riots in August 2011; to follow the British policy in this question.
This focus on migration is intended to present multicultural world without borders. Migration influence on our life is increasing more and more, especially it is relevant for big cities. This report points to inevitability of coexistence of different cultures in the city area. It has to teach tolerance in the world with a constantly increasing population. Globalization in common and migration in particular are challenges of the present, which next generations will have to overcome in the future.
Methods of researching and summary
Our report is aimed to speak of immigration on the example of London. With this in mind, our methods for this study were as follows: we read academic literature on the theme and policy literature with as recent as possible primary data; analyzed information from the Internet resources and observed newspaper reports and TV issues. The document also tells the results of studying statistics and Census of London’s Population, held in 2011.
This work reports outrageous events of August 2011 in London as those affairs made authorities and society speak and think of the problems of migration. On a policy level, we hope to see changes in migration governing. As London was one of the first cities in the world to face such protests of migrants, its experience is valuable, because of the growth of the world migration as a whole. In seeking to do this, we have much to learn about the consequences of the riots.
In this report, we use a broad definition of migrants, following the Greater London Authority’s Data Management and Analysis Group: “the term migrant is used throughout the report to refer to all those born outside the United Kingdom. It therefore relates migrants in the very broadest sense, ranging from those whose residence is temporary..., to people whose settlement is long-term and permanent.” However, some of the different data sources we have drawn upon use the term in different ways, we have made it clear where this is in case. As will be shown in the report, we are referring to a huge group of London’s population, which will be explored through the statistical data.
It is worth defining different types of migrants. A legal migrant is a person who has been legally admitted to the UK with full migrant status. An asylum seeker is a person who is given a temporary right to remain while their asylum application is being processed. An illegal migrant is a person who enters the country illegally, or stays on after an asylum application is rejected.
The nature of contemporary migration in London
The story of the man leaving home town for a big city in search of new opportunities is narrative and familiar for us. That is, the cultural or social conditions at home did not offer the potential for socially fulfilled life. The United Kingdom is a very popular destination for people looking to live and work overseas. We believe that such popularity is reasonable.
Firstly, the British people are tolerant, they respect other people’s rights for own religion and culture. It is the national trait of character. They are proud to be the first to say no to racism and discrimination earlier than similar ideas were recognized elsewhere in Europe.
Secondly, England historically took part in different unions. It was a center of the Old Commonwealth, and people from Canada, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa arrived in its capital. The Countries of the New Commonwealth sent a new wave of migrants. Later on the membership in the European Union let people move to new places, settle and work legally within its territory. The migration from the new EU states peaked in 2007 and has been declining since then.
In the third, the UK labor demand made the migration policy simple and available to all. The capital offers a variety of economic opportunities which provides employment in diverse economic sectors and a large market of both skilled and unskilled jobs. At the same time, Britain started earlier than other countries with its policies to reduce and later block spontaneous immigration.
And at last, the existence of communities from many countries can often give support to new arrivals in terms of contact, employment, social activities and religious facilities. The biggest Diasporas are the India’s (almost 700,000 people), the Poland’s (579,000 people) and the Pakistan’s (over 480,000 people). It is curious, but in the beginning of this century Poland was not present at the top twenty countries, from where people moved to the British Isles (application ) .
Short points of migration history
So, London is an attractive place to settle. “It is a migrant world capital”. Immigration in London is not a recent phenomenon. Indeed, historians go back 250 years when looking for the origins of London as the “city of nations”. Migration to the UK today is significantly different from that in previous periods. Previously, main places of origin were countries tied to Britain through its imperial heritage - in particular the countries of the Old and especially New Commonwealth. From the 1980s, conflicts drove the global rise of mass movement, and asylum became the main pathway to settlement in the UK, with war-torn countries such as Sri Lanka and Somalia beginning to feature more heavily in the arrivals. People left their home countries due to conflicts and natural disasters. Further changes occurred as a result of the European Union. The most significant change was the accession in 2004 of eight central and eastern European Countries to the EU (Poland is among them), with legal right to settle and work. Between 2004 and 2011 London’s population grew by over 390,000 people. The result of this wave is the Poland’s Diaspora in London (application ).
London’s demographic landscape
London houses migrants within different regions. People try to settle nearby their fellow countrymen. The city itself is a patchwork of such communities: the Caribbean community in Brixton and Tottenham, the Bengali community in Tower Hamlets, the Greek and Cypriot communities of Green Lanes, the French community in Soho, the Italian community in Clerkenwell, the Irish community in Kilburn, the Turkish community in Dalston, the Jewish community in the East End (application ).
Some Diasporas made their districts the sightseeing of London. For example, the best restaurants serving karri are in Brick Lane. There are over 40 of them; some entice clients by speaking ironically of the British Monarchy. While waiting for the meal you can watch comics “Prince Harry as Agent007” painted on the walls. The India’s Diaspora is the friendliest, and at the same time one of the most privileged. They are even allowed to ride bikes in turbans on their heads, instead of helmets.
One of the London regions Ealing can be called “Small Poland”. There are more the Polish there than ladies and gentlemen. The Times or tabloids are not sold there, instead of that, Polish newspapers are given free. There are many Polish shops in the district; all signs are written in Polish. That’s why one can live there, even without knowing English. The Polish loved London for the opportunities of to earn money and to spend time with pleasure.
On this background, it is important to mention about the process of integration. “It involves engagement by both migrants and by individuals and institutions of the receiving society”. Integration is a series process of interaction and participation which begin the moment someone arrives in a place, whether they are staying for months or for life. They occur in different domains, economic, social, cultural relations, each of which is related and which need to be considered together and not in isolation.
Every receiving country must have laws to control migration and to integrate the migrants into the society. The British Mass Media gave strong critics to the issues. The development of policy frameworks for addressing new migration population had been slow in catching up with the new situation. Since 2006, there had been considerable growth in the evidence base and body of practice, but it continued to lag behind the reality. The Mayor published London Enriched, his Strategy for Refugee Integration, in December 2009. It set out to define and implement his vision for refugee integration in London. That vision saw “refugees living in security and dignity, sharing with all Londoners the same chances for a decent quality of life and the opportunity to contribute to London and its development”. Many Londoners gave their views, through a range of events designed to attract people of all ages and backgrounds. There are some basic integration themes.
The English language acquisition is absolutely central to integration, but not along. The authorities believe that migrants can attend courses, programs in local communities, enhancing pedagogy by building in personal and community development, good contacts with employers, and gearing learning toward facilitating integration processes, including labor force integration and social interaction. Clearly, this is a priority area for London, but a more sustained analysis is required in order to set out clear policy interventions at a London level.
Equal life chances for all and partnership working are two strategic issues. Achieving this means balancing the universal entitlements to which all migrants have rights, regardless of status, with a sense of fairness at the local level.
Migrants have limited access to social housing and are concentrated in the private rented sector. Perceptions of migrants jumping the housing queue are related to wider shortages in the housing market. Migrant are also more vulnerable to homelessness and to poor accommodation conditions in the rented sector.
Migrants face health inequalities because of the barriers they experience in access to health care, including restrictions on their entitlement, institutional barriers, language barriers and (for irregular migrants) avoidance of contact with officialdom.
Community development is a key to migrant integration. Evidence shows that a number of stakeholders have ability, skills and experience to offer migrant integration, including local authorities, the voluntary and community sector, community development, as well as trade unions and employers.
At a national and regional level migrants contribute positively to the economy and to income levels. Migration may have a slight negative impact on job vacancies and wages. Overall migrant employment rates do not differ considerably from non-migrants. Traditionally the natives complain on the migrants have taken their working places.
According to the questioning made by London Questions&Answers (an organization works for Wikipedia) the predominant jobs among the Polish are a builder, a plumber or a locksmith. The people from Asia are drivers of double-deckers or sellers of spices. The Caribbean migrants are showmen and DJs, the Philippine people are cleaners… and the Russians are marvelous brides.
It is worth mentioning that there are a number of barriers to the processes of migrant integration, including English language proficiency, barriers to full labor market participation, to suitable accommodation, and to accessing health care, as well as lack of clarity on entitlements.
A strategy for migrant integration in London needs to take account of local differences, including the inner and outer London patterns, but can take advantage of the ways in which Londoners, as citizens of a world city, often have a positive attitude towards diversity.
On the authority level migrants need targeted employment support, planning for emerging health needs, support for migrant community organizations, the development of the evidence base, regulation in the private rented housing sector and in the low pay economy, embracing migrants in the statutory duty to promote equality, and harnessing partners in civil society.
From our point of view the enlarging of ethnic and religious content of population leads to the tension in the society.
The census of London’s population 2011
The census of population is a count of all people and households in the UK, undertaken by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) in England and Wales, the government department that provides statistical services. It is the only survey which provides a detailed picture on the entire population, and is unique because it covers everyone at the same time and asks the same core questions everywhere, making it easy to compare different parts of London. There has been a Census every ten years since 1801, except during the Second World War in 1941. The latest census of population was conducted on 27th of March 2011.
The census of population provides essential statistical information which enables the monitoring of demand and planning for public services.
According to the 2011 Census London’s population is 8,173,941 people. The data revealed that 2,998,264 people or 36.7% of London’s population are foreign born (application ). As such, migrants make up a third of population. It is also the region where migrants make up the largest proportion of the overall population in the world. London is also the region with the lowest proportion of people with no passport, at 8 per cent. The five local authorities with the lowest proportion of people with no passports in London are Kensington, Chelsea, City of London, Westminster, Camden and Brent.
London’s migrant population differs in some ways from London’s population as a whole. In terms of stock, the migrant population is younger than the total population in London. Migrants in London are more likely to be married or cohabiting, with dependent children.
Sociologists pointed that reducing of the Christians and the growth of Muslims are continuing. This is true for the religious tension in London. But still the largest religious grouping is Christian (48.4per cent), Muslims are 12.4 per cent, Hindus are 5 per cent, Jews are 1.8 per cent. It is remarkable that those of no religion are 20.7 per cent, and people with no response are 8.5 per cent.
The current picture of international migrant in England and Wales using 2011 census is as follows.
Two key variables have been used to define international migrants: country of birth and passport held (to determine nationality).
The most common non-UK countries of birth in 2011 were India, Poland and Pakistan. Poland showed by far the largest percentage increase in the top ten countries of birth.
There were 4.8 million non-UK passports, of these, 2.3 million were EU passports.
Around half of all usual residents on census day who were born outside the UK last arrives in the UK between 2001 and 2011.
The largest numerical increases in residents born outside were in London and the South East. London had both the largest proportion of usual residents born outside the UK (37% of its population) and non0UK nationals (24% of its population).
Some people born abroad will be UK citizens, either because their parents were UK citizens overseas at the time of their birth, or because they have been granted UK citizenship since arriving.
The riots in August 2011 in London
The disorder that took place in various towns and cities across England in August 2011 was unprecedented in the modern era because of the number of different incidents taking place in different locations over the same period of time. The riots began on 6 August 2011 after a protest in Tottenham, on the evening of Saturday 6 August, following the protest about the death of Mark Duggan, who had been shot dead by the police officer on Thursday 4 August. During Sunday 7 August, disorder occurred in other areas of London. Further disturbances took place in London on Monday 8 August, when the riots began to spread to other towns and cities, including Birmingham and Bristol. Things got so out of hand that the police lost control of London, and other cities as well. On Tuesday 9 August, the disturbances continued, spreading to cities including Reading and Manchester.
During the riots, business, homes and vehicles were set alight, shops were looted, the emergency services and television crews were attacked and five member of the public were killed. Over 100 buildings were destroyed. By 15 August 3,100 people had been arrested, of whom more than 1,000 had been charged. Along with the five deaths, at least 16 others were injured as a direct result of related violent acts. Shopkeepers estimated the damages at several million pounds (application ). The riots caused the irretrievable loss of heritage architecture.
Several countries issued warning advising caution to travelers visiting the United Kingdom during the riots.
The Sun called the scenes “shameful” and proposed that “with the London Olympics less than a year away, our reputation is being damaged at the worst moment”. It added: “This is anarchy, pure and simple. And it presents a serious threat to life and property”.
The Daily Telegraph’s editorial said: “what we have experienced in London and elsewhere since Saturday night is a wholly new phenomenon: violent disorder whose sole intent is criminal... In such circumstances, there can be only one response if the law-abiding majority is to be protected: the thugs must be taught to respect the law of the land the hard way."
In the article titled “UK Leader Blames Riots on Moral Collapse” the UK government blamed “social networks, flash mobs incited by social media, and the advent of these personal technologies allowing large groups of people to amass very quickly and overrun the police.”
The discussions in the Internet showed public opinion towards the events. “Have we become too tolerant in the name of tolerance? Have we become too politically correct to demand orderly conduct from the electorate? Have we gone too far out of our way to make everyone feel warm and fuzzy to the point at which we can no longer enforce our way of life and our laws in our civilization?” was asked by Lance Wilson.
It is important to analyze and understand why riots did not happen in some cities. Indeed, this is every bit as important as understanding why riots and looting did happen on other locations. For example, in Cardiff, there were only isolated attempts to mimic the riots in England. These variations need to be probed to discover whether there were characteristics in common.
A number of reasons including high levels of unemployment and a worsening economic crisis have been sited as the reasons for the outbreak of the British Riots of 2011. It is also a deepening lack of racial cohesion and discrimination against racial minorities. Another major contributor was a growing suspicion and animosity towards the police.
The statistics tell us that 76% of those who appealed before the courts for offences related to the disorder had a previous caution or conviction. The ministry of Justice data shows that of the 1.984 suspects 26 % were aged between 10 and 17. The Ministry of Justice stated: “Young people appearing before the courts came disproportionately from different areas.” According to the Office for National Statistics (ONS) 37% of suspects were migrants. So, we can conclude, that the riots had more criminal nature, than sociable.
But still the disorders excited much political debates and media attention. Some ideas went from tabloids headlines to the policy documents and changes in the House of Commons.
Changes in Migration policy in 2012
The changes concerned students first of all. It is clear, as youth took an active part in the riots in 2011.
Over the last decade or so the number of international students coming to the UK increased substantially. UK Higher Educational Institutions (HEIs) were encouraged by government to attract high fee-paying graduates. In addition, other education providers, such as language and vocational colleges and public schools also attracted large numbers of students. In the face of growing evidence that in some cases international students were being admitted for courses which did not exist and were instead entering the labor market illegally, it was inevitable that the government should take steps to bring the entry rout under closer control.
In April 2012 a number of changes were introduced, designed to reduce international student numbers, the changes were contentious with strong opposition coming from HEIs which have come to rely increasingly on fees paid by international students. There was also opposition from ‘feeder’ colleges, mainly language institutions, which provided pre-undergraduate foundation courses.
The new measures were:
- work placements were restricted to one-third of the course, unless the student is on a study abroad program;
- the time students can spend at degree level is limited to 5 years, with certain exemptions for longer courses at higher education institutions.
The government announced further developments to labor immigration policy, designed to increase selectivity. Prospective workers need to have a graduate level job and speak an intermediate level of English. In August 2012 the Minister for Immigration announced the further shortage of occupation list.
Other changes were: curtailment (cutting short the leave a migrant has if they fail to start to work or study); a new visitor route for small groups of professionals, artists, entertainers or sportspeople coming to undertake short-term remunerated activities (up to a month) without formal sponsorship.
Moreover, a new- comer will face the new financial requirements. The Migration Advisory Committee had been asked to advise on a minimum income threshold that would ensure that the sponsor could support his/her partner and any dependants without them becoming ‘a burden on the state’, the MAC considered different ways of defining and measuring this, finally calculating a gross income figure “at the point at which the family is not entitled to receive any income-related benefits”. Those using the family route to come to the UK must be capable of being supported by their sponsor and/or by their own cash savings or non-employment income.
From October 2013, all applicants for settlement will be required to pass the Life in the UK test and present an English language speaking. It is not obvious, therefore, how the new rules will affect inflow and outflow figures.
The Statement of Intent covers a range of issues, such as forced marriages, sham marriages and deportation of criminals.
In the previous chapter we considered the ways in which the changes had been carried out. As we could follow the changes, the UK government took the consecutive steps. Young people participated mostly in the riots in August 2011. The measures were taken within the year: to reduce the number of foreign students. Also the government changed labor immigration policy, inviting workers of skillful jobs or professionals, such as artists and sportsmen. Moreover, it made migrants pay for the arrival. It looks like insurance from similar disorders. With the help of statistics we proved that the riots had had some criminal nature, and the government announced of deportation of criminals. In addition to this, the knowledge of English would be required to every new-comer. In this we see an attempt to integrate migrants into the UK culture and society. This report points to unmistakable conclusion that the UK government worked effectively and considered.
Migration as a phenomenon of globalization was researched on the example of London, the migrant world capital. The scales of migration are so impressive that the experience of London needs to be studied, as well as the problems of integration. From time to time news reports migrants’ willingness to live on their own in London. For example, the demand of Muslims to cover women’s faces, when they are in the Muslims districts, or forced marriages. And it is always interesting to know how the British cope with a situation. The situation is unique as the natives in London are not the majority any more.
While working on the theme, we had a chance to think over such terms as globalization, multiculturalism and tolerance. In our opinion The Old Brits are the most tolerant nation in the world; they can respect other people’s rights, religions, privacies, and even customs, holidays and clothes. Will the New Brits be like them? What will dominate in their multicultural world: tolerance or traditions of New People of Her Majesty?
Notwithstanding the evident problems, the British continue to believe that “variety is better than monotony”.
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