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Научно-исследовательская работа "Роль английского языка в современном мире"
Муниципальное Автономное Образовательное Учреждение Домодедовская средняя образовательная школа №4 с углубленным изучением отдельных предметов
Кафедра английского языка
Научно-исследовательская работа на тему:
«Роль английского языка в современном мире»
Ученик 11 «Г» класса
Учитель английского языка
Table of contents
How did English language become international…………………….4
Short history of the English Language…………………………….4
Why should we learn English language?.........................................7
English in Travelling……………………………………………7
English and Jobs…………………………………………...……8
Internet and communication………………………………….…9
English in Culture………………………………...…………….9
Language is a unique possession of human beings. It is a God’s special gift to mankind. It comes next to the food and makes human beings superior from other species of the world. This is the language due to which all the businesses of the world are going on. There are thousands of languages spoken in the world but English is the most well-known language among those.
The British Council says "English is the main language of books, newspapers, airports and air-traffic control, international business and academic conferences, science, technology, diplomacy, sport, international competitions, pop music and advertising”.
According to the research, English has an official or special status in at least seventy-five countries with a total population of over two billion. English is spoken as a native language by around 375 million and as a second language by around 375 million speakers in the world. Speakers of English as a second language will soon outnumber those who speak it as a first language. Around 750 million people are believed to speak English as a foreign language and demand of this language is increasing every day. It is estimated that over two-thirds of the world's scientists read in English, three quarters of the world's mail is written in English, eighty per cent of the world's electronically stored information is in English and forty million users use it on the Internet."
Gustavo O. says, "English is an easy language. There are no accents, the tenses of verbs are simplified and the adjectives are invariable". You need English to travel around the world - it's a language almost everybody understands - so it's easier to communicate with people from different cultures and you must speak and understand English if you want a good job especially with information technology field like, computers".
So the purpose of our work is to understand the importance of English language in the modern world
Subject of our work will be an English language, its history
How did the English language become international?
History of the English Language
The history of the English language really started with the arrival of three Germanic tribes who invaded Britain during the 5th century AD. These tribes, the Angles, the Saxons and the Jutes, crossed the North Sea from what today is Denmark and northern Germany. At that time the inhabitants of Britain spoke a Celtic language. But most of the Celtic speakers were pushed west and north by the invaders - mainly into what is now Wales, Scotland and Ireland. The Angles came from "Englaland" [sic] and their language was called "Englisc" - from which the words "England" and "English" are derived.
Old English (450-1100 AD)
The invading Germanic tribes spoke similar languages, which in Britain developed into what we now call Old English. Old English did not sound or look like English today. Native English speakers now would have great difficulty understanding Old English. Nevertheless, about half of the most commonly used words in Modern English have Old English roots. The words be, strong and water, for example, derive from Old English. Old English was spoken until around 1100.
Middle English (1100-1500)
In 1066 William the Conqueror, the Duke of Normandy (part of modern France), invaded and conquered England. The new conquerors (called the Normans) brought with them a kind of French, which became the language of the Royal Court, and the ruling and business classes. For a period there was a kind of linguistic class division, where the lower classes spoke English and the upper classes spoke French. In the 14th century English became dominant in Britain again, but with many French words added. This language is called Middle English. It was the language of the great poet Chaucer (c1340-1400), but it would still be difficult for native English speakers to understand today.
Early Modern English (1500-1800)
Towards the end of Middle English, a sudden and distinct change in pronunciation (the Great Vowel Shift) started, with vowels being pronounced shorter and shorter. From the 16th century the British had contact with many people from around the world.
This, and the Renaissance of Classical learning, meant that many new words and phrases entered the language. The invention of printing also meant that there was now a common language in print. Books became cheaper and more people learned to read. Printing also brought standardization to English. Spelling and grammar became fixed, and the dialect of London, where most publishing houses were, became the standard. In 1604 the first English dictionary was published.
Late Modern English (1800-Present)
The main difference between Early Modern English and Late Modern English is vocabulary. Late Modern English has many more words, arising from two principal factors: firstly, the Industrial Revolution and technology created a need for new words; secondly, the British Empire at its height covered one quarter of the earth's surface, and the English language adopted foreign words from many countries.
Varieties of English
From around 1600, the English colonization of North America resulted in the creation of a distinct American variety of English. Some English pronunciations and words "froze" when they reached America. In some ways, American English is more like the English of Shakespeare than modern British English is. Some expressions that the British call "Americanisms" are in fact original British expressions that were preserved in the colonies while lost for a time in Britain (for example trash for rubbish, loan as a verb instead of lend, and fall for autumn; another example, frame-up, was re-imported into Britain through Hollywood gangster movies). Spanish also had an influence on American English (and subsequently British English), with words like canyon, ranch, stampede and vigilante being examples of Spanish words that entered English through the settlement of the American West. French words (through Louisiana) and West African words (through the slave trade) also influenced American English (and so, to an extent, British English).
Today, American English is particularly influential, due to the USA's dominance of cinema, television, popular music, trade and technology (including the Internet). But there are many other varieties of English around the world, including for example Australian English, New Zealand English, Canadian English, South African English, Indian English and Caribbean English.
b) English is part of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European family of languages. By year 1000, the English language consisted of approximately 40,000 words. Nowadays, the number has grown to more than 500,000. If we calculate the average of words created per century, this comes to 46,000. A great number of words found in the English vocabulary were borrowed from Latin, French, Low German, and the Scandinavian languages. We also know that some periods were more fertile than others: invasions, contact with other cultures, inventions, technological progress, music, fashion are some of the factors which have helped to enrich the language.
British colonialism in the 19th century and American capitalism and technological progress in the 20th century were undoubtedly the main causes for the spread of English throughout the world.
From around 1750 to 1950 the British Empire covered about a quarter of the globe. It was one of the most powerful empires, the world has ever known. The colonies gradually freed themselves but about fifty countries chose to keep a connection with Britain by belonging to the “The British Commonwealth”. English is spoken all over the Commonwealth either as a native or an official language, and the British monarch is the symbolic head of the association.
The USA has played a leading role in most domains for the last hundred years. At the end of the 19th century and first quarter of the 20th, it welcomed millions of European immigrants who had fled their countries ravaged by war, poverty or famine. This labour force strengthened American industries and development. The Hollywood film industry also attracted many foreign artists in quest of fame and fortune and the number of American films produced every year soon flooded the market. Before the Treaty of Versailles (1919), which ended the First World War between Germany and the Allies, diplomacy was conducted in French. However, President Wilson succeeded in having the treaty in English as well. Since then, English started being used in diplomacy and gradually in economic relations and the media. During the II World War, America intervened both militarily and economically to save Europe from chaos. From then onwards, the United States have consolidated their cultural, economical and technological power: inventions, rock and roll, the first man on the moon, the revolution of the Internet, the country's growing prosperity and commercial aggressiveness have contributed to the further expansion and importance of English in the world today.
Why should we learn the English language?
There are several factors that make us learn the English Language to go through in the current time. First of all, as I have already mentioned, it has International Standard, that’s why everyone needs to learn English in order to get in touch on International Level.
If we see Educational field, we will find much of the syllabus is written in English. Children are taught and encouraged to learn English on starting levels. And accordingly, as they promote to the next levels they study almost all the subjects in English.
We see the Internet and find more than 90% of websites written and created in English. And even when you see some sites in other languages, they also give you the option to translate in English. All the research and studies you find will be written and typed in English. All the information regarding each and everything contains the English Language.
There is another factor that makes English very important in this world is it is the easiest language of the world to learn. Many people think that it is very difficult and confusing. But I suggest them to start and learn only for a week and they will feel easy with English.
With good understanding and communication in English, we can travel around the globe. We get assistance and help in English in every part of the world. You can test it by on line travel.
Better you visit some offices, companies, governmental organizations, and other departments, and you will see the importance of English as they hire the professional staff after getting know that whether the people they are hiring are good at English or not. This is the company's will that their staff is not even well educated but also good English speaker, writer and Reader.
Those who are still unaware about the importance of English, they should start learning English as time will come when everything would be understood, spoken and written in English. Better watch some media and get the scope of English.
English in Travelling
For many people tourism is one of the most exciting activity in the world. It broadens our minds. We have an opportunity to meet interesting people, go sightseeing, and learn fascinating traditions.
Even if you go to another country where you don't speak the native tongue and the country's primary language is not English, you probably will be able to find someone who can speak at least a little English. More than 900 million people in the world are either native English speakers or speak English as a second language. If you know English, you have a chance to communicate almost anywhere you travel.
If you don't know the language of the country you are travelling to, you might not end up enjoying your trip. However, knowing English is enough to go by in most big cities in the world. All major airports have directions in their native language and in English.
English and Jobs
English is very important to find a good job.
The job market today is very competitive. If you learn English you will improve your chances of getting a dream job or simply a job that pays more. Many computer applications exist only in English; learning the language will help you use your computer more efficiently. If you own a business, English proficiency will help you grow it. All international business is done in English. You will be able to go to international business meetings and read international business newspapers and magazines.
Some businesses that deal with international clients and suppliers rely on English-speaking employees to help with day-to-day operations to interpret, translate and communicate directly with English-speaking customers and clients. Being fluent in English can improve employment opportunities. International business is done in English and all business today is international. So if you want to play, you have to know English — to contact other businesspeople, go to conferences, read international business newspapers and magazines, etc.
If you know English you can become a better scientist. You can contact scientists from other countries, go to international conferences, visit academic centers abroad. You can also learn about new scientific discoveries by reading papers, books, and magazines.
Almost all international conferences and competitions are conducted in English. For example, the Olympics and the Miss World contest. Diplomats and politicians from different countries use English to communicate with each other. English is the main language of organizations like the United Nations, NATO, and the European Free Trade Association.
We have asked some foreign companies about the problems which Russian employees face. We analyzed their demands and problem areas.
We have got the results:
79 % of people have difficulties in participation in meetings.
77 % of people have difficulties in communication with foreign business partners
74 % of people have problems with communication on the phone
70 % of people - in making presentations
54 % of people - in writing formal letters
48 % of people – in processing of information streams
40 % of people – in following oral and written instructions
32 % of people – in reading of specialized magazines
27 % of people – in documentation reading
So, we came to the conclusion that anyone who intends to work in a foreign company should pay attention to these skills.
Internet and communication
The main language used throughout the world on the internet is English. Most pages on the Web are in English. That's over a billion (1,000,000,000) pages of information! It's amazing that learning just one language gives you access to almost all knowledge on the Internet. The media that make up the Internet are overwhelmingly American in origin, so it is no wonder that the mother tongue of the Web is English. Four factors determine the degree to which a given language finds use on the Internet:
1. The number of users of the language
2. The extent of its use as an official language
3. The economic power of the language
4. The volume of information disseminated in that language
Today, English reigns supreme in all four respects. It is studied as a foreign language throughout the world and employed by a majority of Internet users. Of the 163 member nations of the U.N., more use English as their official language than any other. The easiest way to calculate the economic influence of a language may be to add up the gross domestic products (GDP) of all the nations where it is spoken. People who count English as their mother tongue make up less than 10% of the world's population, but possess over 30% of the world's economic power. Therefore, in terms of the quantity of transmitted information, English is the leader by far. After English, 26 nations in the U.N. cite French as their official tongue, 21 Spanish and 17 Arabic. Each of these three languages forms a sizable linguistic constituency on the Internet.
English in Culture
The English language is a wonderful language. It's the language of the great literature. It's the language of William Shakespeare, Charles Dickens and others. Half of the world's scientific literature is in English. The great German poet Goette once said, "He, who knows no foreign language, doesn't know his own one". That's why in order to understand oneself and environment one has to learn foreign languages.
Many movies and popular songs are in English. If you learn English, you will be able to watch Hollywood movies in original non-dubbed version, and you will understand what famous songs are about. Almost all international events are conducted in English, from the Olympic games to the Miss Universe beauty pageant. Knowing English will give you an opportunity to communicate with people from all over the world. You will be able to join interesting Internet discussions forum, share your ideas and learn new things.
Speaking a foreign language you can read papers, magazines and original books by great writers, watch satellite TV Programs.
You can read books by British or American authors, and books translated from other languages. Whatever you're interested in, you can read about it in English.
English lets you feel the culture of the world like no other language. With a good knowledge of the English language, you can do wonderful things:
Watch American and British films in the original. Once you try it, you'll never go back to dubbed versions!
Read great books. Every famous book was written in English or it was translated into English. There is an amazing number of titles — from classic plays like Hamlet to modern thrillers like Jurassic Park.
Enjoy English-language music more. Music is much better if you can understand the words.
Why is English important nowadays?
There are many reasons for learning English, whether it is for personal, study or work-related reasons.
- Communicate with people
English is the most commonly used language among foreign language speakers. Throughout the world, when people from different nationalities want to communicate, they commonly use English language. That is why we like to call it “the language of communication”. Moreover, speaking English will enable you to contact people from all over the world and to travel more easily.
- Push your career forward
All over the world, speaking English immediately opens up opportunities. Being able to communicate with foreign clients and business partners will provide you a more challenging position in your career.
You will also have the option to apply for jobs requiring English like for instance a Manager position. So get your dream job, start learning English!
- Get access to knowledge
English is also internationally recognized as the language of science. Most of the knowledge related to computer or health by example is in English. Being able to use English in your researches – especially on the Web - will give you unlimited access to knowledge!
- Enjoy art like never before
English lets you feel the culture of the world like no other language. Learning it will offer you the opportunity to do wonderful things.
English is the language of the Film industry and learning it means you will no longer have to rely on subtitles or dubbed versions. You will also be able to read books written by English-speaking authors in their original version. Last but not least, music is much better if you can understand the meaning. We are sure that you will be satisfied to enjoy English-language music more!
Moreover, English is an easy language to learn and to use. It is based on an alphabet and, compared to Chinese, it can be learned fairly quickly. So, learning another language isn't just about communication or professional purposes, it will also give you advantages you had never imagined. Learning English can change your life for the better!
The most spoken languages worldwide (speakers and native speaker in millions)
The statistic shows the most spoken languages worldwide. 1,500 million people worldwide speak English, of whom only 375 million are native speakers.
Spoken languages in the United States
The United States does not have an official language, but they use English, specifically American English, for legislation, regulation and other official pronouncements.
America is a land of immigrations and the languages spoken in the United States vary as a result of the multi-cultural population.
The second most common language spoken in the United States is Spanish or Spanish Creole, over 34,559,894 people spoke Spanish at home in 2008. While 2,465,761 Chinese speakers, 1,122,014 German speakers and 1,1225,014 Russian speakers were counted in the United States in 2008.
The primary language use among Hispanics in the United States in 2011, was English for 69 percent of third and higher generation Hispanics, whereas 61 percent of the first generation Hispanics were speaking primarily Spanish.
The percentage of people in the United States speaking a language other than English at home in 2012 varies from state to state. The state with the highest percentage of population speaking a language other than English is California, about 44.3 percent of California’s population was speaking a language other than English at home.
As of 2012, approximately 21 percent of the United States’ population was speaking a different language at home.
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