Fashion is something we deal with every day. Even people who say they don't care what they wear choose clothes every morning that say a lot about them and how they feel that day. One certain thing in the fashion world is change. We are constantly being bombarded with new fashion ideas from music, videos, books, and television from many countries. Mass Media shows us fashion from every country in the world. Fashion from one of them fashion influence of another one. Foreign and Russian fashion are elements of our culture and the British people, and they are also means of expressing emotions to other people. Fashion gives you a direct access to great spiritual riches of these people, it is a further window to the world and it is as an important path to understanding and cooperation of people. Knowledge of fashion means that a person has a sense of style, the ability to feel the richness and depth of culture of the people. The occurrence in space of a given culture, the attainment of its goals and ideals are necessary for these. Anyway fashion is a very common theme in the past and nowadays.
The purpose of my paper is to study fashion of English and Russian people a few centuries ago and now, to find similarities and differences in fashion of these countries and find out what people prefer to wear in these two countries. Fashion has always played an important role in lives of the English people and the Russian people. British became famous as “dandies” around the world. The comparison British clothes with their Russian equivalents can help to understand and learn more about country of the studied language. Today, when people talk about the dialogue of cultures the question of intercultural similarities and differences very important.
This study is an attempt to make a comparative analysis of English and Russian fashionable costumes. We will learn what was fashionable in the Middle Ages and what is fashionable in England and Russia now. I formulated the research aims as follows:
• To analyze the images of clothes of the British and the Russians.
• to compare the fashion in both countries.
• To conduct a social survey among the students of my school and find out what fashion means to them.
The subject of my research are clothing, shoes, jewelry, jewellery, accessories , fashion.
The relevance of this work is that now people have more opportunities to visit other countries. English is the main language for business or pleasure and you must learn it. It is important to know more about English traditions and customs and fashion in clothing, as the field of culture.
The practical significance of the work is the possibility of applying the results of the study under the topic «Clothes» for knowledge in the field of fashion.
I. The History of Fashion in Great Britain and The Russian Federation
1.1 Fashion of Great Britain and Russia in the past.
Women's costume of the first half of the XVI century of the British people had a form venturada: a tight bodice that conceals the shape of the breast, neckline was in the shape of a square; sleeve was tight from shoulder to elbow, with huge, wide funnel-shaped cuff. Sometimes, more often in the bourgeoisie people wore marloth swing from the neck dress that had no waist. The difference of English costume was a mix of two collars in the same dress: the milling machine (often cut in front) and at a high frame collar, had the characteristic shape of double semicircles. Costumes of the nobility were decorated with precious stones, pearls, embroidery, openwork and lace. The first shoes were made from soft leather or heavy fabrics (velvet, brocade) and had no hard soles. From the late sixteenth century shoes had little heels, and sometimes a thick sole (up to 30 cm thickness). These shoes were worn by women of a short stature. Initially, shoes were decorated with embroidery. But with the advent of the heel embroidery is replaced with rosettes of ribbon, which are mounted on the lift. Hats in the second half of the sixteenth century were few and wore them rarely: too richly adorned ladies made their hair using feathers, strings of pearls, veils. By the order of Queen Elizabeth, the middle class were not allowed to wear hats, hats became a privilege of the nobility. (Annex 1)
In Europe of the 19th century the fashion appeared for Empire style dresses with long sleeves and a reduced neck. People also used heavier fabrics – silk and velvet. The Victorian era came. At this time there is a return to corsets and wide skirts. But some innovations still in the English fashion of the 19th century were –very splendid sleeve appeared, perhaps the lushest in the whole history of ladies fashion. The silhouette of the dress began to resemble an hourglass – a full skirt on a crinoline, a narrow "corset" waist, lush sleeves. In fashion of the second half of the 19th century consists of fully-enclosed women's dresses with lace collar, ruffles, frills, smocking. It was allowed to open only faces and hands. Although going out without gloves and hats was considered as impropriety top .In the late 19th century in a fashion not only England, but throughout Europe there was a bustle. But it quickly became just a narrow dress with underskirt. An umbrella became a mandatory attribute of protecting from the sun – a tribute to fashion for pale "alabaster" skin. (Appendix 2 )
In lives of the Russian people of 16-17 centuries the basic and irreversible changes occurred in the epoch of Peter I. It should be noted that a foreign dress was familiar for representatives of Russian nobility in the XVII century. The development of relations with Europe led to the fact that Russia was driving diplomats and merchants, service in Russia was very beneficial for poor representatives of the European aristocracy. As consequence they travelled with their clothes and did not change their suist in a "barbaric" country. The singularity of their dresses attracted the attention of Russian boyars, and some had the desire to try the clothes on. At the court of Tsar Mikhail Fedorovich many attendants wore foreign dresses as own request and for participation in amusing games. The heir to the throne Alexis wore it? too. However, at the end of his Imperial reign, he issued a decree strictly forbidding the wearing of foreign costumes. But it was unable to change the thinking of he. In Russian fashion come irreversible processes. Presto took Fedor Alekseevich overturned the long wearing traditional Russian clothes (ignorados and Ohana) to the short coats of the Polish sample, recognizing the clothes more comfortable for being in public service .It was strictly forbidden to wear the foreign costume, and in Russia it was amended. It was forbidden to wear short coats and it was allowed to wear long, but these were coats that the Russians wore previously. Basically all changes related to the length of the garment, so it was impossible to describe certain features of words without pictures. Many Russian clothes were borrowed from Polish costumes, which were longer. French shorter clothing was prohibited. Then the Empress took over the fashion and subjects. Major changes in women's wardrobe concerned hats and picking of the costumes, while the men's suits varied in length. Reforms of the suit, held by Tsar Fyodor Alekseevich, were completed by Peter I. But it was not the reform of the Russian costume and full transition to foreign dress. ( Annex 3)
In the 19th century there was a start of the fashion for dresses of rectangular silhouette with strongly overestimated waistline in the so-called Empire style. But in the early 20-ies the hard corset again returned to vogue and starched petticoats were worn under dress. The dresses were slightly shorter and reminiscent of a narrow bell. By the early 30-ies appear dresses with dropped shoulder line, bulky and greatly widened in the upper part of the sleeves and wide skirt length of the bones. Fashion slim waist was supported by corsets, and wide sleeves and skirt with several petticoats were starched (sometimes their number reached 8) only to increase the effect. Then the mode entered the age of the second Rococo. Incredibly wide skirts were at a special frame – the crinoline. By the mid 70-ies tall, slender figures were in fashion and Russian fashion was not an exception. The dress, which skirt was crept back and was strongly draped, appeared. But cushions made of cotton or a small metal cage was fastened under the skirt to achieve more volume. This was the era of the bustle. It is worth noting that Russian fashion of the 19th century had its characteristic. In the middle of the century the force of the movement of the Slavophiles critically related to the imitation of Western trends. There was widely available pre-Petrine Russian clothing. Born of the so-called style "a La Russe". Women wear very simple, without any additional details of the dress. The bustle is replaced by a bow or a small drapery .Special popularity came to Pavlovsky shawls townsmen. (Annex 4)
1.2 Modern fashion is United Kingdom, and Russia
In the early twentieth century there was a popular "s" -shaped silhouette of the female figure, which was achieved using a special corset. English costume consisting of a jacket or jacket and skirt became an important item in the wardrobe of every woman. With the advent of straight skirts jackets became longer, they could be single breasted or double breasted, and often there were present asymmetry on the models, as in outerwear. Women of 20-ies in connection with world war began to make short haircuts, borrowed clothes from the male wardrobe, to master the male-dominated profession. But at the same time pants, coveralls, flight jackets were added into their wardrobes. Women had already tried on jumpsuits by20 years, doing men's work. Sport made them think that wearing pants and shorts they could get a better progress in it. The main women's trousers at the time were pajama pants. Pajamas, came to Europe from India and in the 20th they were at the peak of popularity. Also the first bathing suits appeared. Clothes in 50-ies - 60-ies was from the tissues to the cage, peas, stripes. Elegant gloves, bright cummerbunds, hats, classic handkerchiefs and scarves, voluminous hairstyles, curls complemented the image of hipsters or they collected hair in a bun with a bright headband . The modern English fashion of the 21st century traditionally holds the primacy in the ability to express themselves and to transform, the ability to realize and to express even the most thorny and controversial aspects of his "I" in clothing. There are some details that distinguish modern British dandies from committed to traditional and the classics prudish conservatives. These are leggings, sneakers and scarves, as well as cell and trench. Modern English fashion is lace tights and rough boots, shoes and classic suits, combined with each other, is extravagance, contrast, and classic. There is a traditional thinking, uncommon appearance and total self-expression. (Annex 5)
In Russia ladies ' clothes of the 20th century was worn until the first world war, then it was totally unacceptable in wartime. The women in the rear, needed a comfortable, functional things. From a woman's wardrobe disappeared corsets, silhouettes of clothing became simpler, dresses and skirts shorter. A new post-war rhythm of life dictated the birth of a new style. Women didn't want to return to old fashion standards. It was pleasant to loose dress without a corset, short, straight, soft low waist, zip, moved from the back to the chest, much more comfortable at work, in public transport, in queues. The length of women's skirts became shorter and shorter. In the early 1920s, fashionable length to the ankles was considered to be, in1924 – 1925, the hemlines were closer to the knee by 1927 and were lifted above the knees. Women with men participated in sports, rally, sat behind the wheel of the aircraft. Military times have changed the priorities of Soviet people, in the 40-ies of fashion temporarily "dies". Clothing style hipsters were in fashion of 50-ies - 60-ies,it was performed from the tissues into the cage, polka dots, stripes or colored materials. The hipsters complemented image with elegant gloves, bright cummerbunds, hats, classic handkerchiefs and scarves, small purses and, of course, flat shoes or high heels. The voluminous hairstyles, curls or gathered in a bun with a bright hair band or a bow completed the image. Some dandies emphasized the image with the contrasting points. (Annex 6)
In the 21st century, Russian fashion – a colorful and distinctive as her Motherland. Russian fashion of the XXI century fully compensates the oblivion to which it was committed in XX century. Today, Russian fashion designers are famous around the world. They are not afraid to experiment with form and color, to make references to the Soviet past, or to threaten the tsarist Empire: every time is a unique collection enjoying success not only in Russia but also abroad. "Mind Russia is not understood..." is it worth it? Just enjoy! Today, dandies have a unique opportunity to touch the historical heritage and fashion given the current trends, to create a unique image. (Annex 7) Browsing through related content, I learned that, indeed, Britain gave the world all conceivable fashion trends: vintage, street and classic. This majestic country is rightly called the Queen of trends. I would like to highlight some of the traditional trends (Annex 8):
Classic. At the end of the 18th century London was the capital of people's fashion. The bourgeoisie gave rise to the classics - coats, riding jacket, leather briefcases and, of course, hats. Well-known dandy was one of the first who began to set the tone for the entire upper light. In most cases, classic in England now is without experiments there are neither color nor cut. There are suits or sweaters under the throat, trousers, coats and sometimes an umbrella.
Vintage. Behind the classics vintage appeared. It was broken into fashion in the mid 20th century so rapidly that virtually all the collections of famous designers included elements of vintage fashion. Love of everything vintage is an attempt to revive the trends of previous years: high waist, colorful shirt, worn briefcases and moccasins straight from the 60-ies. English mods set an example to the world, taking the habit of walking on the shopping malls, and the flea markets in Portobello and in Campione.
Street, or in a simple "Street fashion". It unites things of different styles and from different eras. In any other big city there is a huge number of different Department stores and shopping malls, clubs, bars and restaurants. Boys and girls on the streets look very different, unusual, bright and extravagant. At first glance things don't mix, but in fact the kit looks in the end very harmoniously. It is very fashionable to wear men's jackets with a feminine dress or skirt. From outwear there is a popular coat in different shades, jackets and vests, coats. The clothes are very varied in color from black to red, yellow, blue, etc. Fabrics are very different, or rather all, except the jeans. The main thing is original and evoked slight imbalance of others.
The androgyny is a trend of English clothing of the last ten years. The fashion for androgyny came from the beginning of the 20th century, when Coco Chanel first stitched men's suit intended for Marlene Dietrich, that is why she became a style icon. This was the beginning of so-called unisex when women were first allowed by themselves to try on male clothes that became a symbol of emancipation. Today boys and girls wear the same things, paint their nails, hiding secondary sexual characteristics. English girls also adore romantic style – 40 - and 50-ies, dresses with floral print pants with a high waist, thick knitted cardigans, shawls and scarves and, of course, trench coats. Feet – rubber boots, shoes, "boots". Traditional trends of fashion in Russia: Classic, but with correction to the brightness and surprise. Baroque. It is a luxury and pretentiousness, rich fabrics, expensive lace, elegant embroidery, inlaid with precious stones. Baroque is more appropriate evening attire, Military. It is characterized by the attributes of military subjects in clothes. First of all, it's camouflage, khaki, uniforms, army footwear. Street. Street fashion of Russia every year becomes more interesting and varied. Street style urban fashion-mongers are very diverse, ranging from glam rock, casual, boho-chic, as well as the mixing of different styles from sports to business. Collection of Eugenia Album, Camilla Galiullina, Vita Kovaleva, Anna Vershinina. Safari; shorts, breeches, pants and shirts with short sleeve.
1.3 Attitude to fashion in the UK and in Russia.
Fashion (FR. mode, from lat. modus — measure, manner, way, rule, instruction) — temporary domination of a certain style in any sphere of life or culture. Currently people pay a lot of attention to fashion. London is one of the main cities, the birthplace of world fashion, where ancient traditions live in harmony with ultra-modern trends, there is a place for conservatism and the most unexpected innovative ideas. It is important individualism for the British fashion. In their unconventional and free style of dress there is a certain element of the game, and not adherence to framework rules and stereotypes that dictate glossy authorities. Understated elegance, eccentricity, romanticism is the characteristic features of English fashion. The love of tradition is easy to get along here with punk spirit of freedom and desire to experiment
In the UK the most famous colleges of vogue is Central Saint Martin's College (Saint Martin's). Today it is the most revered school of fashion and design. This school graduated from such masters of fashion: John Galliano, Alexander McQueen, Hussein Chalayan, Twiggy.
Fashion in Russia, despite great advances, at the moment has a local character. Russian designers do not sound in the whole world on such a Grand scale, as the Western creators of fashion. A great influence on the formation of style and fashion in Russia is also European Fashion Houses, and it always has been. But what a huge gap was made by the Russian designers over the last decade!
In Russia there is the Moscow textile Institute - the most respected school of fashion and design. Its graduates are recognised star of world podiums: Vyacheslav Zaitsev, Victoria Andriyanova and Julia Dalakian. This is true magicians, forcing to shine with new colors at every new show. Numerous works of Russian designers are characterized by their elegance and grace. Russian Fashion Week is the largest Fashion Week in Eastern Europe, which is only accessible by invitation. Through partnerships and projects between Russian Fashion Week and fashion events in Milan, Athens, London, Paris and other cities Moscow has become one of the most important European centers of fashion. Russian people choose good clothes appropriate to their individual style, and though being fashionable in Russia means "to have a lot of money", foreigners say that most Russians really look stylish, as if at any moment they need to see the light. Russian women wear high-heeled shoes every day, they find them the most comfortable and they feel real ladies in them.
II. Similarities and Differences in English and Russian Vogue
2.1 Analysis of fashion in Russia and the UK
Similarities: In England and in Russia in the period from the 16th to the 19th century it was very fashionable to have a slim figure and emphasize her corset. In both countries, there was the fashion to dress silhouette rectangular with strongly overestimated waistline in the so-called Empire style. Skirts at the same time were really lush to keep their fluffiness, the skirt was worn with many petticoats ,and sometimes a special frame – the crinoline ,special cushions made of cotton or a small metal cage. There were very lush sleeves. Dresses were adorned with lace collars, ruffles, frills, smocking, precious stones, pearls, embroidery, hollow out, as there were dresses, which skirts were getting back and were violently draped. Fashion is the bustle, but it quickly gives way to simple dresses and skirts in the style "à La Russe". (Annex 9) In 20 years women of both countries had to wear more loose dress without a corset, short, straight, soft low waist due to the onset of wartime, they began to make short haircuts to work in the rear, they needed comfortable, functional things ,silhouettes of clothing became simpler, skirts and dresses shorter . Women added to their wardrobe pants, coveralls, flight jackets. In such clothes it was much easier to work or exercise. (Annex 9) In fashion 50-ies - 60-ies there was the image of "hipsters", the clothes were made from fabrics in the cage, polka dots, stripes or colored materials. The image of hipsters was complemented with elegant gloves, bright cummerbunds, hats, classic handkerchiefs and scarves, small purses and, of course, flat shoes or high heels. The image was completed with voluminous hairstyles, curls or gathered in a bun with a bright hair band or a bow. Some dandies emphasized the image with contrasting points. In the 21st century both countries were not afraid to express themselves and to transform, to experiment with form and color, to create unique images. They can realize and express even the most thorny and controversial aspects of his "I" in clothing.
Differences: In the 16th to 19th centuries in England it wasn't proper to go out without gloves and hats, while in Russia these pieces of clothing were worn very rarely. It was very fashionable in England to have a pale "alabaster" skin, for the preservation of this skin color women wore parasols, and in Russia, umbrellas were worn only in rainy weather. In Russia the elements of the costume were taken from Polish dress, but in the late 17th century an alien costume went on and costume `s accessories were not taken from costumes of other countries. In the 20th century, pajamas came to Europe from India, and bathing suits in the 20s were in Vogue, and in Russia they were not. In the 21st century Russian fashion designers creating new images stick to costumes historical costumes that were in fashion for a long time, they used images of fur, different elements of the costumes of the ancient and middle ages, showing how they love their history and their country, and in England use a more light clothing, in checks, stripes, squares, polka dots or different fabrics. Sometimes even combine clothes of the wrong things to each other, showing your individuality, creativity and originality.
2.2 Factors influencing the choice of young people in the fashion world (based on survey results):
I decided to ask students of my school , what influences their choice of clothes and so that's what I got:
-- fashion magazines (a lot of them: "Yes", "City of Fashion" "Cool" "Quelle")
- a desire to imitate the stars and idols from the world of music, video, books, movies.
( In the 1980-ies of the attribute of every fashionista's steel lace and pearls thanks to the Madonna. In the 1990s, crazy popular hairstyle in the style of Jennifer aniston. Sarah Jessica Parker introduced the fashion Manolo Blahnik shoes). Not every fashionista can spend money on designer shoes or visits to star stylists, but let’s imitation a little closer to the image of celebrities. A strong impression on the fans produces a biography of the star.
Several years ago teenagers were called "MTV Generation" because of the obvious imitation of musicians and singers with the MTV channel. Now this trend is not so obvious and the current Teens are often called "Generation X" - advanced or improved
-the encouragement of friends, the ability to meet the requirements of the group, class
-parents ' advice (mum)
Conclusion: Dressing in accordance with the latest fashion trends that young people consciously or unconsciously decide a few tasks. Firstly, they stand out in comparison with adults. Secondly, they follow fashion in clothing for the youth - a way to feel their belonging to a society of peers, to his subculture, to adopt its "similarity at all". Thirdly, they have the desire to stand out among their peers, to affirm their "otherness."
I also did a survey of my classmates and I asked them the following questions and you can see the results of the survey:
Do you choose clothes based on practical reasons? Boys: 100% -Yes; girls: 83% - Yes ,17%-No Do you like to look different? Boys:44%-Yes, 56%-No ;girls:50%-Yes, 50%-No Do you spend a lot of money on trendy clothes? Boys:44%-Yes, 56%-No ;girls:33%-Yes, 67%-No
Do you like dressing to impress your classmates?
What is your attitude towards fashion?A) I don’t care about it B) I prefer wearing clothes which are fashionable C) I can wear cheap clothes and match them with expensive ones.
2.3 The most popular trends among young people
Fashionable clothing brands are associated with a designer name, company, goods and services, all of these components complement each other. It is easily recognizable name and logo, guaranteed quality, well-known, publicly accessible (from the point of view of possibility of purchase), kudos.
In great Britain there are popular brands such as: River Island, Burberry, Topshop, Peacocks(see Annex 10). English fashion brand Pepe Jeans manufactures denim clothing for Teens. Of the most popular brands it is important to note brands such as "Obey", "Ebау", "Supreme", Juicy Couture.We also have the brands: "Austin", "Gloria jeans", "blah", "YOUR». Teenagers often visit the departments of our stores, they can buy fashionable things, such as "the Park" is a warm jacket with a hood, similar to the hooded jacket ... It is rightly called "the hypnosis of youth", because almost every teenager dreams about it... or bomber, so like the Varsity jacket (University bomber) – the jacket became a kind of Board of honour. In colleges in the UK once noted various successes and awards for academic activity. The main mark is sewed on the left side a large letter (or several letters).Conclusion: Despite the fact that demand among teenagers are different brands that Teens consider Russian fashionable clothes with the same elements as the teenagers of the UK.
A key concept in adolescent fashion becomes a movement: the clothing must be comfortable to move always, regardless of classes. The second direction is freshness, and here present a riot of colors, from foam-white to rich purple.... In the selection of fashionable wardrobe attention is paid to accessories. A fun handbag, backpack, scarf or belt — that can give completeness to the image. The main thing is not to combine "adult" things with deliberately juvenile... Above this is an industry of teenage fashion in all countries... Fashion is big business. In buying, selling and producing clothing more people participate than in any other business in the world.
When working on a theme I found that there are more similarities than differences in the manner of dress of people of Russia and Great Britain. Clothing is a way of communication with people. For the modern man clothing - the ability to express himself, to show what he's capable of. It is easy to see that fashion trends in Russia and England are closely connected. "Clothes make the man", – this proverb is relevant both in the UK and in Russia. However, I use the word fashion, which always implied a constant and intellectually understandable enough desire to change all forms of culture, usually referring to clothes. Fashion history is as old as the history of costume. Fashion never stands still, it's been known, but is confirmed by our research. During the research I solved the task. In fact, all the changes went down in history, but we rarely return to the fashion of those times. Fashion, changeable and fickle and this is easily seen on the example of the UK. Women for many centuries wore dresses, changing their shapes and styles. After my research I found out that both Russia and Britain can be proud of the designers of fashionable clothes. Most English people don't think about fashion, in contrast to the Russian people. In Russia and in the UK there are similar styles (casual, glamorous, street) and trends (classical, street) fashion. When working on a theme I have also found that there are more similarities than differences in the manner to dress in Russia and Great Britain Clothing is a way of communication with people. For the modern man clothing - the ability to express himself, to show what he's capable of. It is easy to see that fashion trends in Russia and England are closely connected.
The list of literature
Androshchuk N. And. etc.”Technology of preparation for the exam in English.yaz.” -SPb: LLC “publishing house”, 2012
Kaufman K. I. English 9 class, ed. The “title” of 2007
Minyar - Beloruchev A. P. “answering exam questions”, 11 class. Ed. ”Exam”, Moscow 2003
Annex 10: The most popular brands
Номер материала: ДВ-496637
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