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Научно-исследовательская работа тема:"Пословицы и поговорки в России и Великобритании"
I. Variety, function and meaning of proverbs and sayings with images of animals in the English and Russian languages. 4
1.1 Animals in English and Russian proverbs and sayings 4
1.2Comparative analysis of proverbs and sayings with images of animals in Russian and English languages. 5
II.Differences and similarities of English and Russian proverbs and sayings according to its classifications and linguistic features. 8
2.1 Classification of sayings and proverbs in Russian and English languages. 8
2.2Linguistic cultural features of English and Russian proverbs and sayings with component "pet"…………………………………………………………………..11
2.3 Difficulties of translation…………………………………………………….17
The list of literature……………………………………………………………….19
A foreign language is an element of culture of one or another nation and it is also means of transfer to other people. It opens direct access to large spiritual richness of this nation, serves as an additional window into the world and as an important way to people`s mutual understanding and cooperation.
Knowing language means ability to feel richness and depth of the culture of a nation. Entering to the space of this culture, comprehension of its purposes and ideals are necessary for it. People`s wisdom and spirit manifest in its proverbs and sayings and knowledge of them contribute to better understanding of people`s thoughts and character. Comparison of proverbs and sayings of different peoples shows how much they have in common and this contribute to rapprochement. People`s rich historical experience, perceptions, abilities which are connected with work, way of life and culture are reflected in proverbs. Correct and appropriate use of them gives to speech uniqueness and expressiveness.
The purpose of my work is to learn English and Russian proverbs and sayings with images of animals. The animal world always plays an important role in the life of English people as well as in the life of Russian people. Englishmen are famous as “pet-lovers” all over the world. So this is natural that many proverbs and sayings of the English language are connected with animals. Humor, living wisdom, insightful sense characterize proverbs and sayings. So proverbs with images of animals can give a key to better understanding of national character of English people, their culture and history. Comparison of them with Russian equivalents can help to understand and learn more about our mother-tongue. Nowadays when people speak about the dialogue of cultures the question of intercultural similarities and differences is very actual because it is important how the part of culture which is reflected in proverbs and sayings expresses them. This study is an attempt to make a comparative analysis of English and Russian proverbs and sayings where names of animals are used, to found a connection between them, to classify them by thematic features. We learn why we buy a cat in the bag and what Englishmen buy in this case, who whistles in England when a cancer whistles on the mountain in our country, what animals are used more often in English and Russian proverbs and sayings, who are positive and negative characters in proverbs, who is a leader in English – everything speaks about national character of the country. So I formulated the aims of the research as follows:
To analyze imagery of animals in English proverbs and sayings and to compare it with images of animals in Russian.
To make a quantitative analysis of frequency of using the names of different animals in proverbs and sayings in both languages.
To identify possible classifications of them.
The subject of my study is more than 100 proverbs and sayings in the English and Russian languages.
Scientific novelty of the research consists in the attempt of analysis of imagery connected with using animals in proverbs of both languages.
Practical significance of the work consists in results, studied proverbs can stimulate us to the solution of communicative tasks.
Variety, function and meaning of proverbs and sayings with images of animals in the English and Russian languages.
1.1 Animals in English and Russian proverbs and sayings.
Proverbs and sayings are historical mirror of society and there are more images borrowed from the animal world in them. The man looked around and saw pets in a familiar surrounding objects. Thus, among the berries he found the wolf berries among, hare cabbage, snapdragons, mouse tail and blackberry.
Proverbs and sayings are the oldest genres of folklore. Saying is a genre of folklore, aphoristic concise, imaginative, logical and grammatically complete sentence with instructive meaning in rhythmically organized form. Proverb is a short trope, figure of speech, determining a phenomenon of life accurately, deprived of generalizing instructive meaning, unlike sayings. Speaking about animals in proverbs there are traits people`s character, their faulty and deformity.
1.2. Comparative analysis of proverbs and sayings with images of animals in Russian and English languages.
People of the world live on the same planet, developing under the general laws of history. Each nation has its own path and their own destiny, their own language and living conditions. In historical similarity of people's life we should look for the answer to the question of what is the reason of similarity, proximity fairy - tales of Russian and English peoples.
Culture of England and Russia is surprisingly diverse, each has deep roots and bright features. So it is more interesting to compare the two languages in terms of proverbs, looking as strong links and unique national flavor. Proverbs in the English and Russian languages can be divided into three groups.
1. More than one third of proverbs can be translated by "calques", that is a literal translation: a living dog is better than a dead lion.
2. Less than one third of proverbs has the same structure, but the images for expressing are different: Ворон ворону глаз не выклюет - "hawk does not eat hawks’ eye."
3. The last proverbs cannot be translated literally, as they differ in design and use of animals: honey catches more flies than a vinegar- доброе слово и кошке приятно."
The most interesting for the study, of course, are the sayings of the third group. It can be assumed that any proverb was created by a particular person or persons under certain circumstances, but for a great number of origins of old sayings were fully lost. Therefore, it will be told more correctly that the proverbs have a national origin, that their primary source is in the collective mind of the people. So exploring proverbs I explore the country and culture, consciousness and thoughts of people. As a result, it will be interesting to follow the general nature of proverbs of each language.
The Russian expression «когда рак на горе свистнет " is used to express the impossibility of any action. The English equivalent of this saying are two expressions - "when pigs fly" and "to wait till the cows come home"
It is clear that cancer cannot whistle, but why the cancer is, and why it is on the mountain. I cannot give a definite answer to this question. The expression in the English language seems much more logical.
In my opinion, it was impossible to choose a more overweight and clumsy animal, than a pig because it would never be able to fly. Thus, the rational English mind didn't found anything better than to combine these seemingly incompatible things - flight and overweight pig. If English people moved his proverb on Russian language we would have easily guessed what was going on and if we tried to translate our saying to our English-speaking friends, the answer would be an uncomprehending glance.
The equivalent 'to wait till the cows come home' seems even more logical. During the creation of this proverb the life of a simple Englishman was directly related to livestock. And people did not wrestle with coming up with the expression for the label phrases and took the plain and simple words. We can take the other phrase "buy a cat in a bag”. Literally, it means that if you buy at the market some animals, such as pigs, you should carefully check everything, or, otherwise you risk to find at home instead of a pig a mangy cat. In the English version it sounds like a proverb "never buy a pig in a bag"
Another difference between Russian and English proverbs is the breadth of the animals. In English proverbs pets living in the vicinity of a native speaker are often used, there is particularly common opposition of "cat-mouse". As a result, there is a Russian proverbs` opposition of "rabbit -wolf", which is absent in the English proverbs. It is interesting that the horse in proverbs - "international" animal.
Moreover, the use of animals in English people acts more rationally if this bird is just a bird, if the fish is the fish - and all. Russian man strives to do the same proverb more imaginative, intense, and even to the detriment of its simplicity: not a bird - a sparrow, crow, nightingale; not a fish - a pike.
Analyzing proverbs, we can conclude that the people of England are more practical, when the Russians complicate the interpretation of proverbs, make them more imaginative and effective.
Differences and similarities of English and Russian proverbs and sayings according to its classifications and linguistic features.
2.1 Classification of sayings and proverbs in Russian and English languages.
Classification of animals according to their popularity in the English and Russian Proverbs and sayings
The animals mentioned in proverbs more often:
The dog, the horse and the cat are mentioned more frequently among domestic animals in both languages. However, in this area there are some differences: for example, among the most popular animals in Britain are fish and poultry, and in Russia are wolf, bear, mouse.
The English typical proverbs:
1. Убить двух зайцев. Then kill two birds with one stone.
2. Яйца курицу не учат.-Never offer to teach fish to swim.
The Russians typical proverbs:
1. Старый волк знает толк.-An old ox ploughs a straight furrow.
2. Не убив медведя, шкуры не делят.-Never fry a fish till is caught.
(Appendix # 3).
Comparing the previous classification of the English and Russian versions of proverbs we can come to the conclusion that they differ in several characteristics, which in turn allows us to classify them as follows:
Classification of proverbs in terms of matches in the English and Russian languages:
1).Proverbs are the same in both languages:
The higher the ape goes, the more he shows his tail.
Чем выше взбирается обезьяна, тем виднее ее хвост.
(Appendix # 4).
2).Proverbs with minor differences:
A lazy sheep thinks its wool heavy.
Ленивой лошади и хвост в тягу.
(Appendix # 4).
3) Proverbs which are in two languages, but they differ from each other in structure:
Кукушка хвалит петуха за то, что хвалит он кукушку.
Claw me and I will claw thee.
(Appendix # 4).
In English and Russian Proverbs and sayings have their positive and negative characters. Using the classification presented below, the animals are divided into the following groups: Goodies for the Russian language, positive for the English language; Goodies for both languages, negative for both languages; negative heroes for the Russian language, negative for the English language.
Classification by the presence of negative and positive characters in the English and Russian Proverbs and sayings.
Comparing the two languages, there is the predominance of proverbs with negative (in Russian) or neutral (in English) color and much less of a role of positive connotations in proverbs and sayings.
Among the differences, we note the following: not all images of animals have the same emotional load in the proverbs and sayings of the languages. So, if the wolf and the bear are mentioned among the "negative leaders" in both languages, the negative images of "donkey" and "fish" are more typical of English proverbs and sayings, as "dogs" and "sheep" for the Russians. At the same time, "bird" and "dog" are positive images in English Proverbs and sayings, and in Russian are "cow" and "fish".
General positive images in both languages are "horse" and "horse".
1).Negative characters for both languages:
С волками жить – по - волчьи выть.
Who keeps company with the wolf will learn to howl.
(Appendix # 2).
2).Positive characters for both languages:
На послушного коня и кнута не надо.
A good horse is seldom spurred.
(Appendix # 2).
3).Positives for Russian:
Всякая рыба хороша, коль на удочку пошла.
All is fish that comes to the net.
(Appendix # 2).
4).Positive for English:
На своей улочке и курочка храбра.Every dog is a lion at home.
(Appendix # 2).
5)Negative characters for Russian:
Паршивая овца все стадо портит
There is a black sheep in every flock.
(Appendix # 2).
6)Negative characters for English:
Посади свинью за стол, она и ноги на стол.
Jest with an ass he will flap you in the face with his tail.
(Appendix # 2).
2.2Linguistic cultural features of English and Russian proverbs and sayings with component "pet".
In general, vast majority of English and Russian proverbs and sayings with a component "pet" is associated with images of animals such as dogs and cats. This is due to the fact that these animals were tamed among the first animals and they were constantly near the person.
The image of a dog
Comparative analysis shows that there are more proverbs and sayings with the component “dog” in English than in Russian (29 proverbs and sayings in English, and 20 - in Russian). Despite images of the pet coincide in the English and Russian proverbs, they are not completely identical.
Image of a dog is associated with a hidden danger in proverbs and sayings in both languages. For example: Beware of a silent dog and still water; Dumb dogs are dangerous Не буди спящего пса: пес спит, а ты мимо; Не ступай собака на волчий след: оглянется – съест и др. One of the main features of this pet is the skill to bark and it is also clearly reflected in the English and Russian proverbs: The dog barks, but the caravan goes on; One barking dog sets the whole street a-barking; What does the moon care if the dogs bark at her Собака и на владыку лает и др. На собаку можно свалить всю вину и наказать; Give a dog a bad name and hang it;Кому надо собаку ударить, тот и палку сыщет и др.
In both traditions dog is associated with old age, but if Russian proverbs are characterized by a positive connotation, the English are negative: An old dog will learn no new trick, стар пес да верно служит.
Other characteristics associated with this pet in English and Russian proverbs and sayings are very diverse and mostly do not match. Thus, in Russian proverbs the dog is associated with venality: Для продажной псины кол из осины; stupidity: Ус соминый, да разум псиный; своенравностью: Каждая собака в своей шерсти ходит.In English proverbs and sayings that image is associated usually with positive character traits: A good dog deserves a good bone; A dog that trots about finds a bone.
The image of a cat
The image of the other pet – a cat - is also characterized by a slight similarity, although the exact match is not demonstrated. The word “cat” is in 20 English proverbs and sayings. The cat was a symbol of witchcraft and evil in both countries and it is partly reflected in English and Russian proverbs and sayings. In English and Russian Proverbs and sayings this animal is characterized by scagliotti: Send not the cat for lard; The cat shuts her eyes while it steals cream; Чует кошка, чье мясо съела. There is the necessity to put an end to the mischief in Russian proverbs: Не все коту масленица, будет и великий пост.
The image is contrasted with the images of mice and dogs in the proverbs and sayings of the two languages under consideration : When the cat's away, the mice will play; Agree like cats and dogs; Отольются кошке мышкины слезы; Жить как кошка с собакой. This image is also associated with sham: Cats hide their clows; кошка спит, а мышей видит.
Other characteristics associated with this pet in English and Russian Proverbs and sayings do not coincide. So, the cat is associated with survivability in English proverbs and sayings : A cat has nine lives; and in Russian - with speciosity and naughty : влез кот на сало и кричит: «Мало»!
The image of a horse
A significant number of Russian and English proverbs and sayings is also connected with (20 Proverbs and sayings in Russian and in English). Both peoples used horse both in agriculture and as a vehicle away from home and at the hunt.
It should be noted proverbs and sayings which match in the meaning and form: look not a gift horse in the mouth; даренному коню в зубы не смотрят. A horse stumbles that has four legs; конь о 4 ногах и тот спотыкается; Don't change horses in midstream; коней на переправе не меняют.
In both languages the image of horse is traditionally correlated with its upkeep, care and usage: spur, saddle, cart, stable, grass etc.; bridle, reins, fodder, oats, etc. Meaning at its core is the same in the both languages: лошадь ест траву и овес, содержится в стойле, используется на пашне, ее запрягают, нужен кнут, уздечка и т.д.. However in Russian proverbs names of spurs and saddles are not represented as they are in English: Never spur a willing horse; I will either win the saddle or lose the horse; Set the saddle on the right horse. In English proverbs names of reins and bridles are not mentioned in contrast p На вожжах и лошадь умна; И золотые удила коню не милы.
Differentiation of English and Russian Proverbs and sayings in the reflection of components of the harness is that in Russian proverbs and sayings the horse is presented as drawn, and in the English as a horse. In both languages the horse is correlated with food: While the grass grows, the horse starves; Ретивому коню корм тот же, а работы вдвое.
More heavy, back-breaking work of a horse is reflected in Russian proverbs and sayings: Коня положили, да зайца уходили; Был конь, да изъездился. There are less of English proverbs and sayings about the plight of the horse and they are not so categorical: Never spur a willing horse.
Actions that can be performed by a horse are very similar in proverbs and sayings of the two languages. You can ride on a horse, it is possible to change it, lead it. In English proverbs it can be spurred and saddled, in Russian - to sit on it.
The image of a sheep
There are a bit of proverbs and sayings with the component "sheep" (13 Proverbs and sayings in Russian and 6 in English). As a rule, in both languages the sheep is associated with corruption, laziness and sense of herding: A lazy sheep thinks its wool heavy; If one sheep leaps over the ditch, all the rest will follow; одна паршивая овца все стадо портит; Без пастуха овцы не стадо.
There is the opposition of the sheep and the wolf in both traditions, and the image of a pet is associated with vulnerability: A lone sheep is in danger of the wolf; Не ставь неприятеля овцой, ставь его волком.
The image of a pig
Proverbs and sayings with the component "pig" are less common (10 Proverbs and sayings with this component in English and 7 in English), but it should be noted that the image of this animal in Russian and English languages are actually the same and carries a negative assessment: the pig is usually associated with careless, ignorant and unworthy person: cast pearls before swine; Метать бисер перед свиньями; Посадишь свинью за стол, она и ноги на стол.
However, there are some differences. In Russian proverbs and sayings this image is associated with stupidity and arrogance: У богатого гумна и свинья умна; Свинья только рыло просунет, и вся пролезет. In English proverbs and saying the need for careful validation of the animal before buying it is interpreted with the help of this component: Never buy a pig in a poke. The image of the pet can also be used to transfer the impossibility of any action, for example, when pigs fly; or unusual happening, for example, Pigs might fly if they had wings.
The image of a hen
Comparative analysis shows that in Russian proverbs and sayings the component "hen" is more common than in English (12 Russian proverbs and sayings and 4 English). In the Russian proverbs and sayings the image of hen is associated with hunger: голодной курице все просо снится; stupidity: умница – как попова курица; дай курице гряду – изроет весь огород; unpretentiousness: в марте курица из лужицы напьется. In Russian proverbs and sayings this image is also associated with poverty: Ни кола, ни двора, ни куриного пера. The only coincidence in Russian and English images of this pet is that the relationships between parents and children are interpreted with its help: Even one hen makes a busy; A black hen lays a white egg; Яйца курицу не учат.
In ancient times, the British hen was the attribute of many rites of passage and the underworld, it was a symbol of wealth and prosperity in the family. In English proverbs and sayings the image of that poultry is associated with the desired and the available: better an egg today than a hen tomorrow; and the need to make efforts to get the result: he that would have eggs must endure the cackling of hens.
The image of the cow.
The "cow" is used in Russian and English proverbs and sayings infrequently (8 proverbs and sayings in Russian and 5 in English). In addition, it is not the same in English and Russian traditions.
In the Russian proverbs and sayings the image of the cow is associated with harm and malice: Безрогая корова хоть шишкой, да боднет; Бодливой корове бог рог не дает. However, the importance of this pet is not questioned: Была бы корова, найдем и подойник. This suggests that the cow was significant in the economy. In the Russian proverbs and sayings this image is also associated with poverty: Привыкает корова и ко ржаной соломе. In the English proverbs and sayings this animal is associated with age, flexibility and necessity: The old cow thinks she was never a calf; If you agree to carry a calf, they will make you to carry the cow. As a rule, in the English proverbs and sayings the cow is opposed to the calf: A good cow may have an evil calf.
The image of a cockerel
Proverbs and sayings with the component "cockerel" are found in 7 proverbs and sayings of the Russian language and in 5 of English. The perception of the image of the cockerel as the bully is characterized for proverbs and sayings of both languages : It will be a forward cock that crows in the shell; That cockerel won't fight; young, Из молодых, да ранний петухом кричит.. Historically, it is motivated in different ways. Russian peasants have observed this feature in the process of breeding poultry, while in the English tradition, it is due to the fact that previously cockfights were very popular as a kind of spectacle.
In the proverbs and sayings of the both languages special attention is paid to the crowing of the cockerel as one of its main characteristics: As the old cockerel crows, so does the young; поп да петух не евши поют. It should also be mentioned that this image is universal; it is used with different concepts in different situations. So in Russian proverbs and sayings he can be correlated with success and pride: Кому повезет, у того и петух несется; Гордый петух стареет облезлым. In English proverbs and sayings fatalism and foolish courage is interpreted through this image: Let the cockerel crow or not, the day will come; A cockerel is bold on his own dunhill.
The image of the goose
The image of a goose is also rare in both languages (4 proverbs and sayings in Russian and 8 in English). It should be noted that the image in Russian and English are not the same.
The goose was the British symbol of marital fidelity in ancient times , he was equal to the beginning of all beginnings. However, in English proverbs and sayings goose usually symbolizes ignorance and laziness, and savagery: Geese with geese women with women; Feather by feather of a goose is plucked; A wild goose never laid a tame egg. This image is always negative: Every man thinks his own geese swans.
Russian image of the goose in proverbs is crafty, cunning, jinxed from accidents of a person: Прилетел гусь на Русь – погостит да улетит; Перо страшно не у гусака, а у дьяка.
The image of a donkey
The image of the donkey in both languages is quite rare, too (4 proverbs in Russian and 6 in English) It is associated with stupidity, stubbornness and willfulness: All donkeys wag their ears; Осла знать по ушам, медведя по когтям, а дурака по речам. This image has a negative connotation and is rare in the English and Russian languages as this pet almost was not used in the household, except that the British sometimes used it as a means of transportation, which explains the greater number of English proverbs and sayings with the component donkey. The cult of the donkey came to Europe from Asia, where this animal was of great importance, but in England and Russia, it failed in competition with the horse.
2.3. Difficulties of translation
Proverbs and sayings are interesting and varied, but it is not always possible to translate them correctly, keeping the meaning and content. Therefore, I consider it appropriate to disclose the subject of the difficulties of translation.
Proverbs and sayings are often found in various kinds of texts in English due to its brightness, imagery and emotion . However, when translating proverbs and sayings contained in the English texts into the Russian language difficulties are often met because their meaning cannot always be clear, and in the English-Russian and Russian-English dictionaries are not always given their interpretation.
It should be noted that many English and Russian proverbs and sayings multi-valued what makes them difficult to interpret and compare. The mandatory criterion was the coincidence of one of the meanings selecting Russian match to the English proverbs .It is important to remember that the English and the Russians, combining in different historical conditions, used different images to express the same or similar thoughts which, in turn, are not absolutely equivalently. It should be noted that in each language, there are phrases and expressions that cannot be understood literally, even if you know the meaning of each word and grammatical construction clearly. The meaning of this phrase remains incomprehensible and strange. The attempt of a literal translation of proverbs and sayings can lead to unexpected, often absurd result. For example, the English phrase:"not room to swing a cat "(literally: " нет места, чтобы размахивать кошкой ") corresponds to the Russian expression " яблоку негде упасть ".
Comparison of proverbs and sayings of different Nations shows how much these people have in common.
We can conclude that proverbs are the means of international communication. The help people of different nations to understand other people better.
In conclusion I can would like to emphasize that the study of proverbs and sayings which reflect national characteristics of country`s people of the learning language helps to:
-increase motivation to learn a foreign language;
-remove national barriers;
-to facilitate the entry into the space of the culture, understand its values and ideals.
During classification and comparative analysis of the images of animals in English and Russian proverbs and sayings causes of the similarities and differences in the images of animals have been identified. Among the main reasons for the differences between English and Russian Proverbs and sayings can be identified such as the lack of language similarities, especially the historical development of countries, the uniqueness of the traditions, manners, customs, mentality and character of the English and Russians; flora and fauna, ancient religious beliefs.
Despite the fact that the English and Russian languages belong to different groups, no close contacts between our nations and each country went his own way of historical development many folk sayings fully or partially overlap in meaning. This is how the axioms reflect the views of images of animals from human values.
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2.Даль В.И. Пословицы русского народа. СборникМ.,1984
3.Жаркова Т.И.,Синицких О.В.Отражение национального характера в пословицах и поговорках.
4.Иностранные языки в школе №1,2008
5.Кузьмин С.С.,Шадрин Н.Л Русско-английский словарь пословиц и поговорок
6..Кусковская С.Ф. Сборник английских пословиц и поговорок.
Мн. Выш. Шк.1987
7.Мартынова А.М. Пословицы. Поговорки. Загадки.
М., «Современник» 1986
8.Митина И.Е. English proverbs and savings and their Russian equivalents
Русские пословицы и поговорки и их английские аналоги.
9.Стефанович Г.А. Английский язык в пословицах и поговорках
Propotion of English and Russian proverbs and sayings
1.When the cat is away, the mice will play
Когда кот уйдет, мыши будут играть
Без кота мышам раздолье
2.A cat in gloves catches no mice
Кот в перчатках не поймает мышь
Без труда не вынешь рыбку из пруда
3.Curst cows have curt horns
Бодливые коровы имеют крученые рога
Бодливой корове бог рогов не дает
4.Pigs might fly if they had wings
Свиньи смогут летать, если у них будут крылья
Бывает, что и курица петухом поет
5.A bird may be known by its song
Птицу можно узнать по пению
Видна птица по полету
6.Hunger drives the wolves out of the wood
Голодный везет волков из лесу
Волка ноги кормят
7.He that fears every bush must never go a-birding
Тот, кто боится каждый кустик, никогда не должен ходить на охоту
Волков бояться - лес не ходить
8.Dog doesn’t eat dog
Собака не ест собак
Волк волка не съест
9.Every dog is a lion at home
Каждая собака лев дома
Всяк кулик на своем болоте велик
10.Every bird likes its own nest best
Каждой птичке нравится свое собственное гнездо
Каждая курица свой насест хвалит
11.All is fish that comes to the net
Вся рыба, что зашла в сеть
Всякая рыба хороша, коль на удочку пошла
12.Don’t look a gift horse in the mouth
Не смотри дареному коню в рот
Дареному коню в зубы не смотрят
13.Two dogs over one bone seldom agree
Две собаки редко соглашаются на одну кость
Два медведя в одной берлоге не уживутся
14.The scalded cat fears cold water
Обваренный кот боится холодной воды
Пуганая ворона куста боится
15.He that wants to beat a dog is sure to find a stick
Тот, кто хочет ударить собаку, тот и палку найдет
Кому надо собаку ударить, тот и палку сыщет
16.Don’t swap the horses in the middle of the stream
Не меняй лошадей посреди потока
Коней (лошадей) у переправы не меняют
17.He who makes himself an ass must not take ill if men ride him
Тот, кто хочет сделать себя ослом, не должен заболеть, если люди катаются на нем
Кто в кони пошел, тот и воду возит
18.A horse stumbles that has four legs
Лошадь спотыкается, которая на четырех ногах
Конь о четырех ногах, да и тот спотыкается
19.A black hen lays a white egg
Черная курица несет белое яйцо
Корова черна, да молоко у нее белое
20.Rats leave the sinking ship
Крысы покидают тонущий корабль
Крысы бегут с тонущего корабля
21.A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush
Птица в руках стоит двух в кустах
Лучше синица в руке, чем журавль в небе
22.Thought pigeons are little, but they can carry great messages
Хотя голуби маленькие, но они могут творить великие дела
Мала птичка, да коготок остер
23.Do not spur a willing horse
На послушного коня и кнута не надо
24.Barking dogs seldom bite
Лающие собаки редко кусаются
Не бойся собаки брехливой, бойся молчаливой
25.Let sleeping dogs lie
Позволь спящим собакам лежать
Не дразни собаки, так и не укусит
26.It’s a bold mouse that nestles in the cat’s ear
Смелая мышь та, которая залезет в ухо коту
Не клади волку пальца в рот
27.Nightingales will not sing in a cage
Соловьи не будут петь в клетке
Не нужна соловью золотая клетка, а нужна зеленая ветка
28.First catch your hare, then cook it
Поймай медведя прежде, чем продать его шкуру
Не убив медведя, шкуры не делят
29.All cats are grey in the dark
Все коты серые в темноте
Ночью все кошки серы
30.One swallow doesn’t make a summer
Одна ласточка не делает лето
Одна ласточка весны не делает
31.Jest with an ass and he will flap you in the face with his tail
Пошутишь с ослом, и он ударит тебя по лицу хвостом
Посади свинью за стол, она и ноги на стол
32.There is a black sheep in every flock
Одна паршивая овца портит целое стадо
Паршивая овца все стадо портит
33.Who keeps company with the wolf will learn to howl
Тот, кто дружит с волком, научится выть
С волками жить–по - волчьи выть
34.It’s foolish(ill)bird that fouls (files) its own nest
Глупая птица, которая сорит в собственном гнезде
Худа та птица, которой гнездо свое не мило
35.He that lies down with dogs must rise up with fleas
Тот, кто ложится с собаками, должен подняться с блохами
С собакой ляжешь, с блохами встанешь
36.The dogs bark, but caravan goes on
Собаки лают, караван идет
Собака лает, караван идет
37. Old birds are not to be caught with chaff.
Старые птицы не будут пойманы на мякину
Старого воробья на мякине не проведешь
38.An old ox ploughs a straight furrow
Старый бык делает прямую борозду
Старый конь борозды не испортит
39.The mouse that has one hole is quickly taken
Та мышь, у которой одна нора, быстрее поймана
Худа та мышь, которая одну лазейку знает
Classification according to negative and positive characters in the English and Russian languages
Positive characters for both languages
Negative characters for both languages
1.Лошадь (конь): Старый конь
борозды не испортит; Do not spur a willing horse; На послушного коня и кнута не надо; A horse stumbles that has four legs; Конь о четырех ногах, да и тот спотыкается; Кто в кони пошел, тот и воду возит; Don’t swap the horses in the middle of the stream; Коней (лошадей) у переправы не меняют; Don’t look a gift horse in the mouth; Дареному коню в зубы не смотрят.
1.Волк: Who keeps company with the wolf will learn to howl; С волками жить–по - волчьи выть; Не клади волку пальца в рот; Волк волка не съест; Волков бояться - лес не ходить; Hunger drives the wolves out of the wood; Волка ноги кормят.
2.Медведь: First catch your hare, and then cook it; Не убив медведя, шкуры не делят; Два медведя в одной берлоге не уживутся.
English negative characters
Russian negative characters.
1.Осел: Jest with an ass and he will flap you in the face with his tail; He who makes himself an ass must not take ill if men ride him.
2.Рыба: All is fish that comes to the net.
1.Собака: Собака лает, караван идет; С собакой ляжешь, с блохами встанешь; Не дразни собаки, так и не укусит; Не бойся собаки брехливой, бойся молчаливой.
2.Овца: Паршивая овца все стадо портит.
English positive characters.
Russian positive characters
1.Птица: A bird may be known by its song; Every bird likes its own nest best; A black hen lays a white egg; A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush; Thought pigeons are little, but they can carry great messages; Nightingales will not sing in a cage; One swallow doesn’t make a summer; Old birds are not to be caught with chaff.
2.Собака: The dogs bark, but caravan goes on; Let sleeping dogs lie; Barking dogs seldom bite; He that wants to beat a dog is sure to find a stick ; Two dogs over one bone seldom agree; Every dog is a lion at home; Dog doesn’t eat dog.
1.Корова: Корова черна, да молоко у нее белое; Бодливой корове бог рогов не дает.
2.Рыба: Всякая рыба хороша, коль на удочку пошла.
Classification according to popularity
Typical for English
Typical for Russian
1.Рыба: All is fish that comes to the net.
2.Птица: A bird may be known by its song; Every bird likes its own nest best; A black hen lays a white egg; A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush; Thought pigeons are little, but they can carry great messages; Nightingales will not sing in a cage; One swallow doesn’t make a summer; Old birds are not to be caught with chaff.
1.Волк: С волками жить–
по - волчьи выть; Не клади волку пальца в рот; Волк волка не съест; Волков бояться - лес не ходить.
2.Медведь: Не убив медведя,
шкуры не делят; Два медведя в одной берлоге не уживутся.
Classification according to coincidence
Coincidence with insignificant diferences
1. The mouse that has one hole is quickly taken= Худа та мышь, которая одну лазейку знает.
2. The dogs bark, but caravan goes on= Собака лает, караван идет.
3. He that lies down with dogs must rise up with= С собакой ляжешь, с блохами встанешь.
4. One swallow doesn’t make a summer= Одна ласточка весны не делает.
5. Who keeps company with the wolf will learn to howl= С волками жить–по - волчьи выть.
6. There is a black sheep in every flock = Паршивая овца все стадо портит.
7. First catch your hare, then cook it= Не убив медведя, шкуры не делят.
8. Nightingales will not sing in a cage = Не нужна соловью золотая клетка, а нужна зеленая ветка.
9. All cats are grey in the dark = Ночью все кошки серы.
10. Rats leave the sinking ship = Крысы бегут с тонущего корабля.
11. A horse stumbles that has four legs = Конь о четырех ногах, да и тот спотыкается.
12. Don’t swap the horses in the middle of the stream = Коней (лошадей) у переправы не меняют.
13. Don’t look a gift horse in the mouth= Дареному коню в зубы не смотрят.
14. He that fears every bush must never go a-birding= Волков бояться - лес не ходить.
15.Curst cows have curt horns= Бодливой корове бог рогов не дает.
16. When the cat is away, the mice will play = Без кота мышам раздолье.
1. An old ox ploughs a straight furrow= Старый конь борозды не испортит.
2. Old birds are not to be caught with chaff= Старого воробья на мякине не проведешь
3. Its foolish (ill) bird that fouls (files) its own nest = Худа та птица, которой гнездо свое не мило.
4. Let sleeping dogs lie = Не дразни собаки, так и не укусит.
5. Barking dogs seldom bite = Не бойся собаки брехливой, бойся молчаливой.
6. Do not spur a willing horse = На послушного коня и кнута не надо.
7. Thought pigeons are little, but they can carry great messages= Мала птичка, да коготок остер.
8. He who makes himself an ass must not take ill if men ride him = Кто в кони пошел, тот и воду возит.
9. The scalded cat fears cold water= Пуганая ворона куста боится.
10. Every bird likes its own nest best = Каждая курица свой насест хвалит.
11. Every dog is a lion at home = Всяк кулик на своем болоте велик.
12. Dog doesn’t eat dog = Волк волка не съест.
13. A bird may be known by its song = Видна птица по полету.
Differ from each other
1. Jest with an ass and he will flap you in the face with his tail= Посади свинью за стол, она и ноги на стол.
2. It’s a bold mouse that nestles in the cat’s ear = Не клади волку пальца в рот.
3. A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush = Лучше синица в руке, чем журавль в небе.
4. Two dogs over one bone seldom agree= Два медведя в одной берлоге не уживутся.
5. All is fish that comes to the net = Всякая рыба хороша, коль на удочку пошла.
6. Hunger drives the wolves out of the wood= Волка ноги кормят.
7. Pigs might fly if they had wings = Бывает, что и курица петухом поет.
8. A cat in gloves catches no mice = Без труда не вынешь рыбку из пруда.
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