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Научно-исследовательская работа ученика на тему "Влияние английского языка на русский язык в современном обществе"
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The influence of the English language into the Russian language in modern society Работу выполнила: Мубаракзянова Ильвина Ильнуровна МБОУ «Гимназия» п.г.т. Б. Сабы Сабинского муниципального района РТ, 11 класс Научный руководитель: Гумерова Гульнур Кутдусовна, учитель английского языка.
Features of the present stage of development of the Russian language in terms of borrowing Efficiency and rationality in comparison with Russian descriptive synonyms Computer vocabulary, vocabulary related to business, economics and management Borrowing by the media in connection with the intensification of contacts with foreign countries
Conclusion English words are borrowed everywhere In the modern world there are English words in the Russian language that are pronounced in the same way as in English Every day there are many Russian slang words that have English roots and Russian affixes We use traditional Russian word with a new meaning The greatest influence reached in advertising, in science, in politics, information technology, in the economy, with the fields of culture, education, sports, tourism and religion.
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Номинация «Проектная и творческая деятельность учащихся»
Подраздел: лингвистика и английский язык
Влияние английского языка на русский в современном обществе/The influence of the English language into the Russian language in modern society
Выполнила: Мубаракзянова И.И.,
ученица 11 класса
Руководитель: Гумерова Г.К.
The main part
The origin of the English language.
The origin of the Russian language.
The forms of active influence of the modern English language to the Russian language.
A lists of literature
English has been the main world language, especially for business communication (such as the UN and the EU). It is widely used, at least in 10 countries, reflecting the British cultural heritage. Geographically, it is mainly the North Atlantic ocean and the Indian Ocean. It's the native language of a half a billion countrymen and the second language of one and a half billion. According to the numbers of speakers English is the second after the Chinese. English is widespread among young people almost everywhere as an important educational, labor and immigration advantage.
Russian is the world language. It is used by residence in the territory of the Russian Federation, which is the largest state. The total number of Russian speakers in the world is about 167 million people, and about 110 million people speak Russian as a second language.
The aim of my research is : to find the main reasons, conditions and forms of active influence of the modern English on Russian.
There were several tasks to achieve this goal:
1) To give the determination of the foreign-language borrowings and to find the main reasons and factors of their origin.
2) To trace how the English language borrowings have spread among Russian and to study their main stages of development. And give some examples to show the importance of their use.
The topical question of my work is the influence of modern English language helps to enrich the Russian language, improving its communication capabilities. However, in some cases, the massive use of borrowings can lead to collapse of linguistic communication.
The methods of my work: literature review, the methods of study, the descriptive method, and some comparative analysis of the topic material.
The origin of the English language.
English (English. English, the English language) –the English language (the official language of England), of the US population (the official language of thirty-one states), one of the two official languages of Canada, Ireland and Malta, the official language of Australia and New Zealand. It is used as an official in some countries of Asia (India, Pakistan, etc.) and Africa. The English speakers in linguistics are called anglophones; especially this term commonly is spread in Canada( as a rule in the political context).
The English language refers to the Germanic languages of Indo-European family of languages. There are a number of native speakers (English - native) – about 410 million and speakers (including the Second Language) - about 1 billion people (by 2007).It is one of the sixth official and working languages of the UN.
There are some analytical expressions of grammatical meaning In the morphology of the language.
The order of the words in a sentence is strict. About 70% of the words in vocabulary are borrowings. Writing based on the Latin alphabet has been from the VII century (some additional letters were used in the early Middle Ages, but they lost their use). The traditional writing takes a significant place in spelling.
English has a huge lexical wealth: there are about 425,000 words in the Webster's Dictionary. This lexical richness in its etymology is distributed approximately as follows: the words of Germanic origin - 30%, words of Latin-French origin - 55%, the words of the ancient Greek, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, German, and etc. - 15%. The situation can be different if you appeal from the words in the dictionary to natural (living)dictionaries. You can only make some suppositions about oral vocabulary but as for the writing vocabulary this work have been done. The result for writing is 85% of German words from the total number of words in the text. As far as Chaucer –he had 90% of German words, Shakespeare had 86% of German words, Tennyson had 90% of German words. In scientific prose the percentage of German words is reduced to 75-80%. But if you do not take into account the articles, auxiliary verbs and postpositions as individual words, the proportion of words of Germanic origin falls. In writing it falls up to 25-40%, and as far as Shakespeare to 37%.
English spelling is considered as one of the most difficult in studying among the Indo-European languages. If we take the period of Renaissance period, it does not correspond to today's speech of the British, Americans, Australians and other native speakers. A large number of words in written form includes letters, that we don’t pronounce in reading, and, on the contrary, many of the spoken sounds have no graphical equivalents. So "rules of reading" have a high percentage of exceptions that they lose their practical meaning. The student has to study the writing or reading of almost every new word. That is why there must be the transcription of each word in the dictionaries. The famous linguist Max Muller called the English spelling as a "national disaster".
II. The origin of the Russian language.
The Modern Russian language is an extension of the Old Russian (East Slavic) language. The ancient language were spoken by Eastern Slavic tribes formed Old Russian nationality within the Kiev state in the IX th century .
This language has a great similarities with languages of other Slavic peoples, but it differs from others because it has some phonetic and lexical features. The origin of the Russian language goes back to antiquity. About the 2-1 thousand B.C. we can see Proto-Slavic language from a group of related dialects of Indo-European languages… (at the last stage - about 1-7 cc. - called Slavonic). Where did Pro-Slavonic people and their children live? It is a debate question. Probably the Slavonic tribes in the 2nd half of the 1st century B.C. and the beginning of A.D. occupied land from the middle reaches of the Dnieper River in the east to the headwaters of the Vistula River in the west, to the south of the Pripyat River in the north and partially-wooded steppe districts in the south in the 1st half of the 1st century Proto-Slavic territory has dramatically increased. In the 6-7 centuries Slavs occupied the land from the Adriatic Sea to the south-west to the upper reaches of the Dnieper and Lake Ilmen in the northeast Then Proto-Slavic ethno-linguistic unity has disintegrated. Three closely related groups were formed. They are eastern (Old Russian nationality), western (on the basis of which formed the Poles, Czechs, Slovaks, Sorbs, Pomeranian Slavs) and southern (its representatives - Bulgarians, serbohorvaty, Slovenes, Macedonians).
East Slavic (Old Russian) language existed from the 7th to the 14th century. In the 10 century there is a writing on this basis (Kirillov alphabet), which reached a high heyday (Ostrom gospel, 11 in .; "Sermon on Law and Grace" Kiev Metropolitan Hilarion, 11 in .; "Tale of Bygone Years", early 12th c .; "The Tale of Lay ", 12 in .; Russian Pravda, 11-12 cc.). in Kiev Russia (9 - early 12th centuries). Old Russian language has become means of communication of some Baltic, Finno-Ugric, Turkic, Iranian tribes and peoples. In the 14-16 centuries Southwest kind of the literary language was the language of the eastern Slavs state and the Orthodox Church in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and in the Moldavian principality. Feudal fragmentation, which contributed to the fragmentation of the dialect, the Mongol-Tatar yoke (13-15 centuries), The Polish-Lithuanian conquest led to the disintegration (collapse)of the ancient Russian people in the13-14 centuries. Then the unity of the ancient language had broken down There was formed 3 centers of new ethno-linguistic associations fighting for their Slavic identity: northeast (Great Russians), southern (Ukrainians) and western (Byelorussians). In the 14-15 centuries there were formed closely related, but independent East Slavic languages: Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian.
Russian language of the era of Muscovite Russia (14-17 cc.) had a complex history. Dialectal features continued to develop . 2 main dialect areas were formed – the north old Russian (approximately to the north of the line Pskov - Tver - Moscow, Nizhny Novgorod to the south) and the south old Russian (in the south of the pointed line to the Belarusian and Ukrainian regions) adverbs, which were stopped up each dialectal divisions. There were intermediate middle old Russian dialects, among which Moscow dialect played the leading role. At first it was mixed and then formed into a right system. The characteristics of it were: Akanje; the brightly expressed reduction of vowels without stress syllables; plosive consonant "r"; ending "-ovo", "-evo" in the genitive singular masculine and neuter pronoun in decline; solid ending "-m" verbs in the 3rd person present and future tense; forms of pronouns "I", "you" "self" and a number of other phenomena. Moscow dialect is gradually becoming a model and is the basis of the Russian national literary language. At this time in a living speech the final restructuring categories of time has come(past ancient times - aorist, imperfect, perfect and plus perfect completely replaced by a unified form on "-l"), loss of the dual number, previous decline nouns six basics replaced by modern types of declension, etc. written language remains variegated. Religion and the beginnings of scientific knowledge is mainly served the book-Slavic, Old Bulgarian origin, has experienced a noticeable impact Russian language, divorced from the popular spoken elements. Language statehood (the so-called business) had basically Russian folk speech, but it does not coincide with everything. It worked out clichés often includes net book items; its syntax, unlike spoken language was more organized, with large complex sentence ; the norms of all-Russian standards largely prevented the penetration of dialectal features. Written fiction and poetry was varied according to linguistic means. Since ancient times oral language folklore played a big role, served up all segments of the population before 16-17 centuries. Its reflection in ancient writing proved it (stories about Belogorodskaya Kissel, Olga’s revenge and others, "The Tale of time Years", folklore motifs in the "Lay", bright phraseology in "Supplication" Daniel the Exile, etc. ), as well as archaic layers of modern epics, tales, songs and other forms of folklore. Since the 17th century the first recording folklore started and book imitation to folklore, such as songs recorded in 1619-20 for an Englishman Richard James, lyrical songs Kvashnin-Samarin, "The Tale of Woe Misfortune" and others. The complexity of the language situation did not allow to develop the single and steady rules. There was not Single Russian literary language.
In the 17th century the national connections has come into existence and then the foundations of the Russian nation were laid. In 1708 there was a division of civil and Church Slavonic alphabet. In the 18th and early 19th centuries the secular writing was distributed and the church literature gradually drew back, and finally became a lot of religious rites, and its language has become a kind of church jargon. The scientific and technical, military, nautical, administrative and other terminology was being developed, which caused a large influx of Russian language words and phrases from the Western European languages. Especially from the 2nd half of the 18th century French had an influenced on the Russian vocabulary and phraseology. The collision of diverse linguistic elements and the need for general literary language led to the problem of creating a single national language norms. The establishment of these rules was gone in a struggle between the various trends. Democratically-minded sections of society sought a rapprochement with the literary language of popular speech, reactionary clergy tried to preserve the purity of the archaic "Slovenian" language, incomprehensible to the general public. At the same time, the upper classes began to study foreign words, that could litter the Russian language. The Great October Socialist Revolution and the building socialism in the USSR had an influence on the Russian language: vocabulary was renewed and grew, there were some changes in grammar, stylistics. Because of universal spreading of literacy and the rise of the cultural level of the population the literary language became the main means of communication of the Russian nation in contrast to the pre-revolutionary past, when most people spoke in the local dialects and urban common speech. The development of phonetic, grammatical and lexical norms of modern Russian literary language is regulated by two related trends: by traditions which are exemplary, and constantly by changing speech of native speakers. Established traditions - is the use of speech means in the language of writers, journalists, artists, theaters, masters of cinema, radio, television and other means of mass communication. For example, the exemplary "Moscow pronunciation", which became the all-Russian, developed in the late 19th - early 20th centuries in Moscow Art and Maly Theater. It changes, but its foundations are still immutable.
III. The forms of active influence of the modern English language to the Russian language.
The analysis of the language of contemporary literature and the mass media let us summarize the features of the current stage of development of the Russian language according to borrowings from the English language such as:
- English becomes the dominant language - donor;
- The activating of use the early borrowings takes place;
- There is a reinterpretation of the old borrowings towards to neutralize their negative connotations; in some cases, the process does not stop at the neutral point, but moved toward the positive, sometimes unreasonably positive connotations;
- There is a semantic (meaning) development of exoticism with a view to greater integration;
- There is a reorientation of borrowings from monosemantic plan to polysemantic words in the standard language;
- It has the main meanings of borrowing of English words because of their greater efficiency and rationality in comparison with Russian descriptive synonyms;
- some semantic (meaning) groups such as IT vocabulary, vocabulary on business , economics and management go to the first place .
- the process of assimilation of borrowings by the mass media with the intensification of contacts with foreign countries;
- one can see an initial stage of the moderation process of borrowing, which is based on the psychological characteristics of the transitional age.
There are some causes and factors of beginnings.
We can name some reasons of foreign borrowings:
1) There are new realities, new items, new concepts (marketing, publicity, brand);
2) new words mean phenomena (things)that previously were present in society, but did not have the appropriate designation. Nobody spoke about their existence. These words are mafia,racket;
3) a new word means what was called with the help of phrases before (rating - the position of the company, politician, transfer from the list of their own kind; image - the image of the "self", which creates a journalist, politician, fashion model, and others.);
4) new words shows the change of social role of object (office - office, office, savings bank - first savings bank);
5) borrowings of new words is the influence of foreign culture, it is the fashion of use foreign words.
The main reasons of the increasing prestige of the English language in Russia are the following:
-Strengthening and increase of the prestige of England on the world stage;
some weakness of the influence of the French language into the Russian language as a result of the War of 1812, freeing some space for the English language;
-Formation in Russian public opinion views on English as the language of progress and the free-thinking;
-The Creation of linguistic favorable conditions in a period of three centuries which simplify the borrowing of English words;
-Passion for English literature,which is explained going out of the English language from the closed circle of aristocratic to the broad strata of Russian society.
Major changes in modern Russian take place under the influence of the English language. The main reason is the active integration of Russia into the world community, in which the main language is English. Intensification of international relations in all areas of our lives, especially in the field of politics, economy, trade, science, culture, education, sports, tourism, religion and other fields demanded massive learning of the English language. A major factor in determining the active influence of English into Russian, is still expanding use in our lives bilingual Internet.
Influence of the English language reached in advertising. They used not only different Latin letters and individual words in Latin script (English, French, Italian, etc.), but even the whole phrases and sentences: Adrenalin Games (international competitions in Moscow in 2006.), Moscow Shoes (an international Fair of shoes), Logistics Company - New Moscow Taxi (ordered taxi), Moscow
Fashion EXPO (an International Exhibition of fashion goods in 2007.), Candy Can Do (TV commercial washing machine "Candy"), New Sybirian Syngas (musical group from Novosibirsk). At that time, no one paid any attention to the decision of the Moscow government that all advertisments and signs in the city should be in Russian, and discussion in the State Duma of Law Project about the protection of Russian didn’t give any results.
Let's try to summarize the causes and conditions of the growing influence of the English language to the Russian language today. First of all, it is expansion in all areas of contact with the outside world in which the main language of international communication is English.
In addition, the important factors are:
- A massive study of foreign languages;
- Extensive use of the bilingual Internet;
- The need to reflect the new realities of the Russian language in our life, for example, the appearence of the Internet, computers and mobile phones .
- The desire and the need to use the same words in a range of specialized communication, especially terms to ensure adequate understanding of, for example, in science and technology, economics, and finance and other areas;
- The desire to decorate the language with foreign words, and give of great importance to a speech, to raise its social status and show that using the language is in step with the times. A good example is the case of replacement of the words to new synonymous English ones that often has quite opposite effect and can cause the irritation.
The influence of the English language is the most active in those areas where linguistic communication is the most intensively on a large scale and mainly among young people, namely, in the language areas of the popular culture – the mass media (TV, radio, magazines, newspapers, advertisement), entertainment and music in the language of computer technology, the Internet, mobile phones, sports and retail trade. Active influence of English in the field of economy, science and technology is determined with providing a thorough understanding between parties, which has general interests and in many cases requires the same English-language terminology. Of course, there are some English words in the modern world such as: "girlfriend, boyfriend, weekend and happy end" they the same pronunciation in English. However, nowadays we see the influence of a different kind but very strong, and new words of the English language borrowed everywhere. Many of them are related to the field of computing. Some of them are used without any modifications, such as "upgrade, browser, e-mails, mailbox, provider, hacker, chat, user", etc. Many of the new words in the Russian language belongs to the economic sphere, for example, "coupon", "voucher", "broker" and others.
Every day there are many Russian slang words that have English roots and Russian affixes , for example: "mastdate" - which means "criticize" - comes from the English, «mustdie», «smiley" from the word «smile» (used in e-mail and text messages)
Sometimes we use the traditional Russian word with a new meaning. For example, the word "soap" in Russian. But in colloquial Russian the word means e-mail, because the Russian word "soap" is the same in pronunciation with the English word «mail». The young people’s speech are full of the English loans, for example "Wow!", "Cool", "dance" and others.
The greatest scope influence of English reached in advertisement. There we can use not only Latin letters , words and phrases, but even the whole sentences. For example, MOSCOW FASHION EXPO (International Exhibition of fashion goods in Moscow.) CANDY CAN DO (TV commercial washing machine "Candy").
In this work I tried to find the main reasons, conditions and forms of active influence of the modern English on Russian.
Thus, the feature of the present stage of development of the Russian language is the abundance of borrowings from the English language. It is connected with:
• the emergence of new concepts, new subjects in public life,
• using words indicating phenomena that previously were present in society, but did not have the appropriate designation,
• that the new word means what formerly was called with the aid of phrases;
• new words show the change of the social role of the subject,
•borrowings of new words were due to the influence of foreign culture, dictated the fashion for foreign words.
• the desire and the need of use specialized communication with the same words, especially some terms to ensure identical understanding ;
• the desire to decorate your language with foreign words, and give a great importance to your speech, to raise its social status and show that using the language is in step with the times.
The main reasons of the increased prestige of English in Russia was to strengthen and increase the prestige of England on the world stage, the use of English words for new objects, concepts of social life, passion for English literature in the broad strata of Russian society.
There are the main changes in modern Russian because of the active integration of Russia into the world community, in which the main language is the English language. Intensification of international relations in all areas of our lives, the use of bilingual Internet in our lives demanded massive learning of English. The influence of the English language is the most active in those areas where linguistic communication is the most intensively on a large scale and mainly in the youth, entertainment and music, in the language of computer technology, the Internet, mobile phones, sports and in retail trade.
I have made a survey of English words in Russian. I interviewed 100 people, of any age and social position. As a result, it was found that 82% of them know the English words in Russian and, moreover, often use them in everyday life. What had I seen? 18% of people who do not know English words in Russian, they are the old people . It is connected with the above reasons, only increased in recent years.
Forms of the active influence of the modern English into Russian:
• the use of words as they are spoken in English
•the use of words without changes
• the use of borrowings with English roots and affixes Russian affixes
• the use of traditional Russian words to the new value,
• the use of whole sentences in English.
The Influence of the English language into the Russian language leads to renewal and enrichment of the Russian language and improve its communication capabilities(opportunities). However, there is evidence that much of the population is not involved in these processes, and does not understand many English borrowings. Of course, it's great that we have an open society and can travel to different countries, communicate with different people and read a lot of books.
I am very happy that I have visited the country of my first foreign language- the United Kingdom of Great Britain .My knowledge of English , of course, helped me in communicating with foreigners. I made new friends. Visiting an English-speaking country helped me to complete my work.
We must not forget that it is important that each nation appreciated their native language and tried to avoid unnecessary borrowings
A lists of literature
1. English-Russian dictionary: In 2 Vols. Ok. 160,000 words / Auto. YD Apresian, IR Halperin, R.S.Ginzburg et al., Ed. Hand. IR Halperin and EM Mednikova. - 4th ed., Rev. - M .: Russian, 1987. - Vol. 1. - 956 p., V.2. - 925.
2. Russian-English dictionary: accompanied by a brief statement on English grammar and a pronunciation. / Comp. AI Smirnitsky, ETC. Gorbunov, OS Akhmanova, ZS Profitable et al., Ed. Hand. AI Smirnitsky. - 25 th ed. Stereotype. / Ed. OS Akhmanova. - M .: Russian Language, 2002. - 768 p.
3.Problems and methods of comparative linguistics and foreign language teaching: Collection of articles / Editor. Ed. PRIOR TO. Dobrovolsky. - M., 1991. - 103 p.
4.A literature encyclopedia 1929 - 1939 / Auth. MA Corned beef.
5.The Russian language of the late twentieth century (1985-1995). M., 1996.
6.Krysin L.P.A Word in modern texts and dictionaries. Essays on Russian vocabulary and lexicography.
Knowing of English words in Russian language
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