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Инфоурок / Иностранные языки / Другие методич. материалы / Обучающие тексты для подготовки к сдаче части 5 "Говорение" в формате ЕГЭ.
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Обучающие тексты для подготовки к сдаче части 5 "Говорение" в формате ЕГЭ.

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Some of our dreams are very strange and don't make sense at all. When we sleep, some areas of our brain are active while others are not. Scientists have proved that the frontal lobes that control emotion, memory, and experiences are active, but the areas that control rational, logical thought are not active at all. Our dreams depend on our emotional state as well. When we are depressed, we usually have dreams which make our sleep disturbed. When we fear something, we may have a nightmare. We can experience intense feelings while sleeping: a sense of exhilaration, joy and excitement or anxiety, trepidation and alarm. The more we think about a person, the more likely we are to dream about him. If we are preoccupied with some problems, we will continue thinking about them while sleeping. That's why the Chinese say, 'What you think during the daytime you will dream at night'.

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All parents want their kids to be successful and happy and they try to find names with characteristics. Some parents choose names which mean richness such as Darius, Daria, Edwina, Pluto, Richmond and Donald. They believe that a name can mold a child's personality, give strength, wealth or wisdom. Nowadays parents are more likely to search out less common names for their children. For example a girl in Washington was christened Merry Christmas and her surname was Day. Most names have a meaning. For example Victoria comes from a Latin word 'victoria' meaning 'victory'. Margaret derived from Latin Margarita, which was from Greek 'margarites' meaning 'pearl'. Diana means 'heavenly, divine'.


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There are a lot of stressful events in our lives, such as divorce, losing a job or having difficulties at home or at work. But changes for the better can also cause stress, like a new baby, a wedding, and a new house. Pupils and students often face stress from problems at school, poor relationships with peers, strict and demanding teachers, exams and many other problems.

Feeling stressed many people try to find some distraction and to escape their problems. They begin overeating, smoking, drinking, and even taking drugs. But junk food, cigarettes, sleeping pills and alcohol don't help. On the contrary, they make things much worse and more difficult to patch up.


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People react to stress in different ways. Some of us are more vulnerable to stress than others. People who are always angry, impatient and mistrustful may have more stress-related physical problems.

It is very important to try to avoid stress or at least to minimize it. That's why it is essential to notice early signs of stress and to remove some of its causes. If you catch the trouble early, the problem may be easy to fix.

One of the best ways to cope with stress is to keep a sense of humor in difficult situations. Wise people say that laughter is the best medicine for all diseases. It increases blood flow and it may reduce the risk of heart disease. Besides, laughter makes the body release pleasure chemicals.


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People's dreams have various scripts but there are some common themes. For example most people dream about flying, being chased, falling or not being able to move. People have always sought meaning in dreams and considered them to be predictions of the future. There are a lot of books trying to interpret our dreams and to explain what the future holds. So if we dream about being chased, we are running away from something in real life. A dream about crossroads symbolizes that soon we will have to make an important decision about business or love. Finding money may symbolize a birth. Crossing a river means a fundamental change of lifestyle. Dreaming about a rainbow predicts good news.


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Artificial intelligence (AI) is invading the world. In the 90s and early 21st century AI achieved its greatest success. There are more and more jobs which humans leave to robots such as exploring another planet, defusing bombs, exploring inside a volcano or just doing boring household chores like cleaning. Computers can perform a lot of functions: they can control cars and planes, give us the news, play chess and football or compose music. Many factory jobs are performed by industrial robots nowadays. It has led to cheaper production of various goods, including automobiles and electronics. Industrial robots have little resemblance to a human being.


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Artificial intelligence has successfully been used in a wide range of fields including medical diagnosis, stock trading, robot control, law, scientific discovery and toys. Industrial robots are also used for packaging of manufactured goods, transporting goods around warehouses or hospitals or removing tiny electronic components with great accuracy, speed and reliability. Robots can move around, sense and manipulate their environment, predict the actions of others and exhibit intelligent behavior. Scientists are interested in designing robots that resemble a human.


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Are robots our best friends or are they dangerous? It is still very difficult to answer this question. Some futurists believe that artificial intelligence will fundamentally transform society. Ray Kurzweil has calculated that desktop computers will have had the same processing power as human brains by the year 2029, and that by 2045 artificial intelligence will have reached a point where it is able to improve itself. Other futurists and science fiction writers have predicted that human beings and machines will merge into powerful cyborgs - humans with significant mechanical enhancements. Many people fear that highly intelligent robots may take over and destroy the human race.


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Mobile phones have changed people's lives. They give us an opportunity to stay in touch and to be reachable everywhere. If you are going to be late, you can just call your relatives, friends or colleagues or send them a text message. It is very easy and comfortable, especially for the busy modern lifestyle. So a mobile phone has become a vital part of our daily lives and it is difficult to imagine how people lived without mobile phones in the past.


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The modern mobile phone is a more complex version of the two-way radio which was a very limited means of communication. As soon as the callers moved out of range of each other's broadcast area, the signal was lost. In the 1940s, scientists began using a number of radio masts located around the countryside to pick up signals from two-way radios. A user would always be within range of one of the masts. If he moved too far away from one mast, the next mast would pick up the signal. Scientists called each mast's reception area a separate 'cell'; this is why mobile phones are also called 'cell phones.


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The most commonly used data application on mobile phones is Short message service (SMS). It is a wireless service that enables to send and receive short messages to and from mobile telephones. It is interesting to know that the first SMS text message was sent from a computer to a mobile phone in 1992 in the UK, while the first person-to-person SMS from phone to phone was sent in Finland in 1993. SMS messages have a number of advantages. Firstly, SMS is a rather cheap and quick method of communication. Secondly, SMS messages are non-intrusive. In comparison with a call they do not interrupt a person if he or she is in the middle of a meeting and can't answer you right now.


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As long as there has been language, there have been names. Through naming we differentiate one person or thing from all others. In Christian societies the child is christened in church. He or she is given a name and accepted into the religion. In the past it was considered unlucky for anyone outside the family to hear the name of the baby before he or she was christened. Some Australian Aborigines keep their name a secret and always use a nickname as they believe that if someone finds out their name, they will have control over them. In China names are believed to reflect the character of a person. Many girls are given names that signify beauty. Boys are given names that reflect strength and good health. In some countries, name choices are regulated by the government.



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Дата добавления 25.11.2016
Раздел Иностранные языки
Подраздел Другие методич. материалы
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Номер материала ДБ-389930
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