Открытый урок по английскому языку на тему “Traditions and Customs of the UK. Halloween”
Группа 3 курса: СПЛС-1-08
Преподаватель: Законова Татьяна Александровна.
Цели и задачи:
Познавательные: формирование социокультурной компетенции; знакомство с Культурой Америки и Англии через традиционный праздник - Halloween.
Развивающие: развитие памяти, внимательности, сообразительности, творческих способностей, догадки, способности к анализу текста, умения сформулировать и аргументировать свою точку зрения, формирование дедуктивного мышления;
Воспитательные: развитие чувства уважения к иноязычной и собственной культуре.
1) развитие и совершенствование умений аудирования с целью извлечения необходимой информации из текста;
2) развитие и совершенствование умений аудирования с целью полного понимания информации из текста;
3) развитие и совершенствование умений просмотрового, селективного чтения, а также чтения с целью полного понимания информации из текста;
4) развитие и совершенствование грамматических и лексических навыков и умений;
5) развитие и совершенствование умений неподготовленной диалогической речи;
Оборудование: компьютер, презентация «Halloween», раздаточный материал, DVD-проигрыватель.
Приветствие. Организационная минутка.
Введение. Ознакомление студентов с темой и планом занятия.
Презентация студентов на тему “Halloween” с использованием компьютера.
Текст по истории Хэллоуина. Дискуссия в форме «вопрос-ответ».
Студенты получают карточки с темой, на которую необходимо составить диалог, используя раздаточный материал.
Каждый студент получает карточку с набором слов, которые необходимо расставить в таком порядке, чтобы получилось предложение. Затем все зачитывают свои предложение в такой последовательности, чтобы получился полный текст о том, как делать фонарь из тыквы, так называемый Jack-o-lanterns.
7. Игра – составление слов.
9. Просмотр видео “The Haunted History of Halloween” и последующая дискуссия.
Did you know?
Our ancestors celebrated New Year on November 1st. They celebrated their New Year’s Eve on October 31st. Samhain (pronounced “sow-in”) marked the end of the “seasons of the sun” (Summer) and the beginning of “the season of the darkness and cold” (Winter).
Neither the word Halloween or the date 31 October are mentioned in any Anglo-Saxon text indicating that it was just an ordinary day a thousand years ago. From the Medieval period (1066-1485) through to the 19th century, there is no evidence that 31October was anything else other than the eve of All Saints Day.
All Saints Day – 1 November
In the year 835 AD the Roman Catholic Church made 1st November a church holiday to honour all the saints. Although it was a joyous holiday it was also the eve of All Souls Day, so in Medieval times it became customary to pray for the dead on this date.
Another name for All Saints Day is “All Hallows” (hallow is an archaic English word for “saint”). The festival began on All Hallows Eve, the last night of October.
What similarities are there between the Celts and Halloween?
The Celts believed the evil spirits came with the long hours of winter darkness. They believed that on that night the barriers between our world and the spirit world were at their weakest and therefore spirits were most likely to be seen on earth.
The Celts built bonfires to frighten the spirits away, and feasted and danced around the fires. The fires brought comfort to the souls in purgatory1 and people prayed for them as they held burning straw up high.
The fires of Halloween burned the strongest in Scotland and Ireland, where Celtic influence was most pronounced, although they lingered on in some of the northern counties of England until the early years of the last century. Bonfire celebrations moved to 5th November.
In England the day of fires became 5th November (Bonfire Night), the anniversary of the Gunpowder plot of 1605, but its closeness to Halloween is more than a coincidence. Halloween and Bonfire Night have a common origin – they both originated from pagan times, when the evil spirits of darkness had to be driven away with noise and fire.
In Lancashire, “Lating or Lighting the witches” was an important Halloween custom. People would carry candles from eleven to midnight. If the candles burned steadily the carriers were safe for the seasons, but if the witches blew them out, the omen was bad indeed.
In parts of the north of England Halloween was known as Nutcrack Night. Nuts were put on the fire, according to their behaviour in the flames, forecast faithfulness in sweethearts and the success or failure of marriages.
Halloween was also called Snap Apple Night in England. A game called snap apple was played where apples were suspended on a long piece of string. Contestants had to try and bite the apple without using their hands. A variations of the game was to fix an apple and lighted candle at opposite ends of a stick suspended horizontally and to swing the stick round. The object was to catch the apple between the teeth whilst avoiding the candle.
Many places in England combined Halloween with Mischief Night (celebrated on 4 November), when boys played all kinds of practical jokes on their neighbours. They changed shop signs, took gates off their hinges, whitewash doors and tied door latches.
Another tradition from which Halloween customs might have come from is a ninth century European custom – souling. It was a Christian festival where people would make house calls begging for soul cakes. It was believed that even strangers could help a soul’s journey to heaven by saying prayers, so, in exchange for a cake they promised to pray for the donors’ deceased relatives.
Jack-o-lanterns – Pumpkin Lanterns
There are hollowed out pumpkins with a face cut into one side. People once carved out beets, potatoes and turnips to use as lanterns on Halloween. Nowadays we carve out pumpkins.
According to an Irish legend, jack-o-lanterns were named for a man named Jack, who could not enter heaven because he was a miser. He could not enter hell either, because he had played jokes on the devil. So instead, he had to walk the earth with his lantern until Judgment Day.
Fire was very important to the Celts as it was to all early people. In the old days people lit bonfires to scare away evil spirits. They believed that light had power over darkness. In some places they used to jump over the fire to bring good luck. Today we light candles in pumpkins and then put them outside our homes to frighten away witches and ghosts.
Apple Bobbing (Duck-Apple)
The Roman festival for remembering the dead was also in October. During this time, the Romans remembered their goddess, Pomona. She was the goddess of trees and fruits, and when the Romans came to Britain, they began to hold these two festivals on the same day as Samhain. Apple games probably became associated with Halloween because of this.
We play the game bobbing for apples, in which apples are placed in a tub or a large basin of water. The contestants, sometimes blindfolded, must take one bite from one of the apples without using their hands. It’s not permitted to edge the apple to the side of the bowl to get hold of it.
The tradition of dressing in costumes for Halloween has both European and Celtic roots. On Halloween when it was believed that ghosts came back to the earthly world, people though that they would encounter ghosts if they left their homes. To avoid being recognized by these unclean creatures, people would wear masks when they left their homes after dark so that the ghosts would mistake them for fellow spirits. To keep ghosts away from their houses on Halloween, people would place bowls of food outside their homes to appease the ghosts and prevent them from attempting to enter.
Trick of Treat
Halloween was a time for making mischief – many parts of England still recognize Halloween as Mischief Night – when children would knock on doors demanding a treat and people would disguise themselves as witches, ghosts, kelpies and spunkies in order to obtain food and money from nervous householders.
Questions to the discussion:
When was New Year celebrated in ancient times?
Do you know how the Celtic New Year was called?
Was Halloween an ordinary day thousand years ago?
What is the other name for Halloween?
What custom was on this date in Medieval Period?
Did the Celts believe in evil spirits?
What did the Celts do to frighten the spirits away?
What is celebrated in England on the 5th of November?
What customs of Halloween do you know?
What game would you like to take part in?
How and when do British people celebrate Mischief Night?
What is “souling”?
How do people make Jack-o-lanterns?
What do you know about real Jack?
Why was fire so important for ancient people?
Who was Pomona for Romans?
What do people usually dress for Halloween?
What custom in Russia has the similarities with English custom “Trick or treat”? What is it? What do children get up to on this date?
What do people do to keep the ghosts away from their houses?
Темы для диалогов (работа в паре):
Карточка 1. Soon is Halloween! Would you like to go to the party and to dress up?
With pleasure – с удовольствием; sounds great – звучит заманчиво; what’s up – как дела?; what would you like to dress? – что бы ты хотел(а) одеть?; see you - пока; have a nice day – хорошего дня.
Карточка 2. Would you play “Snap Apple” at the party?
What’s up – как дела?; how is it going? – как дела?; what do you think of the party? – что ты думаешь о вечеринке?; how do you find the party? – как тебе вечеринка; are you enjoying the party? – тебе нравится вечринка?; what about to play…? Как насчет того, чтобы поиграть в…?; sounds great! –звучит заманчиво!; lets’ go! – идем!; come along – идем!
Карточка 3. Trick or Treat!
What’s up?/How is it going? – как дела?; what a nice dress! – какой чудесный костюм!;
Do you want sweets? – не хочешь конфеток?; with pleasure - с удовольствием!;
Карточка 4. What are you going to do on Mischief Night?
it’s time to play jokes – время разыгрывать; what are you getting up to? – что ты затеваешь?; I am going to whitewash the doors – собираюсь выбелить двери; to tie the latches – закрывать двери на щеколду; to take the door off the hinges – снимать дверь с петель; to change the shops signs – менять магазинные вывески; to scare people – пугать людей
Карточка 5. Did your nuts crack successfully?
To put nuts in fires – класть орешки в костры; I’d like to marry this year – я хотела бы выйти замуж в этом году; the nut cracked successfully/unsuccessfully – орешек треснул удачно/неудачно; lucky you are – счастливый (ая); don’t be upset – не грусти; you can change your life yourself – ты сам(а) можешь изменить жизнь; as for me I don’t believe in superstitions – я же не верю в суеверия.
Карточка 6. Do you know how to make jack-o-lantern?
What’s up?/How is it going? – как дела?; soon is Halloween – скоро Хэллоуин; I’d like to make a lantern – хочу сделать фонарик; do you know how to make jack-o lantern? – ты знаешь как сделать этот фонарик?; yes of course – конечно; pumpkin – тыква; take – взять; cut – вырезать; eyes – глаза; candle – свечка; light – зажигать.
Карточка 1. pumpkin, a, take, huge, yellow, or, small
Карточка 2. everything, prepare, you, for, making, need, jack-o-lantern
Карточка 3. first, the, carve out, pumpkin, wash, and, it
Карточка 4. cut, then, eyes, the, a, with, knife
Карточка 5. a, a, and, mouth, nose, cut, that, after
Карточка 6. holes, cruel, make, and, scarry
Карточка 7. take, a, then, candle, it, and, light
Карточка 8. the, the, inside, pumpkin, candle, put
Карточка 9. is, jack-o-lantern, ready, you, and, can, put, in, the, it, house
Карточка 10. can, the, pumpkin, you, put, near, house, your
Карточка 11. helps, pumpkin, the, avoid, to, evil spirits
Карточка 12. the, put, bowl, sweets, with, near, pumpkin, the
Карточка 13. don’t, to, dress, ghost, witch, or, like, forget, a, a
Карточка 14. now, have, can, you, a, rest, enjoy, and, Halloween.
S O T H G
H C W T I
E E A H W L N L O
D Y A C N
A S B T
U I M N P P K
M C E U S O T
E D R S I P
C A K B L C T A
1 Purgatory – is a place where souls are temporary punished for venial sins. After they have been punished enough, they are permitted to move on to heaven.
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