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Открытый урок по английскому языку"Левостороннее движение в мире"
Департамент образования и науки Брянской области
ГАПОУ «Брянский техникум машиностроения и автомобильного транспорта имени Героя Советского Союза М.А. Афанасьева»
Открытого урока по английскому языку
«Левостороннее и правостороннее движение в мире »
на заседании ЦК общих гуманитарных и
социально-экономических дисциплин ____________/Ю.Н. Крупенина
«____» ___________2016 г.
План-конспект урока по английскому языку.
Тема : Левостороннее и правостороннее движение в мире.
Цели и задачи:
- активизация знаний, умений и навыков, полученных студентами ранее на уроках английского языка;
- развитие навыков аудирования;
- развитие навыков монологической речи;
- развитие навыков диалогической речи;
- совершенствование грамматических навыков по теме "Passive Voice"
- развитие умения употреблять грамматические конструкции в устной и письменной речи.
- развитие мышления, памяти, творческой фантазии в процессе решения речемыслительных задач;
- расширение кругозора студентов;
- развитие навыков самостоятельного поиска и применения нового материала об особенностях движения в своей стране и в мире.
- стимулировать развитие познавательных интересов
- формировать положительную мотивацию к обучению
- воспитывать уважение к точке зрения однокурсников.
Тип урока: комбинированный
Межпредметные связи: история, география, правоведение, страноведение, правила безопасности дорожного движения, устройство автомобиля.
Форматы и методы работы: применение компьютерных технологий на уроках иностранного языка позволяет оптимизировать, индивидуализировать и модернизировать процесс обучения. Появляется возможность организации различных форм работы на уроке, развития навыков исследовательской деятельности, повышается наглядность представляемого материала, тем самым повышается мотивация обучаемых к обучению. Развивается познавательный интерес учащихся, поддерживается их активность на всем протяжении занятия. Формы работы в формате Power Point: отработка произношения, повторение лексического материала, обучение монологической и диалогической речи, отработка грамматических явлений и навыков. Закрепление знаний умений и навыков с помощью информационно-компьютерных технологий.
Оборудование: Мультимедийная установка, кроссворд для проверки домашнего задания, вопросы к тексту для контроля навыков аудирования, презентация по уроку, лексический, фонетический и грамматический материал.
1. Организационный момент. Введение студентов в среду иноязычного общения, снятие эмоционального напряжения: приветствие, рапорт дежурного, сообщение тем и целей урока.
2. Фонетическая зарядка.
Для фонетической зарядки были выбраны термины по теме "Движение" изученные ранее и встречающиеся в изучаемых на уроке текстах.
3. Контроль пройденной лексики. Для контроля ранее изученной лексики предложен кроссворд, содержащий ЛЕ по теме "Автомобиль".
4. Работа с текстом. Работа с текстом проходит в форме представления учителем материала и подготовленных студентами докладов (весь материал представляется в форме презентации).
5. Аудирование. Работа с незнакомым текстом. Представлены опорные ЛЕ к тексту. Текст читается 2 раза. Для контроля понимания услышанного предлагаются вопросы по форме, жанру и содержанию услышанного текста. Таким образом, студенты не только учатся воспринимать услышанное, но и учатся определять стилистический анализ текста (определение формы и жанра текста).
6. Отработка и контроль грамматических навыков. Проводится поэтапное повторение грамматического материала "Passive Voice". На каждом этапе после повторенного материала предлагается выполнить упражнение в тестовом варианте. Развитие навыков самоконтроля и взаимоконтроля - студенты оценивают себя сами либо друг друга.
7. Подведение итогов урока. Выставление оценок, обобщение пройденного, домашнее задание - составить тезисы для устного зачета оп теме "Движение".
Фонетическая зарядка (сл. 1)
As a phonetic training I propose you to revise the terms of our theme "TRAFFIC"
right-hand traffic - правостороннее движение
left-hand traffic - левосторонне движение
to ease - облегчать
a head-on collision - лобовое столкновение
a vehicle - транспортное средство
a configuration - конфигурация
to overtake - обгонять
a maneuver - маневр
a misuse - злоупотребление
a curb - обочина
a direction - направление
an oncoming - встречное движение
a roundabout - кольцевое движение транспорта
a pedestrian crossing - пешеходный переход
RIGHT AND LEFT HAND TRAFFIC (сл. 2)
The teams right-hand traffic and left-hand traffic refer to regulations requiring all bidirectional traffic to keep either to the right or left side of the road, respectively. This is fundamental to traffic flow that it is sometimes referred to as the rule of the road. This basic rule eases traffic flow and reduces the risk of head-on collision. Though originally most traffic drove on the left worldwide, today about 66.1% of the world's people live in right-hand traffic countries and 33.9% in left-hand traffic countries. About 72% of the world's total road distance carries traffic on the right? and 28% on the left. (сл.3)
Universally each country specifies a uniform road traffic flow left-hand traffic (LHT) in which traffic keeps of the side of the road, or right-hand traffic (RHT) in which traffic keeps to the right.
Vehicles are manufactured in left-hand drive (LHD) and right-hand drive (RHD)configuration, referring to the placement of the driving seat and controls within the vehicle. Typically, the placement of the steering wheel is opposite to the rule of the road:
- LHT countries use RHD vehicle,
- RHT countries use LHD vehicle.
However? there are LHD countries where most vehicles are LHD and there are some countries with RHD and mostly RHD vehicles. Many countries permit both types of vehicles on their roads.
Road traffic (сл.4)
Signatory countries to the Geneva Convention on Road Traffic (1949) have agreed to a uniform direction of traffic in each country. Article 9(1) provides that "All vehicular traffic proceeding in the same direction on any road shall keep to the same side of the road, which shall be uniform in each country for all roads. Domestic regulations conctrning one-way traffic shall not be affected.
(сл. 5) In the past there were several countries which had different rules in different past of the country (e.g., Canada until the 1920s). Currently, China is the only country for which this is the case, as the bulk of it drive on the right, while the Special Administrative Region of Hong Kong and Macau drive on the left.
So Please tell me now: What does it mean "left-hand traffic" and "right-hand traffic".
Left-hand traffic (сл. 6)
- All traffic is generally required to keep left unless overtaking.
- Oncoming traffic is seen coming from the right.
- Right-turning traffic must cross oncoming traffic.
- Most traffic signs facing motorists are on the left side of the road.
- Traffic on roundabouts (traffic circles or rotaries) goes clockwise.
- Pedestrians crossing a two-way road look first for traffic from their right.
- The lane designated for normal driving and turning left is on the left.
- Most dual carriageway (divided highway) exits are on the left.
- Other vehicles are overtaken (passed) on the right, though in some circumstances overtaking on the left is permitted. (сл. 7)
- Most vehicles have the driving seat on the right.
- A left turn at a red light may be allowed after stopping.
- On roads without a footpath pedestrians may be advised to walk on the right.
Right-hand traffic (сл. 8)
- All traffic is generally required to keep right unless overtaking.
- Oncoming traffic is seen coming from the left.
- Left-turning traffic must cross oncoming traffic.
- Most traffic signs facing motorists are on the right side of the road.
- Traffic on roundabouts (traffic circles or rotaries) goes anticlockwise.
- Pedestrians crossing a two-way road look first for traffic from their left.
- The lane designated for normal driving and turning right is on the right.
- Most dual carriageway (divided highway) exits are on the right.
- Other vehicles are generally overtaken (passed) on the left, though in some circumstances overtaking on the right is permitted.
- Most vehicles have the driving seat on the left.
- A right turn at a red light may be allowed after stopping.
- On roads without a footpath pedestrians may be advised to walk on the left.
Teacher: Thank you. You are absolutely right. And now look at the screen. You see the quality of left-hand countries. (сл. 9)
Jurisdictions with left-hand traffic
Total: 76 countries, territories and dependencies keep left-hand traffic.
Today road traffic in the following seven European jurisdictions drives on the "Times New Roman, serif">The United Kingdom, Ireland, Isle of Man, Guernsey, Malta and Cyprus.
(сл. 10) Some Commonwealth countries and other former British colonies, such as Australia, Barbados, Hong Kong, Singapore, New Zealand, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, South Africa and Trinidad &Tobago drive on the left.
Bud others such as Canada, Gambia, Ghana, Nigeria, Sierra Leone and the United States drive on the right. Other countries that drive on the left in Asia are Thailand, Indonesia, Bhutan, Nepal East Timor and Japan. Most of the Pacific countries drive on the left, in line with Australia and New Zealand, with Samoa joining most recently, on 7 September 2009, the first country for three decades to change the side on which it drives.
Well, and what about the right-hand countries?
Jurisdictions with right-hand traffic (сл. 11)
- Australia (1935 - 1938)
- Canada (1920s)
- China, mainland (1946)
- Finland (1858)
- France (1789)
- Vatican City
Total: 163 countries and territories
(сл. 12) Several countries in Africa, Asia and South America have land borders where drivers must change to the other side of the road.
Where neighboring countries drive on opposite sides of the road, drivers from one to the other must change sides when crossing the border. Thailand drives on the left; since Myanmar (Burma) changed from left to right in 1970, 90% of Thailand's borders are with countries that drive on the right.
Other notable borders where a changeover is necessary are between Afghanistan and Pakistan, and between Sudan and Uganda.
The next phase of our today's lesson is THE LISTENING.
I'll read you a text twice. You'll listen it attentively. Then you'll have some questions to answer by this text. During my reading you'll see some words and expressions that help you to understand the text. Are you ready? Let's start.
Wrong-way driving is the act of driving a motor vehicle against the direction of traffic. It can occur on either one- or two-way roads (in the latter case, arising from driving on the wrong side of the road), and may be due to driver inattention or impairment, or because of insufficient road markings or signage. It can also occur due to drivers from right-hand traffic countries being unaccustomed to driving in a left-hand traffic country. Often people also drive in wrong direction intentionally because they missed an exit, for thrill-seeking, as a suicide attempt or as a shortcut.
It is a serious problem when it occurs on divided highways because of the high speeds usually involved. It the United States, about 350 people are killed each year in accidents caused by drivers headed in the wrong direction on the highway. Most drivers who enter a divided highway or ramp in the wrong direction correct themselves by turning around.
One of the aims of highway engineering is to reduce wrong-way driving.
Depending on the jurisdiction, wrong-way driving is a punishable offense. In New Zealand, wrong-way driving, even by accident, is counted as careless driving and can result in up to 5 year imprisonment and/or a fine up to NZ$10,000.
WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS. (сл. 48)
Wrong-way driving - езда по встречной полосе движения
motor vehicle - моторное транспортное средство
occur - случаться, происходить
inattention - невнимательность
impairment - повреждение, ухудшение
insufficient - недостаточный
intentionally - намеренно, умышленно
thrill-seeking - нервное расстройство
ramp - выкатиться
the aim - цель
jurisdiction - юрисдикция
punishable - наказуемый
imprisonment - тюремное наказание
1. What kind of text is it - dialogue, monologue, article, etc?
2. What is the genre of the text - Joke, scientific genre, colloquial genre, official genre?
3. What is this text about?
4. Retell this text in four sentences.
1. This text is an article. 2. The genre of the text is scientific one. 3. This text is about wrong-way driving, its causes and consequences. 4. Wrong-way driving is the act of driving a motor vehicle against the direction of traffic. The main causes of it are the following: to driver inattention or impairment, insufficient road markings or signage, a suicide attempt. Many people are killed each year in accidents caused by driver headed in the wrong direction on the highway, wrong-way driving is punishable offense. When borders coincide with natural barriers, such as mountains or rivers, the traffic volumes are relatively low and the number of border crossings is reduced. This is true of many borders where traffic changes sides of the road, especially in Asia.
Teacher. As we've told, there are some countries which have changed their traffic rules from one side to another. Are there are some reason for this change, you know.
The four most common ways of switching traffic from one side to the other at borders are First - Traffic lights.
For example - Friendship Bridge between Thailand and Laos, side (верхняя картинка) Second - Crossover bridges. (нижняя картинка)
For example - Lotus Bridge between Macau and mainland China
Third - Border roads intersect with roundabouts or other one-way traffic systems.
Man Kam To between Hong Kong and mainland China
Portas do Cerco between Macau and mainland China
Fourth - No automatic infrastructure (signposts and directions only), most commonly found at borders with low traffic volumes.
Teacher. As a rule there are some historical aspects which try to prove any in our modern life. What do you know about the history of right-hand left-hand traffic in the world?
Student 4. (сл. 14)
In 1998, archaeologists found a well-preserved track leading to a Roman quarry near Sidon, England. The grooves in the left side (viewed facing down the track away from the quarry) were much deeper than those on the right side. These grooves suggest that the Romans drove on the left, at least in this particular location, since carts would exit the quarry heavily loaded, and enter it empty.
(сл. 15) Some historians, such as Cyril Northolt Parkinson, believer that ancient travelers on horseback generally rode on the left side of the road. As more people are right-handed, a horseman would thus be able to hold the reins with his left hand and keep his right-hand free to offer in friendship to passing riders or to defend himself with a sword, if necessary.
(сл. 16) The first legal reference in Britain to an order for traffic to remain on the left was in 1756 with regard to London Bridge. The Highway Act 1773 contained a recommendation that horse traffic should remain on the left and this is enshrined in the Highway Act 1835.
(сл. 17) In the late 18th century, the shift from left to right that took place in countries such as the Unites Stated was based on teamster’s use of large freight wagons pulled by several pairs of horses. The wagons had no driver's seat, so a post lion sat on the left rear horse and held his whip in his right-hand. Seated on the left, the driver preferred that other wagons pass him on the left so that he could be sure to keep clear of the wheels of oncoming wagons. He did that by driving on the right side of the road.
Student 5. (cл. 18)
There is a popular story that Napoleon changed the rule of the road in the European countries he conquered from keep-left to keep-right. Some justifications are symbolic, such as that Napoleon himself was left- (or right-) handed, or that Britain, Napoleon's enemy, kept left. Alternatively, troops passing on the left may have been tempted to raise their right fists against each other. Forcing them to pass on the right reduced conflict. Hence, island nations such as Britain and Japan (using ships to move troops around and having less need to move them overland) continued to drive on the left. These stories have never been shown to have a factual basis and appear to be legends.
Teacher. (сл. 19)
Counties that became part of the British Empire adopted the British keep-left rule, although some have since changed. In Canada, the Maritime provinces and British Columbia initially drove on the left, but changed to the right to make border crossings to and from other provinces easier. Nova Scotia switched to driving on the right on 15 April 1923.
(сл. 20) Changing to right-hand traffic
Over the course of the 20th century, there was a gradual worldwide shift from driving on the left to the right. Portugal changed to right-hand traffic in 1928, and the parts of Canada that were still driving on the left changed over by 1923. The remainder of Italy changed over in the 1920s after Benito Mussolini came to power; Austria and Czechoslovakia changed when Germany annexed or occupied them in late 1930s, and Hungary followed suit. The Latin American countries of Panama and Argentina changed in 1943 and 1945 respectively, and the Philippines and China followed suit in 1945 and 1946 respectively. Belize change to right-hand traffic in 1961. Sweden changed in 1967 and Iceland did as well in 1968.
The most common reason for countries to switch to right-hand traffic is for conformity with neighbors, as it increases the safety of cross-border traffic.
(сл. 21) Changing to left-hand traffic
The Japanese prefecture of Okinawa, under US military occupation and driving on the right since June 24, 1945, switched back to the left-hand traffic used by the rest of Japan on July 30, 1978. The event is locally known as "730".
Samoa changed to left-hand traffic in September 2009.
(сл. 22) Student 6. There are two reasons which are the most important in some countries. These are:
1. (First) Foreign occupation and military transit
Many countries have temporarily or permanently changed their rule of the road as a result of foreign occupation such as
- Austria and Czechoslovakia under German rule or military transit in the 1930s and 1940s
- The Channel Islands changed to driving on the right under German occupation, but changed back after liberation in 1945.
- The Falkland Islands did the same under Argentine control during the 1982 Falklands War
- East Timor changed to driving on the left under Indonesian rule in 1976, and continues the practice as an independent state.
2. (Second) Safety factors
Research in 1969 by John Joseph Lemming showed countries driving on the left have a lower collision rate that countries driving on the right. It has been suggested this is partly because humans are more commonly right-eye dominant that left-eye dominant. In left-hand traffic, the predominantly better-performing right eye is used to monitor oncoming traffic and the driver's wing mirror. In right-hand traffic, oncoming traffic and the driver's wing mirror are handled by the predominantly weaker left eye. In addition, it has been argued that left sided driving safer for elderly people.
Teacher. There are some Legal restrictions on wrong-hand drive vehicles (сл. 23)
For reasons of safety, politics, or economic market protection, some countries ban the sale or import of and the driver's wing mirror. with the steering wheel on the "wrong" side.
In Kenya, it is illegal to register LHD vehicles, a rule set by the Kenya Bureau of Standards.
In Australia, registration of non-vintage ( less that 30 years old) LHD vehicles is illegal. Imported LHD vehicles must be converted to RHD (costing potentially thousands of dollars), or driver with a permit that imposes severe restrictions.
In India, LND vehicles cannot be sold commercially to customers, but they can be imported for research and testing purposes under government approval.
In New Zealand, LHD vehicles may be privately imported, and driven locally under a LHD permit. Since 1999, only LHD vehicles older than 20 years or cars owned and operated for at least 90 days may be privately imported.
In the Philippines, RHD vehicles are banned. Public buses and vans imported from Japan are converted to LHD, and passenger doors are created on the right side.
Cambodia banned the use of RHD cars.
Singapore bans LHD vehicles from being imported for personal local registration, but temporary usage by tourists of LHD vehicles is allowed.
In Taiwan, Article 39 of the Road Traffic Security Rules requires a steering wheel to be on the left side of a vehicle to pass an inspection when registering the vehicles may not be registered in Taiwan.
In Trinidad and Tobago, LHD vehicles are banned except for returning nationals who were resident in a foreign country and are importing a vehicles for personal use.
In China and The Gambia have also banned RHD vehicles. Their traffic has been changed from on the left to on the right.
Most of the above bans on RHD and LHD vehicles apply only to locally registered vehicles. Countries that have signed the 1968 Vienna Convention on Road Traffic are not allowed to make sure restrictions on foreign-registered vehicles.
Those are some facts about private cars. But you know that there are others means of transports such as buses and service vehicles.
Student 7 (сл. 24)
Buses typically have passenger doors only on the curbside, which severely restricts their ability to operate effectively on the opposite side of the road to that for which they were designed. Increasingly, touring, coaches, which are likely to cross frontiers of traffic-handedness during their duties, are fitted with a supplementary door on the opposite side from the curb, to simplify access and egress in the foreign country. In British this is know as a "continental door" , since its usefulness will be in continental Europe. In doubles as an emergency exit, but is much more user-friendly that an exit designed solely for emergency use.
It is usually fairly straightforward to retrofit a non-curbside door on buses with relatively low floor height; the many traditional British double-deckers sold on for tourist use in the USA and Canada are examples.
There are buses with doors on both sides, which allow operation at bus stops in the middle of avenues, such as in some Brazilian cities.
(сл. 25) Postal and other service vehicles
Post Office cars and vans in different countries such as the United States, Canada, Finland, Estonia and Sweden have the steering wheel on the opposite side to normal vehicles. T Our lesson is over. Thanks for your good work! I believe this lesson was useful and interesting for you.
his is so drivers can easily drive up next to mailboxes (also known as post boxes in some regions) or get out straight onto the sidewalk (also known as pavement in some regions) without having to walk around their vehicles, or put mail (post) in boxes without getting out of their vehicles as all.
Teacher. Thank you. And now we have a look at the traffic situation in some countries such as Canada, Russia, The United States and The Britain.
Student 8. (сл. 26)
Canada drives on the right, in LHD (left-hand-drive) vehicles. Until the 1920s, the rule of the road in Canada varied by province, with British Columbia, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island having cars driving on the left, and the other provinces and territories having motorists driving on the right.
Оne of the very few places in Canada where traffic appears to drive on the left is in Montreal on Auto route 20 for the 3 kilometers (2mi) between its junctions with Route 138 and Auto route 15.
Hundreds of thousands of right-hand drive (RHD) vehicles were build in Canada during World War II for the military from 1940 to 1945. The reason is that Canada's military forces were at that time intended to fight alongside the British military who used RHD vehicles. Britain also lost most of her military vehicles in France in the 1940 retreat and so she ordered thousands of new vehicles from Canada. Canadian Military Pattern (CMP) vehicles became the most standardized vehicles in the British Commonwealth.
There are some officially offered RHD vehicles in Canada, such as Canada Post mail delivery trucks. These have extra mirrors to increase driver visibility. Some garbage trucks and street sweepers have dual controls - both LHD and RHD. This allows the driver to enter and exit the vehicle quickly no matter which of the street is being serviced.
Student 9. (сл. 27)
Driving on the right was introduced in Russia by the edict of Empress Elisabeth on 5 February 1752.
Although Russia drives on the right, cheaper used from Japan are almost as popular as LHD cars of the same class. Russia is estimated to have more than 1.5 million RHD vehicles on its road. In the far eastern regions, such as Vladivostok or Khabarovsk, RHD vehicles make up to 90% of the total. This includes not only private cars, ambulances, and many other municipal and governmental vehicles.
During spring 2005, the rumor that RHD vehicles would be completely banned from the roads drove thousands of Russian protesters to the streets. On 19 May 2005 the Russian Minister of Industry and Energy Victor Khristenko announced that RHD vehicles would be allowed on the roads but would have to comfort to all Russian traffic safety requirements. Many automobile owners blocked the roads (in Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Vladivostok and many other cities), protesting against such an interdiction. On 19 May 2005 two automobile movements were born defending the interests of RHD automobile owners. Due to technical regulation published on September 2009, import of RHD will be proceeded in September 2010.
Student 10. (сл. 28)
The UK has left traffic. Many countries drive on the left due to British colonial influence. As a result of European Union legislation ensuring the free movement of goods, many British consumers exercise their right to buy RHD cars from car dealers in any other EU country, where they are often cheaper, despite originating from the same factories as UK-sourced cars.
Today, UK motor vehicles including postal delivery vehicles and waste collection vehicles are normally RHD. The main exceptions are service vehicles such as road sweepers and graters where vies of the curb is more important that of the centre line. These are generally LHD, although some have controls on both sides.
(сл. 29) Exceptions to the rule
There are some locations in the UK where road routing and layout causes traffic to approximate or mimic right0hand traffic patterns and practice. The most notable is Savoy Court outside the Savoy Hotel. Another example is the short links between the two carriageways of Russell Lane in Whetstone.
It is also permissible to drive in any lane on a one-way street. The Highway Code usually says 'keep to the left' and this is the norm on motorways and other fast roads, use the leftmost lane available. But on small roads in towns and cities it is common for one-ways streets to split direction at some point, so drivers choose the most appropriate lane, and are encouraged to do so with lane markings, signage, and so on.
Traffic regulation is states/territory jurisdiction in the United States. All states and territories - except the U.S. Virgin Islands - drive on the right, in LHD (left-hand-drive) vehicles.
The first keep-right law in the United States, passed in 1792, applied to the Philadelphia and Lancaster Turnpike, between Lancaster and Philadelphia. New York (in 1804) and New Jersey (in 1813) also enacted keep-right rules.
Early American motor vehicles, however, were produced in RHD, following the practice established by horse-drawn buggies. This changes in the early years of the 20th century: Ford changed to LHD production in 1908 with the Model T and Cadillac in 1916. American motorists nearly always drive on the right and overtake (pass) on the left, but the traffic laws in all states allow for overtaking on the right - provided there is sufficient space to the right of the leading vehicles to pass it safely.
(сл. 32) The United States Virgin Islands is the only American jurisdiction that still has left-hand traffic, because the islands drove on the left when the United States purchased the former Danish West Indies from Denmark in 1917.
During Carnival in New Orleans Mardi Gras Parades drive on the left of Canal Street and against the normal flow of traffic on St. Charles Avenue. In the New Orleans suburb of Metairie, LA all Mardi Gras parades travel down Veterans Memorial Boulevard on the left side of the roadway.
Teacher. (сл. 33)
So, there are the main facts the left-hand and right-hand traffic in the world.
Now I'd like to propose you some exercises to fix your knowledge.
TASK 1. You see some short dialogues. You must complete them with the
necessary phrases and dramatize them in pairs.
Dialogue 1. (сл. 34)
Сustomer officer: Welcome to England, sir.
Sir: Thank you. Could you answer one my question, please.
Сustomer officer: With pleasure, sir.
Sir: What traffic has your country: right or left hand?
Сustomer officer: Oh, mister, we have...
(Correct answer: We have left hand traffic)
(сл. 35) открывать после инсценировки диалога.
Dialogue 2. (сл. 36)
Guide: These are most interesting things you've just seen in our Russia
National Transport Museum. Do you have any questions?
Visitor: I have.
Guide: You are welcome, madam.
Visitor: When was driving on the right introduced in Russia?
(Correct answer: Driving on the right was introduced in Russia on 5 February 1752).
(сл. 37) открывать после инсценировки диалога.
Dialogue 3. (сл.38)
Examiner: Is there any places in Canada with left-hand traffic?
Examiner: You are absolutely right. My best
congratulations. You're correctly
answered all my questions. Here
is your driving license.
Student: Thank you.
(Correct answer: Traffic becomes left-hand in Montreal on Auto route 20)
(сл. 39) открывать после инсценировки диалога.
TASK 2. Now I'll read you some short texts. You must guess what country I mean.
Be attentive, please.
Text 1. (сл. 40)
This country has long been a right-hand traffic country. However, along the 350 meters of Avenue du General Lemonier, which connects the Pont Royal to the Rue de Ravioli, traffic drives on the left, separated only by a hump. Despite the rule of the road, trains (except the Metro) are still typically driver on the left track, as long as they use their autonomous ways and there is usually no risk of confusion, and also because cars are forbidden to drive on the same lanes.
(Correct Answer - France) (сл. 41) показывать после правильного ответа
Text 2. (сл. 42)
This country is estimated to have more than 1.5 million RHD vehicles on its roads. Although it drives on the right, in some region of this country RHD vehicles make up to 90% of the total. This includes not only private cars, but also police cars, ambulances, and many other municipal and governmental vehicles.
(Correct Answer - Russian Federation)
(сл. 41) показывать после правильного ответа
Text 3. (сл. 44)
This country drives on the left. The decision to drive on the left side of the road was made in the early 19th century in the early period of the British colony of New South Wales by Governor Lachlan Macquarie after the first road was build, and followed the British practice. The states and territories of the country had used the "give way to the right" rule; in the absence of regulations specific to a particular situation, drives must yield the right of way to all vehicles to their right.
(Correct Answer - Australia) (сл. 45) показывать после правильного ответа
Text 4. (сл. 46)
This country drives on the right, in LHD (left-hand-drive) vehicles. Until the 1920s, the rule of the road in the country varied by province, with British Columbia, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island having cars driving on the left, and the other provinces and territories having motorists driving on the right. Starting on the west coast July 15, 1920 and ending on the east coast May 1, 1924, the remaining provinces began driving on the right. Newfoundland was not part of this country until 1949, and its motorists drove on the left until 1 January 1947.
(Correct Answer - Canada) (сл. 47) показывать после правильного ответа
ОТРАБОТКА И КОНТРОЛЬ ГРАММАТИЧЕСКИХ НАВЫКОВ
And now we start to work with our GRAMMAR materials: THE PASSIVE VOICE. We'll revise the materials and do some exercises to fix your knowledge.
(сл. 50) As you remember, the passive voice is used when something is done to the subject
(сл. 52) THE GENERAL FORMULA: to BE +V3
to be is changed according to the tense and the subject:
Present Simple: to be = am / is / are
I am always asked to look after his dog.
Past Simple: to be = was / were
I was asked to look his dog yesterday.
Future Simple: to be = shall / will be
I shall be asked at the next lesson.
(сл. 54) - pay attention
(сл. 55) - If it is not known or not important who did the action, miss it in the sentence in Passive Voice
Task 1. (сл. 57)
Переделайте предложения в Passive Voice
1. He stole a lot of money from the shop.
2. By six o'clock they had finished the work.
3. At 12 o'clock the workers were loading the trucks.
4. We send our daughter to rest the south every year.
5. They will show this film on TV.
6. They are building a new concert hall in our street.
7. I have translated the whole text.
8. They have made a number of important experiments in those laboratory.
9. They have forgotten the story.
10. They haven't brought back my skates.
Correct answer. (cл. 58)
1. A lot of money was stolen from the shop.
2. By 6 o'clock the work had been finished.
3. At 12 o'clock the trucks were being loaded.
4. Our daughter is sent to rest in the south every year.
5. This film will be shown on TV.
6. A new concert hall is being build in our street.
7. The whole text has been translated.
8. A number of important experiments have been made in this laboratory.
9. The story has been forgotten.
10. My skates haven't been brought back...
(сл. 59) Существует ряд глаголов и отглагольных сочетаний с предлогами которые могут употребляться в страдательном залоге. При этом при переводе предложения в страдательный залог предлог глагола СОХРАНЯЕТСЯ.
To agree on/upon - договорится о
To account for - объяснять что-либо
To ask for - просить о
To comment on - комментировать что-либо
To depend on - зависеть от
To insist on/upon - настаивать на
To listen to - слушать что(кого)-либо
To laugh - смеяться над
To look at - смотреть на
To look for - искать
To look after - заботиться о
To look through - просмотреть что-либо
To object to - возражать против
To pay attention to - обращать внимание на
To put an end to - положить конец чему-либо
To provide for/with - снабжать, обеспечить что(кого)-либо
To refer to - ссылаться на
To rely on - полагаться на
To send for - посылать за
To take care of - заботиться о
To wait for - ждать
Task 2. (сл. 60)
Выберите верный вариант.
1. Над новичком посмеялись
а) The freshman was laughed at. b) The freshman was laughed.
c) The freshman was laughed to. d) The freshman was laughed in.
2. В старом доме не жили
а) That old house was not lived. b) That old house was not lived in.
c) That old house was not lived for. d) That old house was not lived by.
3. Джима послали и сказали подготовить доклад по этой теме.
а) Jim was sent and told to prepare a report on this subject.
b) Jim was sent for and told to prepare a report on this subject.
c) Jim was sent to and told to prepare a report on this subject.
d) Jim was sent in and told to prepare a report on this subject.
4. О нашем друге думали все время.
a) Our friend was thought for all the time.
b) Our friend was thought by all the time.
c) Our friend was thought all the time.
d) Our friend was thought at all the time.
5. Его прооперируют через неделю.
а) He will be operated on in a week.
b) He will be operated in a week.
c) He will be operated by in a week.
d) He will be operated with in a week.
Correct answer. (сл. 61)
1 - а; 2 - b; 3 - b; 4 - c; 5 - a.
PASSIVE VOICE WITH MODAL VERBS (сл. 62)
Task 3. (сл. 63)
1. Кошку надо покормить рыбой.
2. Эту картину можно повесить над карнизом.
3. Как можно перевести это слово?
4. Можно оставить кошку во дворе?
5. На что нужно обратить внимание?
6. Его надо пригласить на мой день рождения.
7. Ей можно предложить новую.
Верные ответы (сл. 64)
1. A cat must be fed with fish.
2. This picture can be hung over the fireplace.
3. How can this word be translated?
4. May the cat be left in the yard?
5. What must be paid attention?
6. He must be invited to my birthday party.
7. She can be offered a new job.
Task 4. (сл. 65)
Active or Passive?
1. English (to teach) in the school of almost every nations.
a) teaches b) is taught
2. They to (meet) at the station.
a) will meet b) will be met
3. Everyone (to surprise) by the news yesterday
a) was surprised b) surprises
4. At this time much attention (to devote) to this problem
a) devotes b) is being devoted
5. He (to bite) by a dog many times.
a) bites b) has been bitten
6. He ( to run over) almost by a car which (to chase) by the police.
a) was almost run over, was being chased
b) was almost being run over, was chased
7. All the students (to bring) guests to the party tomorrow.
a) are bringing b) were being brought
8. The report (not to examine) be the experts yet.
a) has not been examined b) has not examined
9. Fred (to introduce) to the fellow by Mr. Brawn last night
a) introduced b) was introduced
10. Listen to this! I think this news (to surprise) you
a) will surprise b) will be surprised.
Correct answer. (сл. 66)
1 - b; 2 - a; 3 - a; 4 - b; 5 - b; 6 - a; 7 - a; 8 - a; 9 - b; 10 - a.
Подведение итогов урока.
Обобщение пройденного материала, выставление оценок. Запись домашнего задания.
Our lesson is over. Thanks for your good work! I believe this lesson was useful and interesting for you.
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