Севастопольская специализированная школа I-III ступеней № 3
с углубленным изучением английского языка
Севастопольского городского Совета
Заседание английского клуба
“Red Bus” с учащимися 9-х классов
“The History of London”
учитель английского языка
Topic: The History of London
Teacher: Selivonchik Nadezhda Nikitichna
Form: 9 form
Objectives: to talk about the history of London;
to use the vocabulary of the topic;
to practise listening skills;
to practise speaking skills;
to practise computer skills.
Material aids: computers, the book “London”, presentation “ The History of London”, posters and postcards about London, web-sites:
2. Presentation “The History of London”.
3. The quiz about London.
4. The game on line “The Fire of London”.
Today we have gathered here to know more about the history of London, the capital of Great Britain, one of the largest cities in the world, its political, economic and commercial centre. London is one of the oldest and most interesting cities in the world. At our lessons of Unit 8 the textbook “Success” we learned to describe the place- where it is, how old it is, what kind of place it is. And today the students of the 9-A form will tell us about its history.
1.The scene - a group of students. Slide 2.
Two thousand years ago, in the year fifty five before our era… Heavy clouds are over a stormy sea. Eighty Roman ships are sailing on the grey waters to the unknown land. Julius Caesar is on the first galley, surrounded by his centurions. All are looking at the distant shore. “By Jupiter!” - says Julius Caesar, is that a cloud in front or a mountain covered with snow? “Where? Over there?” “Oh,” - says one of the centurions, «Those are cliffs, I can see them very well».
- “Yes, they are cliffs- and they are white.”
- “The land behind them must be white, too.”
- “It is a White Land,” exclaims Julius Caesar. “We shall call it Albion.”
- “Albion, Albion!” shouted the others. Alba in Latin means white, and
The name Albion remains to this day.
2. Student 1. Slides 3, 4.
The Romans came to a small settlement named Llyndin(which means a lonely port) on the banks of the river Thames. Britain was conquered and for 400 years remained a Roman province. Llyndin became Londinium. The Romans made Londinium a large and rich city with good streets, beautiful palaces, shops and villas. Trade was growing. A lot of goods-skins, copper and iron ore, silver and gold were sent to Rome. Londinium developed into a capital city with the population of 50 000 people. This is the plan of the city. About 200m from London Bridge was
the forum (the chief market and meeting place) and the basilica(the town hall and court of justice). This is the Temple of Mithras. Mithras protected the good from evil. The 2-nd century head was in his temple. The tombstone of a Roman legionnaire was built into the city wall. And
this is Amphitheatre. Entertainment was brutal. A popular spectacle was gladiators, dressed like this figurine, fighting to the death.
In the fifth century the Romans left Britain, other invaders came to the British shores. The Saxon hordes and the Danes rushed to Londinium, conquered the land and ruined the city. During nearly 400 years Londinium lay in ruins, grass grew where the beautiful buildings had been before, wild beasts walked on the good Roman roads.
3. Student 2 Slide 5
In 1066 William the Duke of Normandy with a numerous army landed in the south of England. The battle between the Normans and the Anglo-Saxons took place on the 14-th of October 1066 at a little village called Hastings. The country came under the power of the new conquerors – the Normans.
4. Student 3
William the Conqueror
Good afternoon, respected public!
Let me introduce myself. I‘m William the Conqueror. The strongest and the mightiest force is my main weapon. I defeated Harold honestly. That’s why I must be the king. We, Normans, are better educated and we’ll make this country civilised. But I know Saxons hate us. We don’t feel safe inside our houses and I decided to build towers. The White Tower became my residence or our throats could be all out some night.
5. Student 4. Slides 6, 7, 8.
The Tower of London consists of a group of buildings around the central White Tower built in the 11-th century. It was begun by William the Conqueror in 1078. The Tower of London served as a fortress, a palace, a zoo, a royal mint and a prison. Today it’s a museum. Many people have been locked in the Tower. In 1483 the boy- king Edward V and his brother, the Duke of York were imprisoned and murdered in the Bloody Tower. Protector of Edward V, his uncle Richard became king Richard III. Henry Tudor invaded England and killed Richard III. In 1600 the bones of the boys were discovered and reburied in Westminster Abbey. This the Jewel House where the magnificent English crown Jewels are housed. 42 Beefeaters guard the Tower and live there. “Beefeater” was a nickname for well-fed servants. They wear a Tuder-style uniform of blue or red. The Tower’s most celebrated residents are a colony of eight ravens. It is not known when they first settled there, but there is a legend that if they leave the Tower, the kingdom will fall. The Ravenmaster looks after the birds. Tower Bridge near the Tower was completed in 1894, but quickly became a symbol of London.
6. Student 5. Slides 9.10.
Westminster Abbey is one of the oldest buildings in London and one of the most important religions centres in the country. It is half national church, half national museum. Its founder Edward the Confessor built it in 1065. This part was built before 1400…. Many queens and kings are buried there. Inside Henry VII’s Chapel there is Elizabeth the I’s tomb. It also houses the body of her sister, ”Bloody” Mary I. In Poet’s Corner many famous British poets, playwrights and novelists are buried or commemorated such as Shakespeare and Dickens, Walter Scott and Shelley. The Abbey has been the scene of every royal coronation since Milliam the Conqueror in 1066. Monarchs are crowned while sitting on the Coronation throne kept in St.Edward’s Chapel. The Stone of Scone, a symbol of Scottish royalty is kept underneath. Queen Elizabeth II was crowned in 1953 in the first televised coronation. Near the entrance to the Abbey there is the tomb of the Unknown Warrior. It commemorates all British soldiers who Died in the first World War.
7. Student 6. Slides 11, 12.
Since 1512 the Palace of Westminster has been the seat of the two Houses of Parliament called the Lords and the Commons. Westminster Hall is the only surviving part of the original Palace of Westminster completed in 1097 after the 1834 fire. This building was designed by the Victorian architect Sir Charles Barry. The Houses of Parliament has over 1000 rooms and over 3 km of corridors. In Victoria Tower millions of parliamentary documents are kept. A Union flag flies on the tower when Parliament is sitting during daylight hours. Big Ben is the huge bell in the clock of Saint Stephen’s Tower. Big Ben has boomed out the hours since 1859. When
Parliament is sitting at night a light shines above the clock. This is the Lord’s Chamber, where the Queen deliveres a speech from the throne of the House of Lords in November at the State Opening of Parliament. The House of Commons is decorated in a simple style with tiers of green seats. The government sits on one side of the room with the opposition on the other. The Speaker presides from a chair between them.
8. Student 7. Slide 13.
Commerce and trade grow. The population grows even faster. London Bridge is the only bridge across the river Thames. It is narrow with shops and houses on each side of it. Shopkeepers lived above their shops Apprentices did the selling. The 15-th century trader Richard Whittington was thrice mayor of London.
9. Scene 2. Slide 14.
Now, listen, children, all of you, here is a story, strange but true; Dick Whittington, in days of old, thought London streets were paved with gold.
Now Dick his living had to make,
So thought a journey he would take
To London town, so far away,
And reached it early one fine day.
He felt so tired and hungry too,
And wondering what he next should do,
Sat down upon a door-step wide,
And soon was asked to go inside.
The cook was told to give him work,
The hardest job Dick did not shirk,
And in a garret had to sleep,
Where all night long the rats would creep.
Crosswords and blows all day he got,
He really was a sorry lot,
So off he went at break of day,
Over Highgate Hill he took his way.
For home again he thought he’d go,
When suddenly the bells of Bow
Rang out a message through the air,
To Dick who heard it, sitting there:
“Turn again Whittington, lord mayor of London town”.
“So puss sailed off, I understand,
And was sold to a King in a foreign land.
In nuggets of gold his price was paid,
And so Dick’s fortune now was made.
The news is spread both far and wide,
And soon he found a lovely bride,
The merchant’s daughter, it is said,
And soon these happy pair were wed.
10. Student 8. Slides 15,16,17.
In the 16-th century the monarchy was stronger than ever before. The Tudors established peace throughout England. It was ruled by mighty Monarchs at first Henry VIII and then Elizabeth I. Henry VIII( 1491-1547) became the king of England and Ireland on the 22 of April 1509. In his youth he was athletic and highly intelligent. A contemporary observer described him thus: “he speaks good French, Latin and Spanish, he is very religious. He is extremely fond of hunting. He is also fond of tennis.” His interests included writing both books and music. He was a player of many instruments and a composer. Henry VIII was a lavish patron of arts. He was a clever ruler. He invested in the Navy and increased its size from 5 to 53 ships. The second half of Henry’s reign was dominated by two issues very important for the later history of England: the succession and the Protestant Reformation, which led to the formation of the Church of England.
11. Student 9. Slides 18, 19.
The reign of Queen Elizabeth I is often referred to as “the Golden Age of English history. She is still one of the best loved monarchs and one of the most admired rulers of all time. Elizabeth was the daughter of king Henry VIII. “I may not be a lion, but I am a lion’s cub, and I have a lion’s heart” she said. She was born on the 7 of September 1533. As a child Elizabeth was given a very impressive education. She was taught by famous scholars and from an early age it was clear. That she was remarkably gifted. She had a talent for languages and by adulthood she could speak five languages fluently. She loved all kinds of sports, especially horse riding and hunting. She loved music and dancing, she could even play the lute with skill. Elizabeth was crowned Queen on the 15 of January 1559. She was dedicated to her country. She had the mind of a political genius and nurtured her country through careful leadership. When she died on the 24 th of March 1603, England was one of the most powerful and prosperous countries in the world.
The Renaissance reached its zenith under Elizabeth I as explorers opened up the New World, and English theatre, the nation’s most lasting contribution to world culture, was born. In 1599 the best-known of Elizabethan theatres, the Globe, was built. This was also the time when Shakespeare's great tragedies and comedies appeared.
12. Scene 3. Slides 20, 21.
- Roma, what happened then?
- Roma: and now we come to the time of great misfortunes- the year 1665.
-The Plague and the Fire. (taking out a book). Shall I read a few lines to you?
All:(together) Do, please!
- Roma(reads): “London at that time was a busy, rich and crowded city.
More than 400 000 people lived there. The old city looked very picturesque with its tall houses of wood, its narrow streets- so narrow that the people, out of their bedroom windows on one side of the road could shake hands with those living on the opposite side; the river was crowded with ships.
- A girl: Isn’t there a picture of old London?
- Roma: Yes, here is one.
- A boy: Oh, go on, Roma.
- Roma: But the pretty houses, the yards, the narrow streets were very dirty. The smell in some places was unbearable…Lots of ships came to London daily. On one of them, together with some goods, the Great Plague had arrived. People fell ill, one after another, and in a few days Died. Whole families died. In the city the houses of the sick were guarded so that no one could come in or out. Baskets were hung out of the windows for the food for those inside. A large red cross was painted on the door, to tell everybody: The Plague is in the house. At night “the Dead Cart” went round the streets. The driver rang a bell and shouted “Bring out your dead”. All life in London stopped, the ships didn’t come. The streets were empty and grass grew between the stones. By the end of summer there were not enough people alive to bury the dead. In a few months nearly100 000 died.
- A boy: When was it over?
- A girl: What saved London?
- The boy: It was the winter cold that saved the city and the people, wasn’t it?
- Roma: Quite right. But…
- The girl: I know! You mean the fire, don’t you?
- Roma : Yes, I do. Well, Dima is going to tell you now about the Great Fire.
13. Student 10. Slide 21.
It was in 1666, the year after the Plague. This story of the greatest London Fire could be called: how 3000 houses were destroyed through a small bundle of wood. A young and careless Baker left it at night near a very hot oven In a few h ours big flames were seen along the narrow street. All the houses, made of wood, soon were burning like paper. Small shops on the riverside urning houses and flew and flew about the windows and the roofs, till they burned their wings and fell down dead. The Lord Mayor of London with the noblemen came on the scene, the soldiers were all mobilised, and the king ordered the houses around the fire to be pulled down. Many hundreds of houses were destroyed. Soon the wind changed, then stopped blowing, then a heavy rain fell. London- what was left of it- was saved. The fire was very important for modern London, it cleared away the Plague for ever. And a new London, a London of stone, with wider streets and better houses was built. But this is another story. We’ll tell you next time.
III. The quiz
Why did the Romans call the unknown land Albion? (They saw the white cliffs )
How did the Romans call a small settlement? (Londinium)
What was the most popular entertainment? (Gladiators’ fights)
4. When did the Romans leave Britain? (in the fifth century)
5. When did William the Duke of Normandy land in the south of England? (in 1066)
6. Who was the first king to be crowned in the Abbey? (William was)
7. How many times was Dick Whittington the mayor of London? (3 times )
8. What was Henry VIII fond of? (He was fond of hunting, tennis, books and music)
9. How many languages could Elizabeth I speak fluently? (five languages)
10. What was painted on the door of a house to tell everybody: “The Plague is in the house”. (A large red cross was painted on the door)
11. When did the great London fire begin? (In 1666)
IV. The game on line “The Fire of London”
The students are sitting at the computers and playing the game, created by the Museum of London, in partnership with the National Archives, London fire Brigade Museum, and the National Portrait Gallery.