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Инфоурок Всеобщая история КонспектыОткрытый урок на тему : « Русско-дагестанские отношения ХVI в.»

Открытый урок на тему : « Русско-дагестанские отношения ХVI в.»

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      Открытый урок на тему : « Русско-дагестанские отношения ХVI в.»

  Цель:  1. Ознакомление учащихся с историей  возникновения, развития и  характером взаимоотношений между дагестанцами и русским народом.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

   2. Способствовать  формированию аналитических умений учащихся аргументированному отстаиванию личностной позиции при решении проблемных заданий                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

   Оборудование: карты «Физическая карта. Республика Дагестан», учебники, тетради, карточки с тестами.

  Оформление: тема урока, основные даты.

                         Ход урока: I. Организационный момент

1)                    Заполнение журнала – отметка отсутствующих

2)                    Сообщения о целях и задачах урока.

                            II. Основная часть урока:

1.Вступительное слово учителя: Темой нашего урока является « Отношения Дагестана с Россией, Кабардой и Грузией».

Учитель:  Если исходить из того что  мы с вами успели узнать, вся история России – история колонизации, т.е., расширение территории за счет все новых чужих земель.

Можете ли вы это подтвердить какими-нибудь примерами?

 (Примерный ответ: После образования централизованного государства, объединившие почти всех русских земель,  Россия приступила к расширению своих территорий за счет захвата чужих территорий. Пример; в XVIв. были покорены Казанское и  Астраханское ханства, Большая ногайская орда и Сибирское ханство. Из северокавказских территорий к России присоединилась Кабарда.

Учитель: В 1721г. Россия была провозглашена империей. Что  это означало? Какое государство называется империей?

   (Примерный ответ: Империя – это многонациональное государство, у которой имеются колонии, т.е. зависимые от метрополии территории под управлением)

Учитель: У России были колонии?

   (Примерный ответ: У России все колонии были внутренние, имели  общие с Россией границы.)

Учитель: Какие  отношения их связывали? 

Как давно возникли эти отношения?

. Что мы с вами знаем об русско-дагестанских  отношениях?

   (Примерный ответ: Еще в XI века русы совершали свои экспедиции на судах через Волгу к Каспийскому морю. Занимались они торговлей с местным населением, а также разбоем и грабежом. В 913-914 годах русы на 500 судах совершили поход по Каспийскому морю. Миновав Дагестан они заняли  один из островов близ Баку и захватили богатую добычу. Участниками таких походов становились и люди с Северного Кавказа. В 944 г. во время экспедиции руссов  в Закавказье, в занятии азербайджанского города Барда приняли участие и дагестанцы. В 965г. русы во главе с князем Святославом  совершили поход на город Семендер – столицу Хазарского каганата, расположенный на территории  Дагестана и разрушили его.

             В последующем меняется характер военного присутствия руссов на Каспии.  Создается русская  база – поселение в устье реки Терека или Аграханского залива. Русы поддерживают постоянные связи с Дербентом.  Город Дербент в то время славился как рынок русского льна. Здесь и других городах дагестанского побережья было много торговых людей из Руси. В Дербенте постоянно проживало какое-то количество русских людей-торговцев.

          На службе у эмира Дербента находился и целый флот руссов из 70 кораблей, который в 1175 году участвовал в сражении близ Баку. Совместные военные акции и политические связи дагестанцев с русами  продолжались вплоть до монгольского нашествия.)

 Учитель: В период монголо-татарского ига отношения русских с дагестанцами прекратились или очень незначительными стали.  Тяжелым бременем легло монгольское иго на плечи народов Кавказа и Восточной Европы. А еще территория Дагестана стала пограничной линией между двумя монгольскими державами Золотой ордой и государством Хулагидов и она стала ареной междуусобной войны. К XIVв. Ослабло влияние монголо-татар на Дагестан, а разгром Золотой Орды и образование русского централизованного государства  имели огромное  значение для исторических судеб народов нашей страны, в том числе и для Дагестана, где пала власть татарских ханов. Восстановились сношения Дагестана с Россией, прерванные во время монголо-татарского господства. Какие факты говорят об этих событиях?

        (Примерный ответ: Правитель Ширвана и Дербента Фаррух-Ясар послал своего посла Хасанбека в Москву к великому князю Ивану Васильевичу. В 1466г. последовало ответное посольство из Москвы в Шемаху Василия Панина. Вместе с посольством прибыла в Дербент группа русских купцов, в их числе знаменитый русский путешественник тверянин  Афанасий Никитин, который дал в своей книге ценные, но очень краткие сведения о Дербенте. По пути в Дербент купцов настигла в море буря и их судно разбилось о берег Каспия. Купцы были захвачены кайтагским владельцем Уллу-беком.  По просьбе ширваншаха  купцы  вместе Афанасием Никитиным были освобождены. Это событие, относящееся к началу 1467 года, он описал в своей книге «Хождение за три моря»)

Учитель: В ответе прозвучало имя русского  великого князя Ивана Васильевича. Еще под каким именем мы знаем его?  Если речь идет о событиях 1466-1467гг., то это…

       (Примерный ответ: Иван III)

Учитель: А уже с XVI века низовья реки Терек начали  заселяться русскими вольными людьми, известными как терские и гребенские казаки. Эти были беглецы с рязанской  земли, выходцы с Дона, Волги и других мест. Русское население граничило с поселениями чеченцев, ингушей, осетин, кабардинцев, ногайцев, аварцев и кумыков. Между русскими и местным населением завязались тесные связи, и даже религиозные различия не были препятствием для взаимных браков. Со временем казаки и горцы переняли друг у друга некоторые элементы языка и заимствовали многие обычаи и привычки. Эти контакты становились все шире и многообразнее, делались основой  мирного сотрудничества еще задолго до появления в этих местах царской власти. Укрепил русско-северокавказские отношения и добровольный переход Кабарды под власть России. А что нам известно о сношениях дагестанцев с царской властью России?

        (Примерный ответ: В 1557 году шамхал и князь небольшого Тюменского владения , расположенного к северу от нижнего течения  р.Терек, послали в Москву своих послов с предложением нести службу на благо Русского государства. А соперничество с Кабардой и феодальные распри не позволили наладить отношения с Россией. С этим связан поход на Тарки воеводы Черемисина в 1560 г. А когда в Дагестан вошли турецкие войска отношения еще больше обострились.

В это время правители Кахетии пожелали принять русское подданство. Чтобы обеспечить надежные пути в Грузию, русские власти в 1588г. построили на р.Терек крепость Терки (Терский городок), а затем укрепились на р.Сулак. Укрепление русского влияния на Северном Кавказе встретило противодействие со стороны Турции и его вассала – Крымского хана. Поэтому турецкое командование в Дербенте приложило немало усилий  для возбуждения местного населения против русских. А шамхал по наущению турок стал мешать связям России с Кахетией. Это привело к походам  русского войска воеводы Г.Засекина на Тарки против шамхала в 1591 г. , а затем князя С Звенигородского в 1589г. и воеводы Хворостинина в 1593г. Более  эпизодическими, но более устойчивыми были отношения Российского государства с владетелями Внутреннего Дагестана, через которых пролегал путь в Грузию.  В 1589г., представители  двух крупных аварских феодалов – хунзахский нуцал и «Черный князь», правивший  северо-западным уделом нуцальства, идя по пути сближения с Россией, приняли  в Сунжинском городке присягу о вступлении в российское подданство.)

Учитель: А как происходила процедура вступления владельцев Дагестана в подданство русского царя? В чем ее суть?

       (Примерный ответ:  Дагестанские владетели давали присягу – шерть на верность и выдавал в аманаты – заложники одного или нескольких свох родственников. Аманаты проживали  в Астрахани и Терском городке и содежались за казенный счет.)

Учитель: Мы уже знаем что в большинстве своем дагестанцы изменяли царю со временем, что происходило с аманатами?

        (Примерный ответ: Чаще всего они оставались жить среди русских, перенимали городской образ жизни и даже не помышляли о возвращении домой. Таким образом в Астрахани и Терском городке накоплялось большое количество горцев, но уже горожан.)

Учитель: В начале XVIIв., в правление Бориса Годунова, идя навстречу пожеланиям кахетинских царей, была сделана ещё одна попытка   проложить дорогу в Кахетию через Астрахань и Тарки и для этого были направлены  воеводы Бутурлин и Плещеев со  значительным войском  при поддержке кабардинских и окоцких феодалов.  Навстречу им должен был выступить кахетинский царь.  Русским удалось   занять Эндери, построить две крепости на Сулаке, Акташе, захватить Тарки и заложить крепость у Туралинского озера. А какова была дальнейшая судьба этого предприятия?

      (Примерный ответ:  Дагестанские   владетели сплотились против  этого вторжения и на помощь  им из Шемахи пришел сильный турецкий  отряд с артиллерией.  Русские войска были почти полностью истреблены, погибло около 7 тысяч человек)

Учитель: Русскими были  потеряны  Сунженский и  Койсинский остроги , поставленные в ХVIв. В этом бою погиб и Султан-Мут.    Этим и закончилась последняя попытка  русских властей добиться  своих целей  военными средствами. Начавшееся вскоре «смутное время»  сделало невозможным  проведение активной  русской внешней политики.   А какие связи развивались между народами России и Дагестана более успешно?

2. Подвести итоги опроса, выставить оценки.

Учитель: Из всего услышанного мы можем сделать выводы следующие:

1.                     Контакты русских и дагестанцев имели многолетнюю историю;

2.                     В основном они были мирного характера – торговые;

3.                     Усиление переселенческой волны русских на Кавказ эти отношения не испортило;

4.                     Ориентация дагестанских владетелей на Российское государство носила характер лавирования  перед угрозой быть поглощенными более сильным соседом, непостоянный и не долговременный;

5.                     Первые попытки  решить  проблемы с дагестанскими владениями военным способом закончились для России провалом.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

    5. Объявить домашнее задание. Прочитать дома п.40.  Написать реферат на тему «Русско-дагестанские отношения в XVIII-XIX вв.» .

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