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  • Иностранные языки

Памятка по теме "Словообразование"

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Suffixes to make nouns


We use the following suffixes to make nouns


form

use

examples

verb + er

describes sb’s occupation, or what sb does

employ-employer

shopper

verb + or

describes sb’s occupation, or what sb does

act-actor, invent-investor

operate-operator

verb + er

describes what smth does

cook-cooker, dry hair-hairdryer

wash dishes-dish-washer

verb/noun + ee

describes what smb does, or who smb is

employ-employee

refuge-refugee

verb/noun + ing

describes an example or act

draw-drawing

noun + eer

a noun that says what activity smb does

engineer

mountaineer

noun/verb/ adjective + ist

expresses sb’s belief or occupation

anarchist

journalist

adjective + ity

abstract noun

flexible-flexibility

adjective + ness

an abstract noun

good-goodness

sad-sadness

kind - kindness

noun + hood

an abstract noun

brother-brotherhood

noun + ship

an abstract noun

champion-championship

verb + ance, ence

an abstract noun

admit-admittance

emerge-emergence

annoy - annoyance

verb + ment

an abstract noun

enjoy-enjoyment

fulfill – fulfillment

agree - agreement

verb + (a) tion, (i) tion or sion

an abstract noun

pollute-pollution

form-formation

omit-omission

preserve – preservation

apply - application


Suffixes to make adjectives


noun + full

to show the quality exists

She’s very careful about what she drinks.

noun + less

to show that the quality is lacking

You shouldn’t be so careless when you write

verb + able/idle


Some of these adjectives ending in able/idle have a first part which doesn’t exist by itself, especially those with ununworkable, edible

to show that something can be done

Is the water drinkable? (safe to drink?

washable (able to be washed)

sensible (reasonable)

verbs or nouns + ive


Some of these adjectives need itive – sensitive from sense,

The prefix in is often added to form the negative of these adjectives – inexpensive, insensitive

someone or something that does something or can do something

the adoptive parents (who adopt a child)

active

nouns + ous

describes smth that has a particular quality

dangerous (full of danger)

spacious (with a lot of space)


Other suffixes to form adjectives


noun + ic

noun + y

noun + ish

apologetic

guilty

babyish

chaotic

healthy

childish

economic

hungry

foolish

enthusiastic

salty

selfish

heroic

scary

selfish

historic

sloppy

sheepish

optimistic

speedy


realistic

thirsty


scientific

wealthy



noun + al


noun + ist

relating to or showing a particular political or religious belief

ant


ent

national

elitist

arrogant

dependent

racial

socialist

distant

efficient

professional


hesitant

violent


Form the suffixes from


1 divide 12 strong

2 the cost of entering 13 exist

3 equal 14 move

4 qualify 15 innocent

5 fail 16 confident

6 weak 17 cover

7 specialize 18 depress

8 inflate 19 dispose

9 disturb 20 encourage

10 commit 21 flexible

11 empty 22 fair




Prefixes


Prefixes rarely change the part of speech


anti + adjective/noun

opposite


against

anti –clockwise


anti – theft device

co + noun/verb

together

co – worker

cohabit

dis + verb

negative/opposite

dislike

disembark

il + adjective

opposite

illegal

im + adjective

opposite

impossible

in + adjective

opposite

indirect

inter + adjective

between

intercontinental

ir + adjective

opposite

irregular

mis + verb

wrongly/badly

mistook

mishandle

over + verb

too much

overdo

overwork

out + verb

more

outnumber

post + noun/verb

after

postgraduate

pre + noun/verb

before

pre-arrangement

pro + noun/adjective

in favour of

pro – Unions

pro – European

sub + adjective

below

substandard

super + noun/adjective

greater than

superhuman

trans + noun/verb/adjective

across

transcontinental

un + verb/adjective

negative/opposite

unlock/unhappy

under + verb

not enough/ too little

undercook

underchange


There are a few rules:


  • We use il instead of in with words that begin with l – il + legal = illegal

  • We use im instead of in with words that begin with m or p – im + polite = impolite

  • We often use ir instead of in with the words that begin with r – ir + responsible = irresponsible

  • Note that many words with a prefix have a base part that never exists on its own – immediate, incontrovertible, uncalled for


Form the adjectives from


  1. dependent 11 Atlantic

  2. polite 12 moral

  3. do 13 hear

  4. driver 14 interpret

  5. approve 15 national

  6. behave 16 sleep

  7. logical 17 relevant

  8. zip 18 believe

  9. inform 19 crowded

  10. agree 20 humane

  11. eat 21 familiar

  12. historic 22 responsible

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Дата добавления 12.03.2016
Раздел Иностранные языки
Подраздел Другие методич. материалы
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