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There is no change of tense in the passive voice. It is used only with transitive verbs (which can take object) (some verbs are both tr. and intran) Verb is always in past par. (V3) form. 4. Many stative verbs cannot be used in the passive even when they are transitive: love, have, etc. 5. Only present & past progressive forms are common. The following are not made passive. a. past. perf. cont. b. pres. perf. cont. c. future. perf. cont. d. future cont.
7. “–ing” & “to” passive constructions after verbs like enjoy, hate remember. I don’t like being criticized. I hate to be criticized. 8. After conjunctions only - ing form is possible without / On / After being informed that ..... 9. Ergative verbs (transitive verbs with passive meaning). The door opened. This book sells a lot. 10. There are verbs that are normally used in the passive be born be married be obliged
Passive in reduced clauses The man who was / is accused of committing crime .... reductions They say he is innocent. a. He is said to be innocent. b. It is said that he is innocent.
1. The report presented statistics suggesting that American students ---- on international academic tests by the students from other industrial countries. A) have been outperformed B) have outperformed C) had outperformed D) were outperformed E) would outperform
2. Earthquakes occur when energy ---- within the earth, usually in the form of strain in rocks, suddenly ---- . A) is stored / is released B) stored / releases C) was being stored / had released D) stores / was released E) has stored / released
3. In the last 500 years, several millions of people ---- by earthqquakes all around the world. A) were being killed B) killed C) have been killed D) were to be killed E) would be killed 4. Before the rise of the Ottomans, while the Byzantine Empire ---- western Anatolia, most of the regions ---- by the Seljuk Turks. A) had controlled / controlled B) was controlled / had controlled C) controlled / had been controlled D) controlling / were being controlled E) controlled / was controlled
5. Earthquakes ---- millions of dollars in damage and ---- many people. A) cause / can be harmed B) are caused / can be harmed C) cause / can harm D) causing / can be harming E) being caused / can harm 6. Murad ---- by his son Bayazıd I, who ---- the Ottoman advance in both Europe and Anatolia. A) was succeeded / continued B) being succeeded / would continue C) had succeeded / continued D) would be succeeded / has continued E) succeeded / had continued
7. Since the 19th century, in most Western countries, artists ---- greater freedom to choose the subjects they ---- . A) have had / are pleased B) have been having / would be pleased C) have had / please D) had / had been pleased E) are having / will please 8. Ancient Egyptian art and architecture, ---- by state and religion, ---- the pharaoh and life after death. A) were dominated / glorified B) were dominated / were glorified C) would dominate / were glorifying D) dominated / glorified E) were dominated / would glorify
9. The manager ordered John ---- because of his latest irresponsible manner and attitude. A) to dismiss B) to have dismissed C) being dismissed D) dismissing E) to be dismissed 10. She is known for certain ---- at the meeting yesterday. A) to be B) having been C) to being D) to have been E) being
11. Frank seems ---- by most of the art critics. A) to ignore B) to be ignoring C) being ignored D) having ignored E) to have been ignored 12. They recently ---- my salary by thirty percent. The trouble is that at the same time they ---- my expense allowance by nearly half. A) are increased / are decreased B) have been increased / have decreased C) would increase / would be decreased D) increased / decreased E) will increase / have been decreased
13. I thought children ---- admission to horror films, but the other day my twelve-year-old niece ---- in to see that shocker at the Plaza. A) were refused / was allowed B) had refused / was allowed C) having been refused / allowed D) to be refused / being allowed E) would be refused / allowed 14. The grade of petrol ---- by the manufacturer of a car ---- for that car. A) recommending / should use B) is recommended / should have used C) recommended / should be used D) to be recommended / should be using E) being recommended / to be used
15. Hotel guests ---- to deposit valuables at Reception. A) being advised B) having been advised C) are advised D) to advise E) to have been advised 16. All personal belongings ---- to the warden for safekeeping. A) have handed B) are handing C) will be handing D) are to be handed E) will have been handing
17. Anyone ---- wasting time ---- home immediately. A) is caught / would be sent B) being caught / had been sent C) having been caught / have sent D) will be caught / are sent E) caught / will be sent 18. We ---- all the men that they have to wear a collar and tie. A) are reminded B) have been reminded C) having reminded D) reminding E) remind
19. His absentmindedness, though constant and long-standing ---- itself in trivial ways. A) is manifested B) manifesting C) has manifested D) being manifested E) was to be manifested 20. Shops ---- genuine discounts on quality products usually make more profit than those ---- with cheap and nasty goods. A) are offering / are stocking B) offer / are stocked C) offered / stock D) having offered / stocking E) offering / stocked
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