Мета: розширити знання учнів о культурних традиціях своєї країни та країни, мова якої вивчається.
Узагальнити, поглибити й розширити лінгвокраїнознавчі знання з теми «Різдво, святкування свята в Україні та Великій Британії»;
Активізувати пізнавальну діяльність учнів;
Використовувати вивчену лексику в мовленні;
Сприяти формуванню соціокультурної компетенції учнів;
Активізувати творчі здібності учнів на уроці та у період підготовки до нього;
Розвивати психічні функції, пов’язанні з мовленнєвою діяльністю, такі як увага, здатність до аналізу та синтезу, логічне мислення, здатність до виявлення мовних закономірностей, мовленнєва здогадка, зорова і слухова пам'ять, фонематичний слух.
Робота, спрямована на оволодіння усіма видами мовленнєвої діяльності: мовленням, аудіюванням, читанням та письмом.
Виховання почуття поваги до культури іншої країни та один до одного, вміння уважно вислуховувати співрозмовника.
Формування вміння роботи в команді.
Опанування знаннями в області лінгвокраїнознавства та вміння використовувати усі види мовленнєвої діяльності.
Форма: узагальнюючий урок у формі змагання.
Комунікативно – орієнтоване навчання;
Розвиток пізнавальних інтересів;
Особистісно – зорієнтоване навчання;
Інформаційно – комунікаційні технології.
Методи та прийоми:
За джерелами інформації: вербальний, наочний, практичний;
За ступенем взаємодії: самостійно – пошукова робота, презентація;
За характером пізнавальної діяльності: частково – пошуковий.
Формування двох команд по 5 – 6 учасників.
Збір інформації та матеріалів про традиція святкування Різдва.
Ілюстаційний матеріал з теми:
ТЗН: мультимедійна дошка, комп’ютер.
The structure of the lesson.
T: Good morning, boys and girls! I’m glad to see you here today! Who is on duty today? Who is absent? Today we are going to learn some information about Christmas. It’s a beautiful holiday. Today we’ll have competition and find out how people celebrate Christmas in Ukraine and The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
So let’s enjoy ourselves.
You were divided into 2 teams. I want you to choose 2 pupils from each team as judges. They will help me to check up your answers.
T: Ok, let’s start our competition. And the first task is: name as many words as you can on the topic “Christmas Day”. And this will help you.
December, fir tree, Santa Claus, winter, presents, poems, stocking, fireplace, cards, games, snow, sweets, decorate, songs, church, Father Frost, holly, snowman, deer, turkey, music, bells, pudding, lights, candles, stars, saint, angel, carol, chimney, crackers, joy, greet, wishes, sleigh, jingle, Christmas Eve, midnight, cold, snowflakes, ice, cookies, ribbons.
III. Basic part.
a) T: You had the task to make the presentation of the holiday in Ukraine and Great Britain. Who wants to begin?
(Listening of the presentations)
Christmas Day, December 25, is probably the most popular holiday in Great Britain. It is a family holiday. Traditionally all relatives and friends give each other presents. So, before Christmas all the department stores and shops are crowded, everybody is choosing a present.
In general, people get prepared for this holiday very carefully. They decorate their houses in the traditional way. It is necessary to decorate the house, to send congratulations to the relatives and friends, and, main to buy gifts. It is a family holiday, when the close people are going to behind a Christmas table, exchange gifts, wish to each other happiness, sing Christmas songs. The Christmas transforms everything around into a fairy tale.
Christmas begins with Christmas cards. The family prepare Christmas cards to their friends. The first Christmas Cards appeared in 1843, Sir Henry Cole invented it. One side of the card was a short greeting, and another-a nice picture. Soon these cards became very popular.
The large role British allocate to gifts. One holiday manages them. British like to give gifts to all. In eve of Christmas it is necessary to have time to buy a heap of gifts and to be reserved by meal – 24th, 25th, and sometimes and December 26th the majority of shops is closed. The red labels "Sale" appeared at the beginning of December, and to middle of month they paste over all doors and show-windows of shops. The best New Year's gift in England is a visit of dark-haired man with a slice of coal for traditional English fireplace and mistletoe to the house at first minutes of the New Year. In midnight the men are sent to the neighbors to first visit their homes. Why only man? It is considered, that if same the woman will make, it foretells failure to all family.
It is necessary to admire, with what imagination the offices, shops and streets are decorated to Christmas of a house. In festival of paints two traditional colors - red and green dominate. Green trees are decorated by red ribbons, lanterns and bells, are constant attributes of Christmas. On tops of the trees it is possible to see the Christmas Angel or star.
Christmas trees are set up in houses, in the streets and churches. They are always decorated with fairy lights, angels and small toys. In addition, little packets with nuts, candies and special biscuits are hung on the tree. Presents are put around the tree. In Great Britain, the Christmas tree became popular while Queen Victoria ruled the country. Besides the Christmas tree, holly and mistletoe are used to decorate the house. Branches of holly are put up behind pictures and mistletoe is hung over doors, so the young people have a chance to kiss the girls under it, plucking each time a red berry from the mistletoe. It is said that the girl who was not kissed under it at Christmas would not get married that year.
On the eve of Christmas children hang their stockings, so that Santa Claus could put presents into them: oranges, sweets, nuts and if the child didn't behave properly Santa Claus can put there a piece of coal as punishment.
Santa Claus got his name from a man known as St. Nicolas, who lived in the fourth century. He gave his wealth to the poor and often to children.
The young Englishmen and Americans consider, that Santa come in a sledge on a deer only to obedient kids and, having lowered through a pipe above a fireplace, leaves gifts under tree and in sock. Sometimes Santa beforehand invite the visitors on December 25th.
Carol singing is an essential part of Christmas. No church or school is without its carol service. Carols may be traditional or with some variations that express different feelings. Carols were used for the first time during Christmas in the fifteenth century.
Usually children come around in the evening to the front doors and start singing carols and people who live in these houses give children candies, nuts, pies and so on, to thank them for carol singing.
Christmas is a wonderful holiday, it’s a feast of Christ’s birth and it’s celebrated on the eve of 7th of January. In some areas was used the pre-Christian name of the feast — Koliada. The Christmas Eve is called in Ukraine ‘Sviaty Vechir’ (Holy Evening) sometimes also called ‘Sviata Vecheria’ (Holy Supper).
Christmas is the holiday when all members of the family gather together. This is the holiday of joy. Comparatively with Great Britain and some other countries Ukrainian people don’t exchange presents on this holiday. For many years only religious people observed this holiday, but today it’s an official state holiday. Children like to have fun on this holiday, they go from door to door, sing carols and people give sweets to them. Although this holiday appeared long ago but nowadays many people still like to go church and listen to Christmas sermons.
For the Ukrainian people Christmas is the most important family holiday of the whole year. It is celebrated solemnly, as well as merrily, according to ancient customs that have come down through the ages and are still observed today.
Ukrainian Christmas customs are based not only on Christian traditions, but to a great degree on those of the pre-Christian, pagan culture and religion. The Ukrainian society was basically agrarian at that time and had developed an appropriate pagan culture, elements of which have survived to this day.
A kolach (Christmas bread) is placed in the center of the table. This bread is braided into a ring with a candle in the center. The three rings of it symbolize the Trinity and the circular form represents Eternity.
A didukh (meaning grandfather) is a sheaf of wheat stalks or made of mixed grain stalks. It is placed under the icons in the house. In Ukraine, this is a very important Christmas tradition, because the stalks of grain symbolize all the ancestors of the family, and it is believed that their spirits reside in it during the holidays.
After all the preparations have been completed, the father offers each member of the family a piece of bread dipped in honey, which had been previously blessed in church. He then leads the family in prayer. After the prayer the father extends his best wishes to everyone with the greeting Khrystos Razhdaietsia (Christ is born), and the family sits down to a twelve-course meatless Christmas Eve Supper.
There are twelve courses in the Supper, because according to the Christian tradition each course is dedicated to one of Christ's Apostles. The courses are meatless.
The first course is always kutia. It is the main dish of the whole supper. It is also called God’s Food. Then comes borshch (beet soup) with vushka (boiled dumplings filled with chopped mushrooms and onions). This is followed by a variety of fish - baked, broiled, fried, cold in aspic, fish balls, marinated herring and so on. Then come varenyky (boiled dumplings filled with cabbage and potatoes). There are also holubtsi (stuffed cabbage), and the supper ends with uzvar (stewed fruits, which should contain twelve different fruits) and is called God’s Drink.
While many of the Ukrainian Christmas Eve customs are of a solemn nature, the custom of caroling is joyful and merry. Ukrainian Christmas songs or carols have their origins in antiquity, as do many other traditions practiced at Christmas time. There are two main groups of Christmas songs in Ukraine: the koliadky, which are sung on Christmas Eve and Christmas Day; the second group of Christmas songs is called shchedrivky.
Both koliadky and shchedrivky have pagan elements in them, but many have been Christianized. For example, one pagan carol tells of a landowner who makes preparations, because three guests are coming to his house: the sun, the moon and the rain. In the Christianized version the three guests become Jesus Christ, St. Nicholas and St. George. The very popular Ukrainian carol in the United states, "Carol of the Bells", in its originality is a shchedrivka.
Caroling required extensive preparation. Each group had a leader. One member dressed as a goat. Another as a bag carrier, the collector of all the gifts people would give them. Yet another carried a six-pointed star attached to a long stick with a light in its center, which symbolized the Star of Bethlehem. In some places the people even had musical instruments, such as the violin, tsymbaly (dulcimer), or the trembita (a wooden pipe about 8-10 feet long, used in the Carpathian mountains by the Hutsuls).
Caroling was not a simple singing of Christmas songs; it was more of a folk opera. The carolers first had to ask for permission to sing. If the answer was yes, they entered the house and sang carols for each member of the family, even for the smallest child. Sometimes they even performed slow ritualistic dances. Koliadky and shchedrivky are the oldest groups of Ukrainian folk songs. They are sung by Ukrainians at Christmas time throughout the world.
In most parts of Ukraine on the Christmas Eve people create so-called ‘Vertep’. These are scenes from Bible of Jesus birth. They show little Jesus in manger, Mary, strangers offering their gifts and Bethlehem star in the sky. Those verteps are exhibited at public places, usually near or inside churches. At night candles are installed inside verteps for people who come to church for the night service can observe them.
Puppet theater had its beginnings in the XVII century. According to scholars, the theater was probably founded by students of the Kyivan Academy, who also wrote the plays performed there. This theater became very popular.
The puppet theater consisted of a miniature two-storied structure, which served as a stage for the action. The actors were puppets made of wood. Each puppet had a wire attached to one leg and in this way the puppeteer was able to control the doll's movement, moving it back and forth via the vertical and horizontal grooves cut out in the two floors of the structure.
The play itself had two separate acts that were thematically unconnected.
During the Christmas holidays, students went from, from town to town, village to village, house to house with the Vertep and gave performances.
T: Thank you for your presentations. Let’s check how do you understand each other and ask questions.
When do English people celebrate Christmas? (The 25th of December)
When do Ukrainians celebrate Christmas? (The7th of January)
What do Ukrainians decorate before Christmas? (Christmas tree)
Who is the most important person for children on Christmas Eve in Britain? (Santa Claus)
And who is the most important person for children in Ukraine? (Ded Moroz or St. Nicolas)
Where does Santa Claus come from? (From the North Pole)
How does he get to Britain? (On the sledge harnessed with reindeers)
How many Christmas dishes does dinner in Ukraine consist of? (12)
b) T: And it’s the time for the next task. Read carefully the text and fill in the gaps.
Christmas is the biggest 1____________ in Britain and Ukraine. The four weeks before Christmas are called Advent, and are traditionally celebrated in churches by lightning a candle 2________ Sunday during Advent. Nowadays, many people are not very religious, but they still celebrate 3_____________ . But watch out – the preparations begin 4_______before Advent . In fact, as early 5___________ November or early in December, you start to see signs that Christmas is on the 6_________ . Children start making lists of presents they would like and 7_________ them to Santa Claus (Father Frost). In December, they can also open their Advent calendars. Advent calendars are a way of counting down to Christmas. A basic Advent calendar has a Christmassy picture behind each window, but the children’s 8_________ is usually a chocolate Advent calendar, with a chocolate for every day of the month. It’s a great build-up to the overeating that goes at Christmas!
T: And now let’s read the text one by one and check the answers.
T: Give your answers to the judges.
c) T: The next task is to watch the cartoon and answer the questions at the sheets of paper. Look attentively to the task. Are you ready?
T: Give your answers to the judges. Each team has prepared the poem for you. Let’s listen.
Listening of poems.
Thank you, girls. Sit down, please.
III. The total of the lesson.
1. Подведение итогов.
T. It’s time to finish our competition. Thank you for your activity. It’s interesting to know who is the winner today. We’ll give the turn to our judges.
T. Do you enjoy our lesson?
What do you like best of all?
What new things have you learnt today?
What is Christmas?
Where do English people celebrate it?
When is Christmas celebrated?
How do people congratulate each other?
What does Christmas dinner consist of?
V. Home task.
T: Your home task is to write 10 sentences on the topic “How I’ll celebrate Christmas”
Good-bye, boys and girls. See you.
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