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Исследовательская работа на английском языке "Австралийский английский"

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Australian English
Problem question: Is it possible to understand Australian English?
Hypotheses: All the changes in Australian English are closely connected with...
The aim of this work to explore and explain the uniqueness of Australian Engl...
The practical value Its results can be used for theoretical and practical les...
THE AUSTRALIAN PENAL COLONY OF NEW SOUTH WALES IN 1788
American influence okay you guys gee freeway truck Irish influence bum = back...
Australian English has some peculiarities in pronunciation.
t, d and s in the combinations tr, dr and sr ( loan words only) have changed...
Intervocalic /nt/ in fast speech can be realised as [n] winter = winner ninet...
Vocabulary the Bush – a native forest or a a country area in general; creek A...
-O ending Australian English Abo Aggro Ambo Arvo Avo Bizzo Dero Evo Garbo 	St...
-ie (-y) ending Australian English Aussie Barbie Beautie Bikkie Bitie Brekkie...
-za diminutive Barry becomes Bazza, Karen becomes Kazza, Sharon becomes Shazza.
Abbreviations in Australian English beaut (great, beautiful), BYO (Bring Your...
Influence of Australian Aboriginal languages
Dingo Kangaroo Boomerang Budgerigar Wallaby cooee /kʉː.iː/ a high-pitched cal...
Colloquialisms as bald as a bandicoot –совершенно лысый as cunning as a dunny...
Conclusion It is quite possible to understand Australian English if you know...
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Описание презентации по отдельным слайдам:

№ слайда 1 Australian English
Описание слайда:

Australian English

№ слайда 2
Описание слайда:

№ слайда 3 Problem question: Is it possible to understand Australian English?
Описание слайда:

Problem question: Is it possible to understand Australian English?

№ слайда 4 Hypotheses: All the changes in Australian English are closely connected with
Описание слайда:

Hypotheses: All the changes in Australian English are closely connected with the history, the development of the country. It is quite possible to understand Australian if you know some peculiarities of the language.

№ слайда 5 The aim of this work to explore and explain the uniqueness of Australian Engl
Описание слайда:

The aim of this work to explore and explain the uniqueness of Australian English: to consider the most important sources and pathways of borrowing in the English language; to study the peculiarities of Australian English

№ слайда 6 The practical value Its results can be used for theoretical and practical les
Описание слайда:

The practical value Its results can be used for theoretical and practical lessons in lexicology, and practicing the language

№ слайда 7 THE AUSTRALIAN PENAL COLONY OF NEW SOUTH WALES IN 1788
Описание слайда:

THE AUSTRALIAN PENAL COLONY OF NEW SOUTH WALES IN 1788

№ слайда 8
Описание слайда:

№ слайда 9
Описание слайда:

№ слайда 10 American influence okay you guys gee freeway truck Irish influence bum = back
Описание слайда:

American influence okay you guys gee freeway truck Irish influence bum = backside (Irish bun) tucker = food paddock = field

№ слайда 11 Australian English has some peculiarities in pronunciation.
Описание слайда:

Australian English has some peculiarities in pronunciation.

№ слайда 12 t, d and s in the combinations tr, dr and sr ( loan words only) have changed
Описание слайда:

t, d and s in the combinations tr, dr and sr ( loan words only) have changed into /dʒ/, /ʃ/ and /tʃ/ tree /tʃɹᵊi:/ draw /dʒɹɔː/ Sri Lanka /ʃɹi'læŋkə/.

№ слайда 13 Intervocalic /nt/ in fast speech can be realised as [n] winter = winner ninet
Описание слайда:

Intervocalic /nt/ in fast speech can be realised as [n] winter = winner nineteen = nineen ninety = niny Say in Australian 1999!

№ слайда 14 Vocabulary the Bush – a native forest or a a country area in general; creek A
Описание слайда:

Vocabulary the Bush – a native forest or a a country area in general; creek Australia: a stream or small river UK: a small watercourse flowing into the sea paddock Australia: field outback – a remote, sparsely populated area; UK: a small enclosure for livestock bush, scrub Australia: a wooded area UK: used in proper names (Shepherd’s Bush, Wormwood Scrubs)

№ слайда 15 -O ending Australian English Abo Aggro Ambo Arvo Avo Bizzo Dero Evo Garbo 	St
Описание слайда:

-O ending Australian English Abo Aggro Ambo Arvo Avo Bizzo Dero Evo Garbo Standard English Aborigine- ( offensive) Aggressive Ambulance office Afternoon Avocado Business Homeless person Evening Garbage collector

№ слайда 16 -ie (-y) ending Australian English Aussie Barbie Beautie Bikkie Bitie Brekkie
Описание слайда:

-ie (-y) ending Australian English Aussie Barbie Beautie Bikkie Bitie Brekkie Bushie Standard English Australian Barbeque Beautiful Biscuit Biting insect Breakfast Someone who lives in the bush

№ слайда 17 -za diminutive Barry becomes Bazza, Karen becomes Kazza, Sharon becomes Shazza.
Описание слайда:

-za diminutive Barry becomes Bazza, Karen becomes Kazza, Sharon becomes Shazza.

№ слайда 18 Abbreviations in Australian English beaut (great, beautiful), BYO (Bring Your
Описание слайда:

Abbreviations in Australian English beaut (great, beautiful), BYO (Bring Your Own restaurant, party, barbecue etc), deli (delicatessen), hoon (hooligan), nana (banana), roo (kangaroo), uni (university), ute (utility truck or vehicle)

№ слайда 19 Influence of Australian Aboriginal languages
Описание слайда:

Influence of Australian Aboriginal languages

№ слайда 20 Dingo Kangaroo Boomerang Budgerigar Wallaby cooee /kʉː.iː/ a high-pitched cal
Описание слайда:

Dingo Kangaroo Boomerang Budgerigar Wallaby cooee /kʉː.iː/ a high-pitched call for attracting attention a national distance: if he’s within cooee, we’ll spot him. hard yakka = hard work

№ слайда 21 Colloquialisms as bald as a bandicoot –совершенно лысый as cunning as a dunny
Описание слайда:

Colloquialisms as bald as a bandicoot –совершенно лысый as cunning as a dunny rat - коварный, пронырливый as lonely as a country dunny – покинутый, одинокий flat out like a lizard drinking – очень занятый

№ слайда 22 Conclusion It is quite possible to understand Australian English if you know
Описание слайда:

Conclusion It is quite possible to understand Australian English if you know some peculiarities of the language.

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УПРАВЛЕНИЕ ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ АДМИНИСТРАЦИИ ЧЕРНЯНСКОГО РАЙОНА










Районная исследовательская конференции школьников

на английском языке






секция: Языкознание



Тема: The varieties of English. Australian English.















Автор: Никуленко Анна

Руководитель: Лихачева Е.А.













Content





Introduction

1 Australian English. Main characteristics

1.1 Socio-Historical Linguistic Context

2. Australian Language Peculiarities

3.1 Variation and Changes

3.2 Vocabulary

4. Influence of Australian Aboriginal languages

Conclusion



References





















If I had a chance to go to some English-speaking country I would like to go to Australia. Australia seems to me to be the upside-down world. The further north you go, the hotter it gets. The trees look strange; it will seem odd to you that they never lose their leaves, and you will miss the bare branches in winter. Australia is a land of strange birds and beasts as well as a strange language. Without any doubt English in Australia as in many other countries differs from the official English.

Problem question: Is it possible to understand Australian English?

Hypotheses: All the changes in Australian English are closely connected with the history, the development of the country. It is quite possible to understand Australian if you know some peculiarities of the language.

The aim of this work is to explore and explain the uniqueness of Australian English:

to consider the most important sources and pathways of borrowing in the English language;

to study the peculiarities of Australian English


The practical value of work consists in that its results can be used for theoretical and practical lessons in lexicology, and practicing the language.

The urgency of conducted analysis is proven by the fact that all types of English language have their own peculiarities which are always difficult to get. The same is true for the Australian English. That is especially takes place and is important for people who have to spend some time in Australia, because even if they know English on a good level they can be very confused by lots of words and expressions Australians often use in their everyday speech. Their history, people, life became the reasons of their language peculiarities. A lot of researches were conducted to examine Australian way of speech and slang., the purpose of conducting this work consists in the determination of such peculiarities and main features of Australian English from different points of view (history, origin, spoken language, slang and so on). According to this purpose the main task of this degree includes carrying out of Australian English analysis using information about Australian speech in different fields, compliance with specified purpose and main task of the research the following tasks were set in this work:

Firstly, to examine Australian English itself, its peculiarities, history, origin, aboriginal influence and spelling.

Secondly, to examine Australian slang including information about colloquialism, history and ways of Australian spoken speech, Australian slang dictionary.

Thirdly, to trace Australian speech peculiarities.


1 Australian English. Main characteristics

Spoken Australian English is thought to be highly colloquial, possibly more so than other spoken variants. Whether this idea is true or not, a substantial number of publications aimed at giving an overview of Australian English have been published. Books about Australian lore have been published, beginning with Karl Lentzners Dictionary of the Slang-English of Australia and of Some Mixed Languages in 1892. The first dictionary of based on historical principles that covered Australian English was E. E. Morriss Austral English: A Dictionary of Australasian Words, Phrases and Usages (1898).a long period of uninterest and/or antipathy, the first synchronic dictionaries of Australian English began to appear. In 1976, the Australian Pocket Oxford Dictionary was published, the first dictionary edited and published in Australia. In 1981, the more comprehensive Macquarie Dictionary of Australian English was published, after 10 years of research and planning. Updated editions have been published since and the Macquarie Dictionary is widely regarded as authoritative. Oxford University Press also publishes a range of dictionaries of Australian English, including the Oxford Dictionary of Australian English. Publishers have also produced phrase books" to assist visitors. These books reflect a highly exaggerated and often outdated style of Australian colloquialisms and they should partially be regarded as amusements rather than accurate usage guides.

1.1 Socio-Historical Linguistic Context

Australian English began diverging from British English shortly after the foundation of the Australian penal colony of New South Wales in 1788. British convicts sent there, (including Cockneys from London), came mostly from large English cities. They were joined by free settlers, military personnel and administrators, often with their families. However, a large part of the convict body were Irish, with at least 25% directly from Ireland. There were other populations of convicts from non-English speaking areas of Britain, such as the Welsh and Scots.

Already in 1827 Peter Cunningham, in his book Two Years in New South Wales, reported that native-born white Australians of the time spoke with a distinctive accent and vocabulary, with a strong Cockney influence.

The transportation of convicts to Australia ended in 1868, but immigration of free settlers from Britain, Ireland and elsewhere continued. Thus, the former Australian English began as a mixture of Cockney, Irish, Welsh and Scottish.

The American military personnel in World War II brought American influence; though most words were short-lived; and only okay, you guys, and gee have persisted. Since the 1950s the American influence on language in Australia has mostly come from pop culture, the mass media, computer software and the internet. Some words, such as freeway and truck, have even been naturalised so completely that few Australians recognise their origin.

American, British and Australian variants exist side-by-side; in many cases – freeway and motorway (used in New South Wales) for instance – regional, social and ethnic variation within Australia typically defines word usage. Words of Irish origin are used such as bum for "backside" (Irish bun), tucker for "food", as well as one or two native English words whose meaning have changed under Irish influence, such as paddock for "field".

2.1 Variation and Changes

Three main varieties of Australian English are spoken according to linguists: broad, general and cultivated. They often, but not always, reflect the social class or educational background of the speaker.

Broad Australian English is recognisable and familiar to English speakers around the world because it is used to identify Australian characters in non-Australian films and television programs.

The majority of Australians speak with the general Australian accent British words such as mobile (phone) predominate in most cases.

Cultivated Australian English has some similarities to British Received Pronunciation, and is often mistaken for it.

There are no strong variations in accent and pronunciation across different states and territories.

Australian English has some peculiarities in pronunciation.

But surely, the most remarkable changes appeared to be in vocabulary.



2.2 Vocabulary

In 1945 Sidney J. Baker published the book “The Australian Language” which was a milestone in the emergence of a separate Australian Standard.

Australian English has many words that some consider unique to the language. One of the best known is outback,, meaning a remote, sparsely populated area. Another is “The bush” meaning either a native forest or a country area in general.

Fair dinkum” can mean “are you telling me the truth?”, “this is the truth!”, or “this is ridiculous!” depending on context - the disputed origin dates back to the gold rush in the 1850s, “dinkum” being derived from the Chinese word for “gold” or “real gold”: fair dinkum is the genuine article.

Extinct East Midlands dialect in England: dinkum means hard work or fair work

Dinky-di means true or devoted: a ‘dinky-di Aussie’ is a ‘true Australian”

G'day is well known as a stereotypical Australian greeting - it is worth noting that G'day is not synonymous with the expression “Good Day”, and is never used as an expression for "farewell". Many of these terms have been adopted into British English via popular culture and family links.

Speaking about word-forming, we may say that Australian English has a unique set of diminutives formed by adding -o or -ie (-y) to the ends of (often abbreviated) words. There does not appear to be any particular pattern to which of these suffixes is used.

Examples with the -o ending include

Australian English


Standard English


Abo


Aborigine-(now considered very offensive)


Aggro


Aggressive


Ambo


Ambulance office


Arvo


Afternoon


Avo


Avocado


Bizzo


Business


Dero


Homeless person


Evo


Evening


Garbo


Garbage collector


Journo


Journalist


Milko

Milkman


Servo


Service(gas) station


Smoko


Smoke or coffee/tea break


Thingo


Thing


vejjo

Vegetarian


Examples of the -ie (-y) ending include

Australian English


Standard English

Aussie


Australian


Barbie

Beautie


Barbeque

Beautiful


Bikkie


Biscuit


Bitie


Biting insect


Brekkie


Breakfast


Bushie




Someone who lives in the bush


Chewie




Chewing gum


Chokkie


Chocolate


Cozzie


Swimming suit


Chrissie


Christmas


Exy


Expensive


Kindie


Kindergarten


Lippy


Lipstick



Mosquito


Oldies


Parents


Postie


Postman


Prezzie


Present


Rellie


Relatives


Sunnies


Sun-glasses


Surfy


Surfing fanatic


Swaggie


Swagman


Trackies


Tracksuit


Truckie


Truck driver


Vedgie

Vegetable




Occasionally, a -za diminutive is used, usually for personal names.

Barry becomes Bazza,

Karen becomes Kazza and

Sharon becomes Shazza.

There are also a lot of abbreviations in Australian English without any suffixes.

Examples of these are the words

beaut (great, beautiful),

BYO (Bring Your Own restaurant, party, barbecue etc),

deli (delicatessen),

hoon (hooligan),

nana (banana),

roo (kangaroo),

uni (university),

ute (utility truck or vehicle)



3. Influence of Australian Aboriginal languages

Some elements of Aboriginal languages have been adopted by Australian English – mainly as names for places, flora and fauna (for example dingo) and local culture. Many such are localised, and do not form part of general Australian use, while others, such as kangaroo, boomerang, budgerigar, wallaby and so on have become international. Beyond that, little has been adopted into the wider language, except for some localised terms and slang. Some examples are cooee and hard yakka. The former is used as a high-pitched call, for attracting attention, (pronounced ) which travels long distances. Coocee is also a notional distance: if he's within cooee, we'll spot him. Hard yakka means hard work and is derived from yakka, from the Jagara language once spoken in the Brisbane region.

We cannot but mention unique and, indeed, colourful Australian metaphors and similes, as

as bald as a bandicoot –совершенно лысый

as cunning as a dunny rat - коварный, пронырливый

as lonely as a country dunny – покинутый, одинокий

flat out like a lizard drinking – очень занятый

let alone Australian expressions, as

in full feather – при полном параде

rough end of a pineapple - неудачная сделка,

not to know Christmas from Bourke Street - не иметь понятия

not to have a brass razoo – очень бедный

dingo’s breakfast – без завтрака etc.

a dead horse - a tomato sauce

a complete alf,-- stupid

These are the best-known Australianisms in the English-speaking world.

Australian English World Standard English

amber beer

arvo afternoon

barbie barbecue

barrack cheer

beaut great

bloke man

chook chicken

clobber clothes

crook ill

daks trousers (BrE), pants (AmE)

dinkum genuine, true

evo evening

G'day hello

lolly sweet (BrE), candy (AmE)

nana banana

oil information

Oz Australia

Pom(my) English

sheila woman

snag sausage

tucker meals

Bludger – lazy person

Bonzer – great

Ocker – (slang) an uneducated person

Nib – boss

Durry – cigarette

Lobb in – visit

Earbash – non-stop chatter

Conclusion Although we have a rich global mapping of English which makes it possible for English speakers to almost immediately fix a fellow English speaker to a geographical area, there is more that is similar among these English variations than is dissimilar. If there wasn't, English speakers from different parts of the world would have absolutely no hope of understanding each other! In most cases it is pronunciation and idiomatic expressions, not vocabulary or grammar that makes a fellow English speaker from another part of the world, or sometimes even another part of the country, difficult to understand. Summing up, we may say that it is quite possible to understand Australian if you know some peculiarities of the language.





Literature


1.Arthur, J. M. (1996) Aboriginal English, Oxford University Press, Australia.


2.Bell, R. (1998) Americanization and Australia, UNSW Press.


.Crystal, D. (1995) Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language, Cambridge University Press.


.Mitchell, Alexander G. (1995) The Story of Australian English, Sydney, Dictionary Research Centre.


.Peters, Pam. (1986) Spelling principles, In: Peters, Pam, ed., Style in Australia: Current Practices in Spelling, Punctuation, Hyphenation, Capitalisation, etc.


.Robert J. Menner. (1946) The Australian Language American Speech, Vol.21, No.2.


.The So Called American Spelling. 1901 pamphlet, Sydney, E. J. Forbes.


.#"justify">9.#"justify">10.#"justify">11.#"justify">12.#"justify">13.http://www.wikipedia.com


Useful links

Studies of Australian English

Australian National Dictionary Centre

Ozwords - Australian National Dictionary Centre

Australian words - Australian National Dictionary Centre

The vowels of Australian English - Macquarie University, Phonetics and Phonology

Impressionistic studies of Australian English phonetics - Macquarie University, Phonetics and Phonology

Centre for Australian Studies - University of New England

Amanda Laugesen, Australian First World War 'slanguage' - Journal of the Australian War Memorial

Listen, look and play

The adventures of Barry McKenzie 1972, video, 3 clips. Australian Screen.

They're a weird mob 1966, video, 3 clips. Australian Screen.

Alvin Purple 1973, video, 3 clips. Australian Screen.

Other

Australian Word Map - ABC

Aussie Speak - About.com

David Stybr, Australian English Glossary from A to Zed

The language of poetic deception - Convict Creations

References used in preparing this story

Baker, S 1983, A dictionary of Australian slang, 3rd Edition, Currey O'Neil, Melbourne

Johansen, Lenie 'Midge' 1988, The Penguin book of Australian slang: a dinkum guide to Oz English, Penguin Books Australia, Melbourne



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Районная исследовательская конференции школьников

на английском языке


секция: Языкознание


Тема: The varieties of English. Australian English.


Автор: Никуленко Анна

Руководитель: Лихачева Е.А.

If I had a chance to go to some English-speaking country I would like to go to Australia. Australia seems to me to be the upside-down world. The further north you go, the hotter it gets. The trees look strange; it will seem odd to you that they never lose their leaves, and you will miss the bare branches in winter. Australia is a land of strange birds and beasts as well as a strange language. Without any doubt English in Australia as in many other countries differs from the official English.

Problem question: Is it possible to understand Australian English?

Hypotheses: All the changes in Australian English are closely connected with the history, the development of the country. It is quite possible to understand Australian if you know some peculiarities of the language.

The aim of this work is to explore and explain the uniqueness of Australian English:

to consider the most important sources and pathways of borrowing in the English language;

to study the peculiarities of Australian English

The practical value of work consists in that its results can be used for theoretical and practical lessons in lexicology, and practicing the language.

Australian English began diverging from British English shortly after the foundation of the Australian penal colony of New South Wales in 1788. British convicts sent there, (including Cockneys from London), came mostly from large English cities.

The transportation of convicts to Australia ended in 1868, but immigration of free settlers from Britain, Ireland and elsewhere continued. Thus, the former Australian English began as a mixture of Cockney, Irish, Welsh and Scottish.

The American military personnel in World War II brought American influence; though most words were short-lived; and only okay, you guys, and gee have persisted.

Words of Irish origin are used such as bum for "backside" (Irish bun), tucker for "food", as well as one or two native English words whose meaning have changed under Irish influence, such as paddock for "field".

Three main varieties of Australian English are spoken according to linguists: broad, general and cultivated. They often, but not always, reflect the social class or educational background of the speaker.

There are no strong variations in accent and pronunciation across different states and territories.

Australian English has some peculiarities in pronunciation.(2 слайда)

But surely, the most remarkable changes appeared to be in vocabulary.

In 1945 Sidney J. Baker published the book “The Australian Language” which was a milestone in the emergence of a separate Australian Standard.

Australian English has many words that some consider unique to the language. One of the best known is outback,, meaning a remote, sparsely populated area. Another is “The bush” meaning either a native forest or a country area in general.

Speaking about word-forming, we may say that Australian English has a unique set of diminutives formed by adding -o or -ie (-y) to the ends of words.

Occasionally, a -za diminutive is used, usually for personal names.

There are also a lot of abbreviations in Australian English without any suffixes.

Some elements of Aboriginal languages have been adopted by Australian English – mainly as names for places, flora and fauna (for example dingo) and local culture

We cannot but mention unique and, indeed, colourful Australian metaphors and similes, as

as bald as a bandicoot –совершенно лысый

These are the best-known Australianisms in the English-speaking world.

Conclusion Although we have a rich global mapping of English which makes it possible for English speakers to almost immediately fix a fellow English speaker to a geographical area, there is more that is similar among these English variations than is dissimilar. If there wasn't, English speakers from different parts of the world would have absolutely no hope of understanding each other! In most cases it is pronunciation and idiomatic expressions, not vocabulary or grammar that makes a fellow English speaker from another part of the world, or sometimes even another part of the country, difficult to understand. Summing up, we may say that it is quite possible to understand Australian if you know some peculiarities of the language.







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