КОНСПЕКТ УРОКА ПО ТЕМЕ «ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT»
Introduction (Организационный момент и сообщение цели урока)
T.: Good morning, boys and girls!
C.: Good morning, our teacher!
T.: Sit down, please.
Звучит песня “The Earth Song” (M.Jackson)
T.: The Earth is a garden.
It`s a beautiful place
For all living creatures,
For all human race.
Helping mother Earth
We can peacefully roam
We all deserve a place
We can call our home.
- This lesson is the last one on the topic “Ecology and Environment”. At this lesson we’ll revise everything we have learnt about environment. You have to name and discuss ecological problems and work out the solutions which help us to preserve the planet from ecological disaster.
Warming-up (Речевая разминка)
T.: First, I want you to give definitions to the words written on our blackboard. Now let’s look at this diagram. (На доске нарисована схема с опорными словами: environment, ecology, acid rains, conservation, habitat, rainforests, the ozone layer).
P1: All the surroundings of an organism including other living things, climate, air, water, soil.
P2: Study of organisms and environment.
T.: Acid rains
P3: Rain or snow formed by releasing into the air of harmful gases from cars and power plants.
P4: The wise use of the environment.
P5: An area that provides animals and plants with food, water, shelter.
P6: Evergreen woodlands that receive at least 100 inches of rain a year, home to more than half of world`s plants and animals.
T.: The ozone layer
P7: It’s the layer of the Earth which protects our planet from the sun's destructive ultraviolet rays.
Improving spelling skills (Совершенствование орфографических навыков)
T.: Now, let’s remember the correct writing of some words from our topic. Look at the blackboard, please. Will you complete the words with the missing letters? Practice aloud. Try to pronounce correctly. Translate the words.
The second task will be to match up the adjectives in column A with the nouns in column B to form meaningful phrases.
Запись на доске:
Speaking (Monological Speech) (Контроль домашнего задания)
T.: Our planet is on the verge of a Global Ecological Catastrophe, so we have to highlight the most dangerous tendencies that have deadly consequences for us. It’s time to check up your homework. Let’s listen to your reports about ecological problems that are matters of people’s great concern nowadays.
(Студенты выступают с подготовленными заранее сообщениями и рисунками к ним; отвечают на вопросы одногруппников. Ниже приводятся примерные сообщения студентов по вопросам темы)
T.: What do you know about air pollution?
P.1: Worldwide the problem of air pollution is growing. More factories, cars, buses add their bad breath to the air. Ultraviolet radiation from the sun can cause skin cancer because of the holes in the ozone layer. Many scientists think that these holes are the result of air pollution. Nuclear power stations can go wrong and cause nuclear pollution. …
P.2: Chemicals puff out coal-burning factories around the world. When the chemicals mix with clouds, acid rains fall and harm lakes, rivers, plants and animals. Also, the wind blows the air around. So, sulfates from one place can fall as acid rain many miles away. Our clothes become dirty, trees, plants die. Acid rains fall in Omsk region not very seldom. And we can see yellow parks, grass in the middle of summer. …
T.: You know that we can't live without clean water. What will you say about water pollution?
P.3: Rivers, lakes, sees and oceans are polluted. It is not a secret that often companies don’t know what to do with waste materials of industry, so they pour them into water. They pollute the water we drink, and the land we live in. Every person throw away too much litter and in wrong place. We leave litter near the river. The water is polluted and the fish die. …
T.: Another urgent ecological problem is the extinction of plant and animal life.
P.4: Every year man cuts down more trees, builds more roads, and uses more land for farming. This leaves fewer jungles, fields and forests for wildlife. There are forest fires. People pick wild flowers. Man hunts and kills millions of animals every year. …
T.: Tell us some words about the global warming and the greenhouse effect.
P.5: The greenhouse effect and global warming both correspond with each other. The green house effect is recalled as incoming solar radiation that passes through the Earth's atmosphere but prevents much of the outgoing infrared radiation from escaping into outer space. It causes the overheat of the air and as a result, we have the global warming effect. If the present arctic ice melting continues, the sea could rise as much as 2 meters by the middle of the next century. Large areas of coastal land would disappear. …
T.: Well, we have spoken a lot about ecological problems of our environment. Thank you.
Grammar Practice (Modal Verbs) (Тренировка грамматических навыков)
T.: So, we have determined and discussed the environmental problems. Nowadays Man is beginning to understand that his environment is not just his own town or country, but the whole earth. That’s why people all over the world think and speak so much about ecology. Name some of the ways to solve ecological problems using our grammar material – modal verbs. You have 5 minutes to discuss and fill in the blanks in these cards.
Now I’d like you to check up the task. One person of each group will read the sentences you’ve made up with one of the modal verbs. Let’s listen to …
(Работа в группах по 3-4 человека, выдаются карточка №1 c полями для заполнения и карточка №2 со словосочетаниями по теме)
We must not
- remove the harmful industrial enterprises over the city limits;
- fight all kinds of pollution;
- introduce and install pollution control systems;
- use bicycles instead of cars.
open more national parks;
build fewer new roads;
encourage industries to use cleaner methods of production;
ban the freight traffic in the historical centre of the city.
- treat environmental protection as a matter of vital importance;
- expand and create green zones;
- plant more new forests;
- protect animals in danger by law;
- control the use of pesticides and fertilizers.
We must not:
- release oil into the sea;
- drop litter in public places;
- kill the animals and birds;
- release tremendous energies.
- throw rubbish in the streets;
- use aerosol sprays;
- pollute air with gases.
Speaking (Dialogical Speech) (Совершенствование навыков диалогической речи)
T.: Let’s clear up and compare the ways to protect the environment in the USA and in our country. You are to work in pairs to make up your own dialog and then act it out. Use the following model.
Two scientists are discussing the measures of environmental protection in their countries. One of the scientists is from Russia, the other one is from the USA.
- How is the environmental protection problem solved today in the USA?
- In recent years the pollution problems have received great publicity. The environmental movement associated with no political party has gained widespread trust and support. The media's begun to campaign against the ugliness of billboards, tin cans and trash. What about your country?
- Our country develops projects, including large-scale industrial development, large-scale use of natural resources, city planning, creation of new technology and materials, and modification of existing commercial facilities.
- The pollution of Lake Erie, one of the Great Lakes, and the problem of acid rains that threatened many forests, made the media start a campaign against industrial pollution. All of the states have adopted their own laws; some banned throwaway bottles, or use of phosphates in soaps, or industrial dumping of wastes.
- The strong public reaction in our country facilitates the exercise of absolute pollution control in various contamination industries in Russia. Plants install effective purifying systems. Efforts are being made to reduce pollution from automobile engines by developing pollution-free engines which may eventually eliminate the more serious air pollution problems. What can you say about the global warming’s investigations?
- We’re also disturbed by the problem of global warming. Environmentalists pay much attention to the research in this sphere. Many USA universities investigate these problems.
- What organizations attract public’s attention to the most important environmental problems?
- Some of them, for example, “Pals of the Planet”, publish the materials of how to save the seas from pollution. Different environmentalists and environmental societies, like Wilderness Society, try to improve the situation. The “Greenpeace” organization is one of the leading environmental organizations in the USA and in the world. Its numerous actions of protest against water and air pollution, its program “Water for Life”, started in the USA, help our planet to survive. And I’ve heard about your public movement "Travels for Peace and Nature"?
- It’s true. "Travels for Peace and Nature" is the name of another public movement that appeared in Russia some years ago. It concentrates its efforts on theory and practical work. The movement launches all kinds of environmental actions and informs the public of the ways, means and results of this work.
- And I also know that in 1987 a "Green Peace" public commission has been set up in Russia?
- You are quite right. Its main goal is to combine the people's efforts for peace with the huge and ever mounting movement for nature conservation. Another area of its work is to set up and strengthen co-operation among environmentalists from many similar organizations abroad. And you know that Russia and the United States are carrying out joint projects to study and protect the environmental systems of the Arctic and Subarctic regions, and also to study some of the natural processes in the permafrost zone.
T.: What conclusion can you make after listening to the dialogs of these two scientists? What can common people do to protect nature?
P.1: It is good that at last people in the USA and Russia started to establish strict pollution control.
P.2: Scientists develop pollution-free engines which may eliminate serious air pollution problems.
P.3: In many countries purifying systems for treatment of industrial waters have been installed.
P.4: Russia and the USA cooperate with each other and carry out some joint projects to protect the environment.
T.: Thank you.