Методические рекомендации к проведению практикума в 10 – 11 классах по материалам о национальном герое Великобритании герцоге Веллингтонском и его победе над Наполеоновской Армией при Ватерлоо в 1815 году.
Цели и задачи: Objectives: (задания даны с ключами, the tasks are given with keys)
Развитие коммуникативной компетенции по чтению (поисковому и с полным пониманием, т.е. со словарём) аутентичных текстов. (Make the best of reading).
Совершенствование способностей к догадке о значении слов на основе их звукового и зрительного образов, к выявлению языковых закономерностей и умений самостоятельно пользоваться справочной литературой.
(Improve the skills to use the dictionary and reference literature).
Воспитание чувства долга и ответственности перед Отечеством и народом.
(Bring up the responsibility and duty for the Mother country and nation).
Расширение кругозора при работе со страноведческим материалом.
(Widen the mental outlook working with the authentic materials).
Sir Arthur Wellesley
There are some international words in the materials, please, would you pay attention not only to their pronunciation but to their meaning as well and define parts of speech:
- soldier, politician, minister, aristocracy, career, command, major – general, army, campaign, series, battle, conduct, create, service, national, hero, victory, cross, period, culminate, commander-in chief, assemble, tyrant, mark, affect, status, emperor, finally, marshal, genius, interested, artillery, report, history, position, opponent, attack, cavalry, order, morale, action, idea, plan, boots, military, talent, state, accent, figure, energy, address, veteran, typical, strategic, expertise, public, captain, cabinet, leader, party, lord, prestige, politics, stop, class, park, secretary, serve, portfolio, parliament, port, favourite, hospital, pensioner, hall, line, statue, present, museum, collection, sculpture, medal, gallery, gigantic, shock, banquet, officer, affection, front, arch, second, police, station, locate, spectacle, million, sarcophagus, ball, club, monument, show, display, engineer, obelisk, base, bank, central, artist, voyage, recipe, spice, bacon, minute, salt, mixture, gramme, temperature, fillet, milk, protect, brave, result, action, post.
It is more affective to split the group into 4 subgroups to do activities:
Nouns: a soldier, a politician, a minister, aristocracy, career, a major – general, army, campaign, series, a battle, service, a hero, a victory, period, a commander – in- chief, a tyrant, status, an emperor, a marshal, a genius, artillery, history, position, an opponent, a cavalry, morale, an action, an idea, boots, talent, an accent, a figure, energy, a veteran, a captain, a cabinet, a leader, a lord, prestige, politics, a class, a secretary, a portfolio, a parliament, a port, a hospital, a pensioner, a hall, a statue, a museum, a collection, a sculpture, a medal, a gallery, a banquet, an officer, affection, police, a station, spectacle, million, a sarcophagus, a ball, a monument, an engineer, an obelisk, an artist, a recipe, a spice, bacon, a minute, salt, a mixture, a gramme, temperature, fillet, milk, action (subgroups 1-2).
Verbs: to command, to conduct, to create, to culminate, to assemble, to affect, to serve, to locate, to protect (subgroup 3).
Nouns and verbs: cross, mark, report, attack, order, plan, state, address, party, stop, park, port, line, present, shock, front, arch, show, display, base, club, bank, voyage, protect, result, post (subgroup3).
4. Adjectives: national, interested, military, typical, strategic, favourite, gigantic, central, brave.
5 Adverbs: finally (subgroup 4).
The 1st Duke of Wellington, Field Marshal, PC (a member of the Privy Council as one of the councillors - advisers for the monarch, police constable), soldier, politician and Prime Minister (1828 – 1830),“Iron Duke” was born into the Irish aristocracy in May 1st 1769. His career (1797 - 1815):
- he commanded the 33rd Foot (1797,) was a governor and became a major – general in 1802 in India;
- he was elected MP (Member of the Parliament) in 1806 after returning to England;
- he led the British Army into a five – year campaign against the French when he won a series of battles: Talavera (28 July 1809), Busaco(26 September 1809), Albuera (16 May 1811) due to the British Navy;
- he was able to conduct successful sieges against some French-held fortresses in 1812;
- he moved to capture Madrid on 12 August 1812, forcing Napoleon to be sent for Elba in 1814;
- he was created the 1st Duke of Wellington in acknowledgment of his services and appointed the ambassador to the French court in 1814;
- he became the national hero after the greatest victory in 1815.
The exiled Napoleon, who had escaped from his prison on the island of Elba, re-entered Paris and crossed the country like a conqueror joined by many of his old soldiers and making the journey in only 50 days. This began a period known as the “Hundred Days”, which culminated with the Battle of Waterloo in 1815.
Wellington was made commander – in – chief of the British Forces, in March 1815 and began to assemble an allied army: the Prussians, under Marshal Blucher, the Austrians and the Russians to defeat the “Corsican tyrant”. Wellington’s victory marked the end of 22 years of almost continuous warfare in Europe and affected the status of the three men:
Emperor Napoleon was finally defeated;
Marshal Blucher was known as the savior of Europe (by the Prussians, at least);
Wellington was named a military genius, became the national hero and one of the most influential men in Britain. The Duke was the only man since Oliver Cromwell to be head of government and head of the army at the same time.
There are some new words to understand the text about the Duke’s career till 1815:
* duke – герцог, elect – избирать, siege – осада, fortress – крепость, capture – захват, пленение, appoint – назначать, ambassador – посол, court - суд, двор, allied – союзный, acknowledge – признание, благодарность, warfare – война, defeat – побеждать, savior – спаситель, influential – влиятельный.
Would you explain the dates and numbers writing facts from the text?
1769 - the Duke was born in Ireland;
1797 – commanded the soldiers in India;
1802 – became the major-general in India;
1806 – was elected the member of the Parliament;
a 5 - year campaign: some successful battles against Napoleon’s Army;
1814 – was created the Duke and was appointed the ambassador to France;
50 – days which Napoleon needed to cross France and collect the Army;
1815 – Wellington’s victory in Waterloo and Napoleon’s exile;
22 –the number of years of war with the French came to an end in Europe at last.
The Decisive Battle
(The text is for boys. If you’d like to know the results of the battle, you better read this passage.)
The British met the full French army at Waterloo – on muddy fields near the small Belgian village outside Brussels on Sunday 18 June 1815 and the great battle began. In the battle of Waterloo, 74,000 French soldiers and 266 cannons were face to face with 67,000 Allies and 184 pieces of artillery. It was reported that, “Never was so great a number of combatants engaged on so small a space and the hand- to-hand fighting was of a fierceness and rapidity never known in history”. All over the battlefield there were numerous pockets of severe fighting. In defending one position, from 1,000 men, only 42 Allies escaped with their lives. The nearest of Bonaparte’s military opponents were the British and the Prussians. Hour after hour, the French attacked the British lines, but Wellington’s men held firm. Five times, Marshal Ney, Napoleon’s cavalry leader, led the courageous French but with no effect. Napoleon sent forward his Old Guard, whose motto was “The Old Guard dies but never surrenders”. Wellington ordered his warriors to stand their ground and the French morale broke and Napoleon’s army was swept from the field of battle. 27,000 French soldiers had died, and more than 8,000 had been taken prisoner. The allies lost 22,000 men.
It isn’t difficult to write from the text the facts about two armies.
The Allies: The French:
met the enemy, arrived to Waterloo,
67,000 soldiers, 74,000 soldiers,
184 pieces of artillery, 266 cannons,
958 couldn’t escaped, attacked hour after hour,
held firm , the cavalry was led into attacks,
stood their ground, the Old Guard was sent,
22,000 soldiers were lost. 27,000 soldiers were killed.
Can you give some synonyms and antonyms to the words from the text?
A battle-a fighting, muddy-dirty, great-big, to begin-to start, a soldier-a warrior, small-tiny, severe-fierce, to defend - to protect, courageous-brave, to defeat-to win, firm-strong;
To meet – to part or to separate, muddy – clean, near – far, small – large, outside – inside, never – always, great – small, severe – mild or kind, to defend – to attack, the nearest – the furthest, courageous – cowardly, to send – to receive, to surrender – to win, to die – to live.
Two Men of Action (it is quite interesting to compare the two military geniuses)He approached the battle with typical strategic expertise.
His flight from the field was so hasty that he left behind hat and sword.
They had tremendous energy and were capable of going without sleep for days on end.
He knew the Emperor’s military talent so to encourage the soldiers cried before the battle “Let the French come, those who do come shall stay”.
They respected each other as military rivals.
Though in public he scorned the duke and considered him a bad general but himself as the greatest military genius of the age.
The Duke became commander- in –chief for life and lived 37 years after Waterloo. When he died in 1852 the nation honoured the 83-year-old hero with the state funeral in St. Paul’s Cathedra on 18 November.
You can see their waxen figures on display in Madame Tussaud’s.
He gave himself up to the captain of a British man-of war “The Bellerophon” and was sent into exile – this time on the lonely island of St. Helena. He died there of cancer in 1821, six years after Waterloo. His ashes were taken back to Paris, to rest among the French people.
The second term of the Duke’s political career (1816 – 1852):
- he had been made a cabinet minister and the leader of the Tory party in the House of Lords. His prestige and influence were great in British politics at first. “The Duke is against it” was often enough to stop any proposal. “The trouble with railways, he said, is that they encourage the working classes to travel about”. He was ;
- he became Prime Minister at the beginning of 1828, supported by Home secretary Sir Robert Peel, and was the elder statesman of the Tory party;
- he served as the foreign secretary in Peel’s government of 1834 –5;
- he was a minister without portfolio during Peel’s second ministry of 1841-6, (The Duke – once the national hero- now a hated member of the parliament, many times the windows in his house in London were broken by an angry mob that they had to be covered with iron shutters);
- he was appointed as the Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports and spent his last years in the Walmer Castle in Kent in 1847, The Iron Duke (his nickname) died suddenly in the castle in 1852. On September 13 he went riding in the morning as usual but the following morning he was taken ill and at 4 o’clock in the afternoon he was found dead in his favourite armchair. His body was taken to the Royal Hospital, home of the Chelsea military Pensioners where the Duke lay in state in the Dining Hall.
Will you call the posts the Duke held during his career?
The commander, the governor, the major – general in India ((1797 – 1806);
The member of the Parliament in England (1806);
The commander of the British Army (1808 – 1813);
The ambassador in France (1814);
The commander – in – chief of the British Forces (1815);
The cabinet minister and the leader of the Tory party in the House of Lords (1816);
The Prime Minister (1828);
The foreign secretary in the Peel’s government (1834-1835);
A minister without a portfolio in the second Peel’s ministry (1841-1846);
The Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports (1847-1852).
Could you draw the Duke’s life line according to the dates and places?
in Ireland 1769, (His birth in the aristocratic family on 1st May);
in India 1797 – 1806, (His service in India);
at the age of 37, (He became the MP);
a five-year campaign, (He fought successfully against Napoleon in Europe);
n France 1814, (He was created the Duke and was sent to French court);
in Brussels 1815, (He defeated Napoleon in the Waterloo Battle);
10 years in the Parliament, (His unsuccessful political career in the Parliament);
1828, (He became the Prime Minister);
in Kent 1847, (He became the Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports);
in the afternoon at 4 o’clock, (He died in his favourite armchair in 1852);
in London, on 18 November. (His state funeral in St. Pail’s Cathedral built by Sir Ch. Wren).
The life of England’s most famous military hero is shown in Wellington’s London home, in the castle in Kent besides there are several equestrian statues to him in London:
Apsley House at Hyde Park Corner known as “Number One, London” was built by Robert Adam 1778. The Seventh Duke of Wellington presented the house to the nation in 1947 and now it is a museum opened to the public. It contains a lot of treasures, many of which were presented to the Duke by the grateful nations of Europe. The collections include priceless paintings, sculpture, silver, porcelain and medals in the Waterloo Gallery. In 1816, the British Government bought Wellington a present from the Louvre, Anton Canova’s gigantic nude statue of Napoleon which still has the power to shock. The Duke held annual Waterloo banquets in the Dining Room, to which all surviving officers were invited. The Duke and Duchess (his wife Catherine Pakenham) had two sons and they adopted six other children. She was a loving mother and spoiled the sons with too much affection but she died early in 1831.
Wellington Arch stands on the patch of land in front of Apsley House erected in 1828. Until 1992 London’s second smallest police station (the smallest can be found on Trafalgar Square) used to be located inside the arch.
St. Paul’s Cathedral is the place of his funeral which turned into the great spectacle of the century with more than a million and a half people to attend. He was buried in the Crypt, beneath an imposing sarcophagus. The ornate funeral car bringing his body here stood nearby for years but now it is on show at the Duke’s country home at Stratfield Saye, Hampshire.
Pall Mall (a street in London) named after a French ball game is famous with its aristocratic clubs. In front of entrance to Number 116 there is a monument to the Duke riding the famous Copenhagen (1842). Copenhagen was buried with full military honours at the Duke’s country home at Stratfield Saye, Hampshire.
The Royal Engineers Museum is the place where you can see Wellington’s monument – an obelisk, created in 1818, in honour of his victory. The figures on the base were cast from captured French cannons.
The Bank of England in the City was set up in1694 to raise money for foreign wars. It grew to become Britain’s central bank and issues currency notes. There is the Duke’s monument (1884) opposite this building.
There is a monument to the Duke designed by the artist Alfred Stevens who worked on this piece for 20 years and it is still incomplete on his death in 1875 in ST. Paul’s Cathedral. The figure on his horse Copenhagen was sculpted by John Tweed and added in 1912.
John Constable (a well- known artist) painted a wonderful picture “Lord Wellington on the Horse, Morning Voyage”.
The recipe of the dish named after the Duke: 2 pounds of the best beef washed and dried sprinkle with some spices and fry on the hot butter from all sides until gold then cool it. Dice finely two onions, put them on the frying pan with pieces of four ounces of bacon and the grease after meat and stew for 15 minutes, add three ounces of boiled and finely chopped mushrooms with a pinch of salt and pepper for 15 minutes then cool the mixture. 300 grammes of deep – frozen and thawed out at the room temperature puff pastry roll into an oblong layer twice longer than the fillet. Put a half of the onion and mushroom mixture in the middle of the paste then the meat, spread some beef pate and the rest of the onion and mushroom mixture with some spice and cut greenery. Wrap up the pastry and put the roll with the seam down on the rinsed with some cold water dripping – pen. Make three holes on the top, moisten it with some whipped mixture of a yoke and milk and put the roll into the hot oven 200 degrees for 50 minutes.
Can you write down the ways the English immortalized their national hero?
Created 3 museums (in London, in Kent and in Hampshire).
Erected 4 equestrian monuments in the capital.
Named after the Duke: (2 public schools for boys, apples, boots, the dish, the arch).
Put his waxen figure in the museum.
Buried him in St. Paul’s Cathedral with great honour.
The Duke – герцог (высший титул после принца);
The Privy Council – is an ancient formal body of advisers to the sovereign, its members are senior politicians from both Houses, senior figures from the church and the judiciary. There are about 600 living members but usually only a small number of these are summoned at the discretion of the Prime Minister.
Oliver Cromwell –(1599-1658) Оливер Кромвель политический и военный деятель Английской революции 17 века; в гражданской войне возглавил армию против короля Карл 1
(1600 -1649), которого казнил, распустил парламент в 1653 и установил режим единоличной власти в качестве Лорда – Протектора, в 1899 перед зданием Парламента в Лондоне установлена его статуя:
“Wellington” - «Веллингтон» зимний сорт яблок, двухмоторный бомбардировщик во время 2ой мировой войны;
Wellington College - Веллингтон – Колледж (мужская привилегированная частная школа, более 800 уч-ся, основана в 1853);
Wellington School - Веллингтон - Скул (мужская частная школа, около 800 уч-ся, основана в1841);
Wellington Boots or Wellingtons - веллингтоны- высокие кожаные сапоги выше колен для верховой езды, которые носил the Duke; высокие резиновые сапоги ниже колен; сапожки чуть выше щиколотки под брюки;
Apsley House - Дом на улице Пиккадилли, который построил шотландский архитектор и дизайнер Роберт Адам (1728 – 1792), в нём находится Дом – музей герцога Веллингтона, назван по имени первого владельца, лорда Апсли:
Pall – Mall – улица в центре Лондона, на которой находятся несколько знаменитых клубов, по названию старинной французской игры в мяч;
St. Paul’s Cathedral – главный собор в Лондоне, который построил в 1675-1710 К. Рен после Великого пожара в 1666;
Sir Christopher Wren - великий архитектор (1632-1723), построил много лондонских церквей и зданий, (his masterpiece is St. Paul’s Cathedral).
The Crypt – склеп в соборе;
The Kent – графство на юго-востоке Англии, через которые проходят основные пассажирские и грузовые потоки из королевства и в королевство;
Cinque Ports – 5 портов в графствах Кент и Суссекс на берегу пролива Ла-Манш (the English Channel), первоначально Дувр, Гастингс, Сандвич, Ромни, Хайт, позднее добавились Уинчелси и Рай, пользовались особыми привилегиями монарха, т.е. не платили налоги, но в их обязанность входило охранять Англию от нападения Франции, (произошло от французского пять).
Walmer Castle – официальная резиденция губернатора Пяти Портов в графстве Кент;
Warden of the Cinque Ports - Губернатор 5 Портов (почётный титул, соответствует адмиралу);
Member of the Parliament - член парламента в палате общин;
The Bank of England – государственный центральный банк в Лондоне, основан в 1694, национализирован в 1946;
The City – исторический и коммерческий центр Лондона, в нём расположены главные банки (Английский банк) и финансовая олигархия, занимает территорию немного больше 1 кв. мили;
The Chelsea Hospital – инвалидный дом для 450 солдат – ветеранов, они носят форменную одежду, основан в 1682;
The Madame Tussaud’s - музей восковых фигур знаменитых людей в Лондоне, открылся в 1802, назван по имени основательницы, которая эмигрировала из Франции;
John Constable – один из лучших художников - пейзажистов Англии (1776-1837);
Hampshire – графство на южном побережье Англии;
The Tory Party – консервативная партия, Р. Пиль - её создатель;
Robert Peel - (1788-1850), дважды премьер – министр, создал полицию, поэтому полицейского называют «бобби» или «пилер» ( bobby or peeler) до сих пор;
The Louvre – знаменитый музей в Париже;
The Hyde Park – самый известный из десяти королевских парков в Лондоне, открыт для публики с 1635, вход бесплатный;
The Hyde Park Corner - площадь, примыкающая к парку, самый шумный перекрёсток столицы.
Additional reading for pleasure:
KG, Knight of the Garter, (Order of the Garter) – Кавалер ордена Подвязки, орден Подвязки – древний и высший орден, число награждённых недолжно превышать, не считая иностранцев, 24 человек, учреждён королём Эдуардом III в 1348, по преданию он поднял подвязку, оброненную на балу фавориткой, и, чтобы отвлечь внимание гостей, надел её под колено, произнеся фразу: «Позор тому, кто плохо думает об этом» на французском языке “Honni soit qui mal y pense”, которая стала девизом ордена.
Knight of the Order of the Bath – Кавалер ордена Бани, орден Бани – один из высших и почётных орденов, учреждён в 1725, кавалер этого ордена получает личное дворянское звание рыцарь – knight; раньше перед посвящением в рыцари будущий кавалер ордена совершал омовение.
Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Sword – кавалер ордена Меча I степени.
Knight of the Golden Fleece –
Knight Grand Cross of the Military William Order (2) – дважды кавалер военного ордена Вильяма I степени.
The Field Marshal’s awards:
Knight of the Order of the Garter (KG);
Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath (GCB);
Knight of the Grand Cross of the Order of the Sword;
Knight of the Golden Fleece;
Knight Grand Cross of the Military William Order (2).
Лингвострановедческий словарь Великобритании и Северной Ирландии // Москва «АСТ-ПРЕСС КНИГА»,2003.
The Oxford Illustrated History of Britain // Oxford University Press, 1996.
The Encyclopedia of British History // Paragon Book, Bath BAI IHE, UK, 2002.
The Heritage of Britain, the Reader’s Digest, London, 1985.
Treasures of Britain, Fanum House, London /AA/, 1968.
Dictionary of the English Language and Culture, Longman, 1992.
The History Today, Companion to British History, Collins and Brown, 1995.
London Rediscovered, ABBEVILLE PRESS, 2003.
London, Eyewitness, DK, (Dorling Kindersley Book), 1998.
St. Paul’s Cathedral, Published by Unichrome Bath LTD, 1997.
Выполнила Климонтова Надежда Тимофеевна, старший преподаватель кафедры гуманитарных дисциплин и методик их преподавания (КК ИПК и ППРО), 2012 г.
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